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VOL.  n. 





C  II  APT  Ell    I, 

jAxrAEY  1. — ^Vt  the  opening  of  tlic  last  year,  the  Ameri- 
can canse  Avore  a  sickly  aspect.  The  Continental  army,  reduced 
to  an  inconsiderable  body,  retired  as  fast  as  the  g^to  ^f  Affairs 
enemy  advanced;  and  a  vast  tract  of  country,  in  America, 
from  the  Hudson  ]Ai\-cr  to  the  Delaware,  lay  exposed  to  the 
ravages  of  an  insulting  foe.  Housed  at  length  from  the  leth- 
argy which  at  first  seemed  to  seize  them,  the  militia  poured 
in  to  the  assistance  of  General  Washington,  and  gave  his 
little  army  an  appearance  of  niimbers.  The  fortunate  surpri- 
sal  of  the  Hessians,  and  the  brilliant  manoeuvre  at  Princeton, 
first  checked  the  current  of  misfortune,  and  gave  the  tide  of 
affairs  a  contrary  direction.  General  Howe,  confining  himself 
to  the  narrow  limits  of  Brunswick  and  Aniboy,  suftered  us  to 
invest  him  with  a  handful  of  militia.  The  States  M'isely  im- 
proved the  breathing  spell  which  Heaven  lent  them  ;  and  such 
were  the  exertions  of  the  winter,  that,  before  the  British  army 
took  the  field,  we  had  a  respectable  force  on  foot.  A  force, 
part  of  which,  assisted  by  the  gallant  militia  of  New  York  and 
ISTew  England,  hath  destroyed  their  northern  army ;  while  the 
residue,  though  ujiable  to  stop  the  progress  of  General  Howe, 
hath  nevertheless  fought  him  bravely,  and  even  now  limits  his 
conquests  to  "just  so  much  temtory  as  he  can  command  with 
the  mouths  of  his  cannon."  It  is  true  the  British  are  in  pos- 
session of  the  first  city  on  the  continent ;  the  loss  is  deeply  felt 
by  the  unhappy  citizens.  But  America  disdains  to  say  she 
sufi'ers  by  the  event. 

Thus  the  new  year  opens  favorably  upon  us,  bi;t  what  its 

4:  DLUIY    OF   THE   KEVOLCTION.  [1778. 

future  complexion  will  be,  depends  upon  tlie  manner  in  wliicli 
Ave  employ  the  present  winter.  Heaven  hath  indeed  smiled 
iqjon  us ;  but  some  drops  of  bitterness  hath  been  kindly  min- 
gled in  the  cup  of  joy,  lest  the  draught  should  intoxicate  and 
lull  lis  to  sleep.  Our  successes  encourage  the  most  sanguine 
hopes ;  our  losses  forbid  the  least  presiimption.  The  power  of 
the  enemy,  and  the  resources  of  Britain,  are  not  to  be  despised ; 
and  if  j^rosperity  betrays  us  into  security,  if  we  think  the  work 
is  done,  and  become  remiss  in  our  exertions,  our  successes  have 
only  smoothed  the  way  to  destruction,  and  the  laurels  which 
entwine  our  brows  serve  but  as  ornaments  to  deck  us  for  the 

Hitherto  the  regular  force  which  we  have  kept  on  foot  hath 
been  no  ways  proportionate  to  the  strength  of  the  States,  or 
the  importance  of  the  object  it  was  raised  to  secure.  It  would 
have  been  useless  to  have  had  more  men  in  the  field  than  we 
coxild  supply  with  arms,  ammunition,  and  other  military  stores ; 
hence  our  operations  against  the  enemy's  main  army  have 
been  feeble  and  indecisive ;  and  the  general,  checking  the  im- 
pulses of  his  own  gallant  and  enterprising  spirit,  has  been 
obliged  to  consult  the  safety  of  America  by  jirotraction  and 
delay.  But,  tlirough  the  blessing  of  Heaven,  we  can  now  arm 
thousands  with  muskets  of  the  best  kind,  and  of  one  calibre ; 
Avc  have  artillery,  ammunition,  and  camp  equij^age  in  abun- 
dance, and  can  feed  and  pay  our  troops  without  difiiculty. 
The  period  is  therefore  arrived,  when,  by  arming  our  beloved 
general  with  the  united  force  of  the  States,  we  shall  enable 
him  to  take  the  field  with  a  superiority  of  strength,  and  which 
will  insure  him  all  those  advantages  (and  they  are  neither  few 
nor  small)  which  assailants  ever  have  over  those  who  act  on 
the  defensive. 

Tliis  can  only  be  done  by  immediately  filling  up  the  Con- 
tinental regiments,  and  whatever  mode  the  States  devise  for 
raising  men,  it  is  of  the  highest  importance  that  it  be  speedily 
adoj^ted  and  A'igorously  pursued.  The  present  winter  is 
worth  millions  to  America ,  and  if  she  idles  it  away,  her  folly 
will  be  witliout  a  parallel.  We  have  every  argument  that  can 
work  upon  our  hopes  and  fears,  to  excite  tis  to  the  most  stren- 


uous  exertions.  Peace,  liberty,  and  safety,  lie  before  ns  as  the 
reward  of  our  exertions.  Lifamy,  distress,  and  all  that  we 
have  felt  and  feared  from  the  tyranny  of  Britain,  may  bo  the 
consequence  of  supineness  and  inaction.  The  main  army  of 
the  enemy  is  in  our  country,  and  still  formidable.  Britain, 
enraged  at  the  loss  of  her  northern  army,  will  exert  her  utmost 
power,  and  having  no  troops  in  Canada  to  reinforce,  will  direct 
her  undivided  strength  against  the  Middle  States.  "VYe,  too, 
thank  Heaven,  can  meet  theni  with  an  undivided  army ;  but 
we  must  increase  its  numbers  to  insiire  its  success. 

Let  us,  then,  make  one  general  and  mighty  effort ;  and  if 
we  can  but  rouse  the  unwieldy  sti-ength  of  these  States,  and 
bring  their  united  force  against  the  enemy,  the  contest  will  at 
once  be  over,  and  the  footsteps  of  tyranny  shall  never  mark 
this  land  of  freedom  more." 

A  LATE  London  paper  has  the  following  article,  which  may 
perhaps  account  for  Silas  Deane's  unexpected  arrival  from 
France,  at  Portsmouth,  Xew  Hampshire: — ^"They  write  from 
Paris,  that  Silas  Deane  meets  with  repeated  insults  every  time 
he  goes  through  the  streets  of  that  city,  and  is  pointed  at  by  the 
populace  as  one  of  the  wretches  who  meditated  the  ruin  of  his 
country,  by  the  basest  stratagems.  Tlie  old  fox,  Franklin,  se- 
cures himself  from  similar  treatment,  by  silence  and  seclusion.'" 

Jai^uart  6. — PmLADELPHLi.  has  been  entertained  with  a 
most  astonishing  instance  of  the  activity,  bravery,  and  military 
skill  of  the  royal  navy  of  Great  Britain.  The  atTair  jj^,,,^  ^,(.  j^^ 
is  somewhat  particular,  and  deserves  notice.  '^''=^- 
Some  time  last  week,  two  boys  observed  a  keg  of  a  singular 
construction,  floating  in  the  river  opjiosite  to  the  city ;  they  got 
into  a  small  boat,  and  attempting  to  take  up  the  keg,  it  burst 
with  a  great  explosion,  and  blew  up  the  unfortunate  boys. 
Yesterday,  several  kegs  of  a  like  constnxction  made  their  ap- 
pearance. An  alarm  was  immediately  spread  through  the 
city ;  various  reports  prevailed,  filling  the  city  and  the  royal 

'  "Adolphus,"  in  the  New  Jersey  Gazette,  January  21. 
'  Pennsylvania  Ledger,  January  3. 

6  DIAEY    OF   THE   KEVOLtlTION.  [1T7S. 

troops  with  consternation.  Some  reported  tliat  the  kegs  were 
filled  with  armed  rebels,  who  were  to  issue  forth  in  the  dead 
of  night,  as  the  Grecians  did  of  old  from  their  wooden  horse  at 
the  siege  of  Troy,  and  take  the  city  by  sm-prise ;  asserting  that 
they  had  seen  the  points  of  their  bayonets  throngh  the  bnng- 
holes  of  the  kegs.  Others  said  they  were  charged  with  the 
most  inveterate  combustibles,  to  be  kindled  by  secret  machine- 
ry, and  setting  the  whole  Delaware  in  flames,  Avere  to  consume 
all  the  shipping  in  the  harbor ;  whilst  others  asserted  that  they 
were  constructed  by  art  magic,  would  of  themselves  ascend  the 
wharves  in  the  night  time,  and  roll  all  flaming  through  the 
streets  of  the  city,  destroying  every  thing  in  their  way.  Be 
this  as  it  may,  certain  it  is  that  the  shipping  in  the  harbor,  and 
all  the  Avharves  in  the  city  were  fully  manned,  the  battle  be- 
gan, and  it  was  surprising  to  behold  the  incessant  blaze  that 
was  kept  up  against  the  enemy,  the  kegs.  Both  officers  and 
men  exhibited  the  most  unjDaralleled  skill  and  bravery  on  the 
occasion ;  whilst  the  citizens  stood  gazing  as  solemn  M'itnesses 
of  their  prowess.  From  the  Roebuck  and  other  ships  of  war, 
whole  broadsides  were  poured  into  the  Delaware.  In  short, 
not  a  wandering  ship,  stick,  or  drift  log,  but  felt  the  vigor  of 
the  British  arms.  The  action  began  about  sunrise,  and  Avould 
have  been  completed  with  great  success  by  noon,  had  not  an 
old  market  woman  coming  down  the  river  M'ith  provisions, 
unfortunately  let  a  small  keg  of  butter  fall  overboard,  which 
(as  it  was  then  ebb)  floated  down  to  the  scene  of  action.  At 
sight  of  this  unexpected  reinforcement  of  the  enemy,  the  battle 
was  renewed  with  fresh  fury,  and  the  firing  was  incessant  till 
the  evening  closed  the  affair.  The  kegs  Avere  either  totally  de- 
molished or  obliged  to  fly,  as  none  of  them  have  shown  then- 
heads  since.  It  is  said  his  Excellency,  Lord  Howe,  has  de- 
spatched a  swift  sailing  packet  with  an  accoimt  of  this  victory 
to  the  court  of  London.  In  a  word,  Monday,  the  fifth  of  Jan- 
uary, 1778,  must  ever  be  distinguished  in  history  for  the  mem- 
orable Battle  of  tue  Ivegs.' 

'  Extract  of  a  letter  from  Philadelphia  in  the  New  Jersey  Gazette,  January  21. 
A  writer  in  the  rennsylvania  Ledger,  of  February  11,  says,  in  reference  to  this 
event : — "  The  town  of  Philadelphia  not  being  as  fully  acquainted  with  the  subject 

1778.]  IIAKCOCK   AND   ADAMS.  7 

A  coEEESPONDEXT,  wlio  -wlshcs  to  liavG  a  spirit  of  activity 
and  enterprise  encouraged  in  the  American  army,  lias  furnislied 
lis  with  the  following  anecdote,  which  may  be  depended  iipon : 
"A  troop  of  dragoons  in  Colonel  Bland's  regiment,  seldom 
having  more  than  twenty-five  men  and  horses  fit  for  duty,  has, 
since  the  first  of  August  last,  taken  one  hundred  and  twenty- 
four  British  and  Hessian  privates,  besides  four  commissioned 
officers,  with  the  loss  of  only  one  horse.  This  gallant  corps  is 
under  the  command  of  Captain  Lee,  Lieutenant  Lindsay,  and 
Cornet  Peyton,  whose  merits  and  services,  it  is  hoped,  will 
not  be  passed  unnoticed  or  unrewarded."  ' 

An  irreconcilable  difference  has  certainly  taken  place  be- 
twixt those  ejninent  worthies,  John  Hancock  and  Samuel 
Adams,  Esquires.  Fortune,  in  one  of  her  highest  frolics, 
elevated  those  malignant  stars  to  the  zenith  of  power.  The 
baneful  influence  of  their  conjunction  in  the  western  political 
hemisphere  has  produced  direful  eftects ;  but  when  the  lunacy 
of  the  former  is  separated  from  the  villaiiies  of  the  latter,  the 
deluge  of  destruction  that  was  certainly,  though  slowly,  rolling 
after  them,  v/ill  rapidly  come  on  and  overwhelm  them  and 
their  infatuated  votaries  in  prodigious  ruin." 

We  are  told  in  the  Philadelphia  papers,  that  General  Lord 

of  the  letter  taken  from  a  Burlington  paper,  as  the  ingenious  author  would  have  his 
readers  believe  them  to  be,  it  may  be  necessary  to  relate  to  them  the  fact.  At 
the  time  it  happened  it  was  so  trilling  as  not  to  be  thought  worthy  of  notice  in 
this  paper ;  and  we  do  not  doubt  but  our  readers  will  allow  this  letter-writer  full 
credit  for  the  fertility  of  his  invention.  The  case  was,  that  on  the  fifth  of  January 
last,  a  barrel  of  an  odd  appearance  came  floating  down  the  Delaware,  opposite 
tlie  town,  and  attracted  the  attention  of  some  boys,  who  went  in  pursuit  of  it,  and 
had  scarcely  got  possession  of  it  when  it  blew  up,  and  either  liilled  or  injured  one 
or  more  of  them.  So  far  the  matter  was  serious,  and  the  fellow  who  invented  the 
mischief  may  quit  his  conscience  of  the  murder  or  injury  done  the  lads,  as  well 
as  he  can.  Some  days  after,  a  few  others  of  much  the  same  appearance,  and 
some  in  the  form  of  buoys,  came  floating  in  like  manner,  and  a  few  guns  were, 
we  believe,  fired  at  them  from  some  of  the  transports  lying  along  the  wharves. 
Other  than  this  no  notice  was  taken  of  them,  except,  indeed,  by  our  author,  whose 
imagination,  perhaps,  as  fertile  as  his  invention,  realized  to  himself  in  the  frenzy 
of  his  enthusiasm  the  matters  he  has  set  forth." 

'  New  Jersey  Gazette,  January  14.  ''  Pennsylvania  Ledger,  March  7. 

8  DIAEY   OF   THE   EEVOLUTION.  [1778. 

Cornwallis  embarked  for  England.  "  It  is  an  undoubted  fact," 
says  a  correspondent,  "  tbat  he  has  embarked  for  England  in  a 
leaden  coffin,  a  sample  of  the  vigor  of  the  American  arms. 
We  hope  to  pay  off  all  our  English  debts  by  the  like  remit- 
tances." " 

Januaey  20. — ^Yesteedat,  died,  in  the  sixty-sixth  year  of 

his  age,  Francis  Furgler,  the  hermit,  who  existed  alone  twenty- 

FurRicr  the     ^^'^  years,  in  a  thick  wood  about  four  miles  from 

Hermit.  Burliugton,  in  New  Jersey,  through  all  the  in- 
clemencies of  the  season,  without  fire,  in  a  cell  made  by  the 
side  of  an  old  log  in  form  of  a  small  oven,  not  high  or  long 
enough  to  stand  upright  in  or  lie  extended.  His  recluse  man- 
ner of  living  excited  the  curiosity  of  strangers,  by  whom  he 
was  often  visited.  His  reasons  for  thus  excluding  himself 
from  human  society  we  believe  he  never  communicated  to  any 
person  in  these  parts ;  but  it  is  thought  he  meant  by  it  to  do 
penance  for  crimes  committed  m  his  own  country,  for  he  was  a 
man  subject  to  violent  passions.  He  subsisted  upon  nuts,  and 
the  charity  of  people  in  the  neighborhood.  From  whence  he 
came,  or  who  he  was,  nobody  could  find  out ;  but  appeared 
to  be,  by  his  dialect,  a  German :  yet  he  spoke  that  language 
imperfectly,  either  through  design,  or  from  a  defect  in  his  in- 
tellect. Just  before  his  death  a  friend  carried  him  a  little 
nourishment,  of  which  he  partook,  earnestly  praying  for  his 
dissolution,  and  would  not  suffer  himself  to  be  removed  to  a 
more  comfortable  dwelling.  Next  morning  he  was  found  dead 
in  his  cell,  with  a  crucifix  and  a  brass  fish  by  his  side ;  and  to- 
day he  was  decently  interred  in  Friend's  burying  place  at 
Mount  Holly." 

Yesteedat,  being  the  anniversary  of  the  birth  of  her  royal 
Majesty,  the  queen,  the  same  was  celebrated  with  great  rejoic- 
ing in  New  York.     A  correspondent  in  Eivington's  Gazette, 

'  New  Jersey  Gazette,  January  14.  We  hear  that  on  Friday  last,  Lord  Corn- 
wallis, General  Cliveland,  Sir  George  Osborne,  and  the  Reverend  Jacob  Duclie, 
sailed  from  Philadelphia  for  England.— iVcio  Jersey  Gazette,  December  24,  1777. 

■'  New  Jersey  Gazette,  January  28. 

1778.]  CELEBRATION   IN   NEW    TOEK.  9 

gives  the  following  accoimt  of  the  evening's  entertainment: 
"  As  the  loyalty  even  of  individuals  onglit  at  this  time  to  be 
properly  enconraged,  you  will  infinitely  oblige  Queen's  Birthday 
the  public  and  a  number  of  your  readers,  by  NewToru. 
inserting  a  description  of  the  grand  and  elegant  illuminations 
at  the  King's  Head  Tavern,  on  last  evening,  in  honor  of  her 
Majesty's  birthday ;  and  it  is  the  desire  of  the  public,  as 
Messrs.  Loosely  and  Elms  have  ever  shown  their  attachment 
to  the  British  government,  and  a  detestation  of  the  present 
rebellion,  that  through  the  channel  of  your  much  esteemed 
paper  their  conduct  may  be  knowTi  and  approved  of  in  Eu- 
rope, as  well  as  by  the  loyalists  in  New  York.  The  tavern 
was  illuminated  with  upwards  of  two  hundred  wax  lights.  In 
the  centre  were  the  royal  arms  of  Great  Britain,  and  above  it, 
statues  of  the  present  King  and  Queen  under  a  canopy  of  state 
elegantly  decorated,  which  shone  like  their  Majesties'  virtues — 
conspicuous  to  the  world.  Tlie  view  of  the  reduction  of  Mud 
Fort  (on  one  side)  by  his  Majesty's  ships,  Koebuck  and  Vigi- 
lant, gave  that  joy  which  Britons  always  feel  on  the  success 
and  honor  of  their  country.  On  the  other  side,  their  generous 
indignation  was  roused  by  a  view  of  those  men  (the  Congress) 
whose  ambition  has  almost  ruined  this  once  happy  country, 
and  reduced  its  inhabitants  to  the  greatest  distress.  It  was 
very  ajyt'opos  of  the  painter  to  place  the  devil  ai  the  president's 
elbow,  who  tells  him  to  persevere  with  so  significant  a  grin  as 
seems  to  indicate  his  having  no  manner  of  doubt  of  their 
making  his  house  their  home  in  the  infernal  regions.  Tlie 
statue  of  Mr.  Pitt,  without  its  head,  Avas  placed  near  the  Con- 
gress, as  being  one  of  their  kidney,  and  gave  a  hint  of  what 
ought  long  ago  to  have  been  done.  The  verses  over  the  tavern 
door  were  very  proper  on  the  occasion,  and  well  illuminated. 
In  short,  every  thing  was  well  conducted,  and  the  totd  ensemlle 
had  really  a  fine  effect ;  much  is  due  to  Messrs.  Loosely  and 
Elms  for  their  patriotic  spirit,  which  merits  the  approbation 
of  every  man  who  is  a  friend  to  his  King  and  country." ' 

'  Rivington's  Gazette,  January  24. 

10  DIAEY   OF   THE   EEVOLUTION.  [1778. 

Jantjaey  21. — Captain  Lee,'  wlio  has  for  some  time  past 
been  posted  at  Yalley  Forge  with  his  troops,  has  added  aii- 
Attempt  to  sur-  Other  cubit  to  his  fame.  General  Howe,  longing 
prise  Captain  Lee.  ^q  pQ^  ^-j^q  Americans  of  this  gallant  yoiing  officer, 
whose  attention  in  observing  his  motions,  and  address  in  sur- 
prising his  parties  perplexed  him  so  much  the  last  campaign, 
detached  a  large  body  of  horse  (said  to  be  two  hundred)  to 
surprise  him  yesterday  morning.  By  the  assistance  of  a  guide, 
who  conducted  them  through  by-roads,  they  avoided  the  videts, 
and  surrounded  the  house  where  Captain  Lee  lay  so  suddenly 
that  he  had  scarcely  time  to  bolt  the  doors  before  they  began 
a  smart  firing  into  the  windows,  and  demanded  the  immediate 
surrender  of  the  house.  Major  Jemmason,  (of  the  same  regi- 
ment with  Captaiu  Lee,  and  who  lodged  with  him  that  night,) 
Lieiitenant  Lindsay,  and  five  private  troopers,  were  all  that 
were  with  Lee  at  that  time ;  the  rest  of  the  troops  being  quar- 
tered in  a  neighboring  house.  They  returned  the  fire  from 
the  windows  with  spirit ;  and,  by  showing  themselves  at  dif- 
ferent places,  made  as  great  an  appearance  of  numbers  as 
possible.  Tlie  enemy,  after  firing  and  threatening  about 
twenty-five  minutes,  finding  so  gallant  and  determined  a  resist- 
ance, and  having  several  of  their  men  badly  wounded,  gave 
over  their  attempt  and  rode  off  full  speed  for  Philadelphia. 
Tliey  made  prisoners  of  four  of  the  troop  who  happened  to 
be  out  of  the  house  when  they  surrounded  it,  and  Major  Jem- 
mason  and  Lieutenant  Lindsay  were  both  slightly  wounded. 
Thus  this  handful  of  brave  officers  and  men,  "  by  their  infinite 
address  and  gallantry,"  repulsed  a  formidable  body  of  horse 
sent  on  purpose  to  take  them." 

'  Henry  Lee. 

'  New  Jersey  Gazette,  January  28.  General  Washington's  sense  of  the  spirited 
conduct  of  Captain  Lee  and  liis  troops,  appears  in  the  following  words: — "The 
Commander-in-chief  returns  his  warmest  thanks  to  Captain  Lee  and  the  officers 
and  men  in  his  troop,  for  the  victory  which  their  superior  bravery  and  address 
gained  over  a  party  of  the  enemy's  dragoons,  who,  trusting  in  their  numbers,  and 
concealing  their  march  in  a  circuitous  route,  attempted  to  surprise  them  in  their 
quarters.  He  has  the  satisfaction  of  informing  the  army  that  Captain  Lee's  vigil- 
ance baffled  the  enemy's  design  ;  that  by  judiciously  posting  his  men  in  quarters, 
although  he  had  not  a  sufficient  number  to  allow  one  to  each  window,  he  obliged 

1778.]  JOHN   HANCOCK.  H 

When  Colonel  Webb,  with  some  others,  Tvere  taken  in  a 
late  expedition  to  Long  Island,  a  little  fifer  of  the  smallest  size, 
belonging  to  the  State  of  Connecticxit,  was  made  ,j,^^  Connecticut 
prisoner  with  them,  and  carried  into  Rhode  Isl-  *'"'"'  ^"5'- 
and.  Tlie  colonel  being  called  before  the  British  general,  the 
little  fifer  fondly  followed  close  at  his  heels,  as  anxious  to  know 
his  fate.  Says  the  general  to  him,  "  Who  are  yon  ?  "  "I 
am,"  answered  the  boy,  "  one  of  King  IlancocTcs  men."  The 
general  asks,  "  Can  you  fight  ?  "  The  boy  replies,  "  Yes,  sir ; 
I  can."  Upon  this  the  general  calls  in  one  of  his  fifers,  and 
asks  our  stripling  whether  he  dare  fight  him  ?  lie  answers, 
"  Yes,  sir."  Tlie  general  orders  his  fifer  to  strip  and  give  him 
battle.  Tlie  boy  stripped  as  fast,  and  fell  on  with  such  fury 
"that  in  a  few  moments  the  British  fifer  was  so  beaten  that  it 
was  thought  our  little  hero  would  soon  have  finished  him,  had 
he  not  been  rescued.  The  British  general,  with  a  generosity 
natural  to  great  minds,  but  seldom  displayed  by  modern  Brit- 
ons, ordered  him  to  be  set  at  liberty  for  his  valor,  and  he  is 
since  returned  home.' 

Januaey  29. — A  GENTLEALiN  from  the  eastward  says — ■"  That 
John  Hancock,  of  Boston,  appears  in  public  with  all  the  pa- 
geantry and  state  of  an  Oriental  prince ;  he  rides  in 

,  ,        .  ,  .    1  ,  .  .  Jolm  Hancock. 

an  elegant  chariot,  which  was  taken  in  a  prize  to 
the  Civil  Usage  pirate  vessel,"  and  by  the  owners  presented  to 
him.    He  is  attended  by  four  servants,  dressed  in  superb  livery, 
mounted  on  fine  horses,  richly  caparisoned,  and  escorted  by 
fifty  horsemen,  with  drawn  sabres,  the  one-half  of  whom  pre- 

the  party,  consisting  of  two  lumdreJ  men,  dissriracefuUy  to  retire,  after  repeated, 
but  fruitless  attempts  to  force  their  way  into  the  house,  leaving  behind  two  dead 
and  four  wounded,  without  receiring  any  damage  on  his  part,  save  only  his  lieu- 
tenant, Mr.  Lindsay,  wounded,  unless  any  of  his  out-patroles  should  have  been  un- 
fortunately surrounded  and  taken,  which  is  not  yet  known." — Kew  Jersey  Gazette, 
February  4,  1178. 

'  Kew  Jersey  Gazette,  Jan\iary  21 . 

'  The  owners  of  the  privateer.  Civil  Usage,  of  Newburyport,  have  made  a 
present  to  the  Honorable  John  Hancock,  Esq.,  of  an  elegant  coach  which  was 
lately  taken  in  one  of  their  prizes,  as  a  token  of  their  respect  for  that  gentleman, 
who  has  so  nobly  distinguished  himself  in  the  present  contest  with  Great  Britain, 
as  the  friend  of  his  country. — New  Jersey  Gazette,  January  21. 


cede  and  the  other  follow  his  carriage."     [So  at  present  i 
the  man  who  owes  his  greatness  to  his  country's  ruin.] 

"  Among  other  detestable  pretexts  fabricated  by  the  infa- 
moiis  rebels  to  justify  the  detention  of  Lieutenant-General  Bur- 
goyne  and  the  troops  under  his  command,  the  equivocal  re- 
volted Yankees  pretend  a  discovery  of  several  stands  of  colors, 
belonging  to  British  regiments,  secreted  by  him,  which  they  vow 
is  a  violation  of  the  treaty  concluded  between  him  and  General 
Gates."  [By  such  villanoiis  assertions,  which  have  no  founda- 
tion in  truth,  they  mask  their  infernal  pertidy,  which  is  of  so 
enormous  a  magnitude  that  it  absorbs  every  ideaof  pmiic  faith.] ' 

Should  the  report  of  General  Bnrgoyne's  having  infi-inged 
the  capitulation  between  Major-General  Gates  and  himself, 
Proposal  for  Bur-  P^'O'^'G  to  bc  truB,  our  supcriors  wiU  doubtless  take 
goyntjs Ksciiaiige.  proper  carc  to  prevent  his  reaping  any  benefit 
from  it ;  and  should  he  be  detained  as  a  prisoner  for  his  infrac- 
tion of  any  of  the  articles,  I  would  humbly  propose  to  exchange 
him  in  such  manner  as  will  at  the  same  time  flatter  his  vanity, 
and  redound  to  the  greatest  emolument  of  America.  To 
evince  the  reasonableness  of  my  proposal,  I  would  observe 
that  by  the  same  parity  of  reason  that  a  General  is  exchanged 
for  a  General,  a  Colonel  for  a  Colonel,  and  so  on  with  respect 
to  other  ofiieers  of  equal  rank,  we  ought  to  have  for  one  and 
the  same  gentleman,  who  shall  liappen  to  hold  both  those 
offices,  both  a  general  and  a  colonel.  Tliis  will  appear  evi- 
dent from  the  consideration  that  those  exchanges  are  never 
regulated  by  viewing  the  persons  exchanged  in  the  light  of 
men,  but  as  officers ;  since  otherwise  a  colonel  might  as  well 
be  exchanged  for  a  sergeant,  as  for  an  officer  of  his  own  rank, 
a  sergeant  being  undoubtedly  equally  a  man,  and  as  the  case 
sometimes  happens,  more  of  a  man  too.  One  prisoner,  there- 
fore, having  twenty  different  offices,  ought  to  redeem  from 
captivity  twenty  prisoners  aggregately  liolding  the  same  of- 
fices ;  or  such  greater  or  less  number  as  shall,  with  respect  to 
rank,  be  equal  to  his  twenty  offices.     Tliis  being  admitted,  I 

'  rcnns3'lvama  Ledger,  March  11. 

177S.]  bukgoyxe's  exchange.  13 

tliink  General  Burgoyne  is  the  most  profitable  prisoner  we 
could  Lave  taken,  Laving  more  offices,  or  (what  amounts  to 
the  same  thing  in  Old  England)  more  titles,  tLan  any  gentle- 
man on  this  side  the  Ganges.  And  as  his  impetuous  excel- 
lency certainly  meant  to  avail  himself  of  Lis  titles,  by  tLeir 
pompous  display  in  his  proclanaation,  had  he  proved  conqueror, 
it  is  but  reasonable  that  we  should  avail  ourselves  of  them  now 
he  is  conquered ;  and  till  I  meet  with  a  better  project  for  that 
purpose,  I  persuade  myself  that  the  following  proposal  will 
appropriate  tliem  to  a  much  better  use  than  they  were  ever 
applied  to  before. 

The  excliange  I  propose  is  as  follows : 

For  John  Burgoyne,  Esquire:  some  worthy  Justice  of  the 
Peace,  magnanimously  stolen  out  of  his  bed,  or  taken  from  liis 
farm  by  a  band  of  ruffians  in  the  uniform  of  British  soldiers, 
and  now  probably  perishing  with  hunger  and  cold  in  a  loath- 
some gaol  in  New  York. 

For  John  Burgoyne,  Lieutenant-General  of  his  Majesty's 
armies  in  America:  two  Majors-General. 

For  John  Burgoyne,  Colonel  of  the  Quecn^s  regiment  of 
Light  Dragoons :  As  the  British  troops  naturally  prize  every 
thing  in  proportion  as  it  partakes  of  royalty,  and  undervalue 
whatever  originates  from  a  reijublican  government,  I  suppose 
a  colonel  of  her  Majesty's  own  regiment  will  procure  at  least 
three  Continental  Colonels  of  horse. 

For  John  Burgoyne,  Governor  of  Fort  William  in  JVorth 
Britain :  Here  I  would  demand  one  Governor  of  one  of  the 
United  States,  as  his  multitiilary  excellency  is  Governor  of  a 
fort,  and  two  more  as  that  fort,  is  in  ISTorth  Britain,  which  his 
Britannic  Majesty  may  be  presumed  to  value  in  that  propor- 
tion; but  considering  that  tlie  said  fort  is  called  "William, 
which  may  excite  in  liis  Majesty's  mind  the  i-ebellious  idea  of 
liberty,  I  deduct  one  upon  that  account,  and  rather  tlian  puzzle 
the  cartel  with  any  perplexity,  I  am  content  with  two  gov- 

For  John  Burgoyne,  one  of  the  Eepresentatives  of  Great 
Britain:  the  first  Member  of  Congress  who  may  fall  into  the 
enemy's  hands. 

14  DIAET   OF  THE   EEVOLUTION.  [1778. 

For  John  Burgoyne,  Commander  of  a  fleet  employed  in  an 
expedition  from  Canada:  tlie  Admiral  of  our  Navy. 

For  John  Burgoyne,  Commander  of  an  army  employed  in 
an  expedition  from  Canada:  one  Commander-iii-cliief  in  any 
of  our  departments. 

For  John  Burgoyne,  c&c.,  c&c.,  dkc.  Some  connoisseurs  in 
liieroglyphics  imagine  that  these  three  et  ceteras  are  emblemat- 
ical of  three  certain  occult  qualities  in  the  general,  which  he 
never  intends  to  exhibit  in  more  legible  characters,  viz . :  pru- 
dence, modesty,  and  humanity.  Others  suppose  that  they 
stand  for  King  of  America ;  and  that  had  he  proved  success- 
ful, he  would  liave  fallen  i;pon  General  Howe,  and  afterwards 
have  set  up  for  himself.  Be  this  as  it  may,  (which  it  however 
behooves  a  certain  gentleman  on  the  other  side  of  the  water 
seriously  to  consider,)  I  insist  iipon  it,  that  as  all  dark  and  cabal- 
istical  characters  are  suspicious,  these  incognoscible  enigmas 
may  portend  much  more  than  is  generally  apprehended.  At 
all  events.  General  Biirgojme  has  availed  himself  of  their  im- 
portance, and  I  doubt  not  they  excited  as  much  teiTor  in  his 
proclamation  as  any  of  his  more  luminous  titles.  As  his  per- 
son therefore  is,  by  the  capture,  become  the  property  of  the 
Congress,  all  his  titles,  (which  some  suppose  to  constitute  his 
very  essence,)  whether  more  splendid  or  opaque,  latent  or 
visible,  are  become  ip^so  facto  the  lawful  goods  and  chattels  of 
the  continent,  and  ought  not  to  be  restored  without  a  consider- 
ation equivalent.  If  we  should  happen  to  oven-ate  them,  it  is 
his  own  fault,  it  being  in  his  power  to  ascertain  their  intrinsic 
value  ;  and  it  is  a  rule  in  law,  that  when  a  man  is  possessed  of 
evidence  to  disprove  what  is  alleged  against  him,  and  he  re- 
fuses to  produce  it,  the  presumption  raised  against  him  is  to  be 
taken  for  granted.  Certain  it  is  that  these  three  et  ceteras  must 
stand  for  three  somethings,  and  as  these  three  somethings  must, 
at  least,  be  equal  to  three  somethings  without  rank  or  title,  I 
had  some  thoughts  of  setting  them  down  for  three  privates ; 
but  then  as  they  are  three  somethings  in  General  Burgoyne, 
which  must  bo  of  twice  tlie  value  of  three  anytliings  in  any 
three  privates,  I  shall  only  double  them,  and  denuuid  in  ex- 
change for  these  tliree  problenmtieal,  enigmatical,  liicroglyphi- 

1778.]  HrGH  gaine's  news.  15 

cal,  mystic,  necromantic,  cabalistical  and  portentous  et  ccteras, 
six  privates. 

So  that,  according  to  my  plan,  we  ought  to  detain  this 
ideal  conqueror  of  the  north,  now  a  real  prisoner  in  the  east, 
till  we  have  got  in  exchange  for  him,  one  esquire,  two  majors- 
general,  three  colonels  of  light  horse,  two  governors,  one 
member  of  Congress,  the  admiral  of  our  navy,  one  commander- 
in-chief  in  a  separate  department,  and  six  privates ;  which  is 
probably  more  than  this  extraordinary  hero  would  fetch  in  any 
part  of  Great  Britain,  were  he  exposed  at  public  auction  for  a 
day  and  a  year.  All  which  is  humbly  submitted  to  the  con- 
sideration of  the  honorable  the  Congress,  and  his  Excellency 
General  "Washington." 

It  is  said  that  Mr.  "Washington  is  using  his  best  endeavors 
to  accomplish  a  reconciliation,  which  we  scarce  believe,  al- 
though it  is  most  devoutly  wished  even  by  the  rebels  them- 
selves. Tlio  northern  rebels  stand  high  in  the  estimation  of 
their  southern  brethren,  from  the  sense  they  have  of  the  great 
tilings  accomplished  by  them  to  the  northward,  over  one  of 
the  best  but  most  unfortunate  of  the  British  generals. 

Mr.  "Washington  has  returned  the  Congress  paper  money 
sent  out  for  the  iise  of  prisoners.  Tlie  royal  army  is  in  good 
quarters,  enjoys  the  highest  health  and  the  finest  spirits,  and 
wishes  most  ardently  to  bo  engaged.  We  have  at  present  but 
little  of  the  petite  guerre.  Provisions  are  plenty,  and  I  think 
daily  increasing,  notwithstanding  the  rebels  are  taking'  every 
method  to  starve  the  garrison  in  Philadelphia  by  removing 
forage  and  provisions  far  into  the  country." 

Febetjjlet  4. — Among  the  many  circumstances  that  will 
emblazon  the  history  of  the  present  rebellion  in  America,  we 
think  the  following,  with  some  others  no  less  true, 
M'ill  serve  to  show  the  generous  and  liberal  prin- 
ciples upon  which  the  present  leaders  are  capable  of  acting : 
On  the  17th  of  last  month,  Mr.  Shaw,  of  Bucks  county,  in  Penn- 

'  "  Hortentius,"  in  the  New  Jersey  Gazette,  December  17,  1Y7Y. 
'  Extract  of  a  letter  from  Philadelphia,  in  Rivington's  Gazette,  February  21. 

16  DIAEY  OF  THE  EEVOLCTION.  [1778. 

sylvania,  fell  in  with  TV.  Brittain,  of  Elizabetlitown,  New  Jersey, 
a  captain  of  Lord  Stirling's  division,  and  a  Lieutenant  Van 
Pelt,  of  New  Britain,  at  the  house  of  a  certain  Eobert  Ewer, 
when  said  Shaw,  expressing  his  satisfaction  at  the  success  of 
the  British  arms,  enraged  them  to  such  a  degree  that  they  re- 
solved to  hang  him ;  and  cutting  the  strap  from  a  saddle,  fixed 
it  round  his  neck,  and  hung  him  iij)  till  he  was  almost  dead: 
then  let  him  down  again  until  he  had  revived.  AVhen  he  had 
recovered  the  use  of  his  speech,  they  asked  if  he  would  now 
fight  for  King  George,  and  he  replying  that  he  was  too  old, 
but  that  his  son  should,  they  immediately  tied  him  up  again, 
and  would  have  left  him  strangle,  had  not  the  women  of  the 
house  interfered,  and  rescued  him  from  them.  He  was  so  far 
gone  that  his  tongue  hung  out  of  his  mouth,  after  which  they 
kicked  him  and  beat  him,  so  that  he  lay  ill  for  some  time. 

Tlie  account  that  we  have  had  that  the  grand  American 
Congress  could  make  no  more  dollars  for  want  of  rags,  proves 
altogether  a  mistake,  for  independent  of  the  large  supply  ex- 
pected from  "Washington's  army  as  soon  as  they  can  be  spared, 
we  have  reason  to  believe  the  country  in  general  never  abounded 
more  in  that  article. 

Yesterday,  no  less  than  thirteen  sergeants  and  a  corporal, 
belonging  to  Colonel  Proctor's  regiment  of  artillery,  in  the 
rebel  service,  and  a  number  of  privates  from  other  regiments, 
came  in  to  Philadelphia.  The  accounts  they  give  of  Mr, 
Washington's  army  are  distressing  beyond  description. 

Tlie  Congress,  notwithstanding  all  the  articles  their  difl"er- 
cnt  printers  and  printers'  correspondents  are  forging,  of  the 
preparations  of  France  and  Spain  for  war,  are  by  this  time,  we 
imagine,  pretty  well  satisfied  that  they  have  nothing  to  expect 
from  those  courts.  Tlic  letter  from  Dr.  Franklin,  witli  not  a 
syllable  in  it,  sealed  and  superscribed  with  his  own  hand,  and 
delivered  to  the  committee  of  Congress  by  the  captain  liimself 
who  brought  it,  must  make  them  look  as  blank  as  the  letter 
itself  was — indeed  it  so  mueli  chagrined  them,  that,  M'c  hear, 
they  have  confined  the  captain  who  brought  it  in  jail,  and 
pretend  it  is  an  imposition.' 

'  See  Gordon's  American  Revolution,  vol.  2,  p.  323. 

1778.]  EUMOKS   IN   NEW   YORK.  17 

The  public  may  be  assi;red  it  is  an  undoubted  fact  that  tlie 
court  of  France  is  positively,  and  has  in  earnest  determined, 
that  they  will  show  no  countenance  whatever  to  the  rebellion 
in  America — have  given  the  most  satisfactory  assm-ances  that 
they  will  not  assist  the  Americans  in  any  manner,  or  siifler 
their  vessels  to  trade  at  their  ports. 

Yesterday  a  number  of  the  -s-irtuons  inliabitants  of  New 
Jersey,  tired  of  the  oppression  of  their  new  government,  gave 
a  proof  of  their  loyalty  and  attachment  to  his  Majesty,  by 
seizing  the  person  of  one  "Wilson,  collector  of  the  substitute 
fines  in  that  province,  and  bringing  him  in  to  the  British  head 
quarters.  This  example,  it  is  hoped,  will  be  followed  by  the 
injured  and  distressed  people  of  Pennsylvania  and  New  Jer- 
sey, as  they  cannot  doubt  but  their  loyalty  will  meet  with 
every  reasonable  encouragement.' 

Febeuaey  6. — Captain  Giffokd  Dallet,  of  Morristown, 
in  Jersey,  says,  that  on  the  second  instant  Governor  Living- 
ston told  him  that  he  had  received  a  letter  from  a  Eumors  in 
gentleman  in  New  York,  infonning  the  governor  ^"^  '^°'^- 
that  in  a  late  London  paper  which  had  just  come  in,  it  is  asserted 
that  the  mob  had  rose  in  London,  had  pulled  down  and  destroyed 
Lords  Bute  and  North's  houses  ;  that  the  mobs  were  frequent 
and  violent  against  the  King  and  Parliament ;  that  his  Majesty 
was  frequently  insulted,  and  to  avoid  the  rage  of  the  jjopulace 
was  obliged  to  keep  himself  retired ;  that  no  foreign  troops 
are  coming  to  America ;  that  the  manufacturers  stamp  their 
cloths  with  "  American  Liberty  y "  that  several  persons  speaking 
in  favor  of  ministerial  measures  had  been  killed  by  the  mobs. 
Tlie  governor  further  added,  that  it  is  reported  in  New  York 
that  Lord  Chatham  was  offered  to  be  at  the  head  of  adminis- 
tration, which  he  declined  unless  the  King  and  Parliament 
would  confirm  the  independency  of  America ;  make  peace 
with  her  at  all  events,  and  declare  war  against  France. 

[Li  consequence  of  the  above  important  intelligence  arriv- 
ing at  Lancaster,  they  had  bonfires  and  a  ball  on  the  occasion. 

'  Xew  York  Gazette,  February  23. 

18  DIAEY    OF   THE   KEVOLUTION.  [1778. 

Such  are  the  means  taken  by  this  people  to  impose  upon  the 
credixlous  and  unwary :  that  to  give  their  intelligence  the  ap- 
pearance of  truth  they  have  either  a  feu  dejoie  with  a  gill  of 
whiskey  in  their  camp,  or  some  other  kind  of  rejoicings  ;  and 
yet  it  is  hardly  to  be  imagined,  notwithstanding  all  their  strat- 
agems of  this  kind,  that  even  the  blind  followers  of  these 
wicked  votaries  of  rapine  and  murder  can  credit  such  absurd 
and  notorious  falsehoods.]  ' 

Febeuaet  11. — A  WEITEE  in  the  New  Jersey  Gazette  of  this 
date,  gives  the  following  annotations  upon  "  his  most  gracious 
Majesty  of  most  gracious  Great  Britain's  most  gracious  speech :" " 

"  It  is  a  great  satisfaction  to  me  that  I  can  have  recourse  to 
the  wisdom  and  support  of  my  Parliament  in  this  conjunc- 
Annotntionsonthe^"''*^-" — '^'^  doubt  it  is  &  Satisfaction  to  your  Maj- 

King's  Speech,      ^g^y  ^q    j^g    r^^-y^    ^^    ^^p^J^  f^j.    ^^^}^^  ^^    jl^^gg    ^^^^ 

must  support  you  in  measures  in  which  themselves  are  accom- 
plices, and  who  are  too  dependent  upon  you  to  refuse  any  of 
your  requisitions.  The  more  money  they  give  you,  sir,  the 
more  offices  you  give  them ;  and  this  old  trick  of  one  good 
timi's  deserving  another,  has  more  than  half  ruined  the  nation 

"  When  the  rebellion  in  North  America  demands  our  most 
serious  attention." — How  wonderful  that  his  Majesty  begins  to 
think  the  reduction  of  America  a  serious  matter  !  Had  he  and 
his  Parliament  considered  at  all,  they  would  have  thought  it  a 
serious  matter  when  they  first  began  it.  But  they  wanted,  it 
seems,  at  least  three  years  to  discover  that  the  enslaving  tliree 
millions  of  people  was  a  serious  undertaking.  Notable  ge- 
niuses, to  govern  three  kingdoms  and  the  western  world  into 
the  bargain,  who  require  three  years  of  blood  and  slaughter, 
desolation  and  havoc,  to  make  them  serious  ! 

"  Thepoioers  you  haveintnisted  me  with,  I  have  faithfully 
exerted." — "What  powers  his  Majesty  was  intrasted  with  I 
know  not,  but  the  powers  he  has  exerted  have  been  the  ]iowcrs 
of  breaking  his  oath,  and  violating  all  laws,  divine  and  liu- 

'  Pennsylvania  Ledger,  March  7.  ^  Delivered  December  17,  1777. 

1778.]  THE  king's  speech  annotated.  19 

man ;  and  if  lie  undertook  to  suppress  the  revolt,  he  has  not 
executed  his  trust,  for  that  he  has  not  done. 

^'■But  I  am  persuaded  you  will  see  the  oiecessity  of  pre- 
paring for  such  further  operations  as  the  contingencies  of  the 
war,  and  the  ohstinacy  of  the  rebels,  may  render  expedient^ — 
"Wliat,  sir,  a  necessity  for  further  preparations  when  General 
Gage  was  to  have  done  the  business  with  four  regiments? 
Why  don't  you  order  the  invincible  Grant  to  strike  a  terror 
through  the  whole  continent  with  a  file  of  musgiieteers  ? 

"And  if  I  should  have  occasion  to  increase  them,  hy  con- 
tracting nezo  engagements^'' — Worse  and  worse !  What,  in- 
crease your  troops  to  beat  an  undisciplined  militia,  after  having 
imported  thirty-five  thousand  already !  And  increase  them 
you  certainly  must,  or  quit  your  purpose  with  infamy.  But 
whence  to  procui-e  the  augmentation  !  aye,  that's  the  question. 
The  Prince  of  Hesse  will  tell  you,  "  hye  der  donder,  ich  heVber 
nix  meer." 

"  /  hccve  received  repeated  assurances  from  foreign  powers 
of  their  pacific  dispositions." — And  does  your  Majesty  believe 
those  assurances  ?  Out  of  your  own  mouth  will  I  prove  that 
you  do  not,  for 

"  But  at  the  same  time,  when  the  armaments  in  the  ports  of 
France  and  Sp>ain  continue'''' — to  confirm,  I  suppose,  the  as- 
surances of  their  pacific  disposition.  AVhat,  all  the  poAvers  of 
Europe  pacific,  and  France  and  Spain  continiie  their  hostile 
preparations  !  For  shame,  sir  ;  bastile  your  speech-maker  for 
not  putting  his  contradictions  at  a  greater  distance  than  that 
of  two  sentences. 

"  Iioill  cdways  hi  a  faithful  guardian  of  the  honor  of  the 
crotmi  of  Great  Britain"— K.  very  proper  keeper  of  what  has 
been  lost  ever  since  the  25th  of  October,  1760,  the  very  day 
that  your  Majesty  ascended  the  throne  ! 

"  The  various  services  I  have  mentioned  to  you  will  ima- 
voidahly  require  large  supplies.'''' — As  true  a  word  as  ever  was 
spoken  ;  and  larger  supplies  than  yoiu-  Parliament  can  furnish. 
Have  you  heard,  sir,  that  jowr  troops  have  already  been  obliged 
to  take  Pennsylvania  currency  ?  And  when  they  cannot  rob, 
you  cannot  pay. 

DIAFa'    OF   TIIE   EEVOLUTIOX.  [1778. 

"  /  will  steadily  pursue  the  measures  in  wldch  we  are  en- 
for  the  re-estdblishmeiit  of  that  subordination^''  &c. — 
How  long  your  Majesty  intends  to  pursue,  is  best  known  to 
yoiirself ;  bnt  I  am  confident  you  must  run  much  faster  than 
you  have  ever  yet  done,  or  you  will  not  overtake  it.  By  your 
constitutional  suhordination  we  imderstand  a  most  tyrannical 
domination,  which  we  have  long  since  bequeathed  to  your 
loyal  subjects  of  Great  Britain,  whom  you  had  previously 
prepared  to  relish  that  kind  of  legacy. 

'■'■  But  I  shall  ever  he  watchful  for  an  opportunity  of  put- 
ting a  stop  to  the  effusion  of  the  hlood  of  my  subjects,  and  the 
calamities  which  are  inseparable  from  a  state  of  war.'''' — Eing 
the  bells  !  ring  the  bells  backward !  To  church,  all  hands  to 
church,  for  Nero  is  to  give  us  a  sermon  against  murder,  and 
Jonathan  Wilde  an  exhortation  to  abstain  from  robbery  ! 

"  And  I  still  hope  that  tlie  deluded  and  unhappy  multitude 
will  retwrn  to  their  allegiance^'' — And  when  the  sky  falls  we 
sliall  catch  larks.  And  so  the  late  insignificant  faction  is  now 
multiplied  to  a  omdtitude.  Lideed,  did  you  but  know,  sir, 
what  a  multitude  it  is,  you  would  as  soon  think  of  levelling 
Mount  Etna  as  of  conqiiering  America.  But  they  are  not  de- 
luded, sir.  Tliey  know  that  yon  had  projected  their  slavery  ; 
and  they  will  not  be  enslaved.  If  there  be  any  delusion  in 
the  case  it  is  the  British  nation  that  is  deluded,  and  it  is  de- 
luded by  you,  and  yourself  are  dehided  by  a  set  of  villains 
who  expected  to  have  divided  our  estates  upon  the  success  of 
your  arms.  Allegiance  we  owe  you  none.  Tlien,  sir,  did  we 
show  our  allegiance  when  we  lay  prostrate  at  your  throne, 
supplicating  for  the  continuation  of  those  liberties  which  God 
and  nature  and  the  law  had  given  us,  and  when  you  spurned 
us  from  it. 

"  That  the  remembrance  of  what  they  once  enjoyed,  the  regret 
of  what  they  have  lost,  and  the  feelings  of  what  they  now  suf- 
fer under  the  tyranny  of  their  leaders,  will  relcindle  in  their 
hearts  a,  sjnrit  of  loyalty  to  their  sovereign,  and  of  their  at- 
tachment to  their  mother  country P — If  you  will  be  pleased, 
sir,  to  allow  yourself  a  moment's  reflection,  you  will  find  they 
have  lost  nothing  that  was  worth  keeping.     They  have  lost 

1778.]  THE  kestg's  speech.  21 

nothing  but  the  pleasure  of  being  oppressed  under  color  of 
law,  and  of  enriching  myriads  of  harpies  of  your  appoint- 
ment, and  appointed  for  the  express  purpose  of  fleecing  them, 
and  of  lavishing  the  fruits  of  their  toil  and  labor  in  British  lux- 
ury and  riot.  Is  this  a  loss  to  be  regretted  ?  If  it  is,  I  know 
who  will  regret  it.  Their  feelings  indeed  are  very  great,  and 
for  them  you  must  answer  at  that  awful  bar,  where  your  roy- 
alty will  but  aggravate  your  condemnation.  As  to  the  tyran- 
ny of  their  leaders,  it  is  indeed  so  gross  and  threadbare  an 
absurdity,  that  I  would  advise  your  Majesty  to  drop  it  for  the 
future  for  the  mere  sake  of  its  vulgarity.  In  this  contest  the 
people  in  reality  had  Ao  leaders.  They  fled,  spontaneoiisly 
and  self-led,  to  extinguish  the  common  fire,  and  for  conducting 
with  the  greater  regularity  the  measures  wliieli  you  compel 
them  to  adopt ;  they  afterwards  appointed  the  proper  ofiicers. 
Those  oificers  (which  to  serve  your  purpose  you  call  leaders) 
cannot  tyrannize  over  them,  because  they  are  constituted  by 
the  people,  and  by  them  removable.  Nor  will  any  considera- 
tion rekindle  in  their  hearts  a  spirit  of  loyalty  to  their  former 
sovereign.  Tliat  flame,  sir,  and  an  ardent  one  it  was,  and  more 
ardent  than  that  of  your  subjects  in  Britain,  you  have  extin- 
guished, totally  extinguished,  with  torrents  of  blood,  not  leav- 
ing a  single  sj)ark  to  light  up  the  ancient  blaze.  And  as  for 
their  mother  countinj — America,  sir,  is  our  mother  country,  and 
Great  Britain,  making  the  most  of  the  figure,  could  never 
claim  to  be  more  than  oiir  grandmother ;  and  that  she  has 
been  a  most  unnatural  one,  is  written  in  such  characters  of 
blood  as  none  of  your  flimsy  coaxings  will  ever  obliterate. 

'■'•And  that  they  will  encdJle  me,  with  the  concurrence  and 
support  of  my  Parliament,  to  accomplish^ — And  so  we  are 
to  assist  the  Parliament,  it  seems,  in  effecting  our  own  bond- 
age. Pray,  sir,  do  not  flatter  yourself  with  so  vain  an  im- 
agination. "We  have  too  great  a  reverence  for  the  instructions 
of  our  mother  to  follow  the  insidious  advice  of  our  grand- 
mother, so  evidently  calculated  for  our  destruction.' 

'  "  Hortentius,"  ia  the  New  Jersey  Gazette,  February  11. 

22  DIAET   OF   THE   EEYOLIJTION.  [1778. 

Feeeuaey  14. — "When  the  following  letter  appeared  in  an 
English  newspaper  at  Charleston,  South  Carolina,  consistent 
with  the  modern  plan  of  American  liberty,  a  young  gentleman 
of  that  place  was  apprehended  on  suspicion  of  being  the  au- 
thor, and  thrown  into  jail,  where,  we  believe,  he  remains  to 
this  day : 


Excuse  me,  dear  fiiend,  I  can't  think  it  true, 

Tho'  Solomon  says  it,  that  nothing  is  new : 

Had  he  liv'd  in  these  times  we  had  rather  been  tpld. 

Our  West  world's  so  new,  it  has  nothing  that's  old : 

But  should  he  insist  his  old  way  to  have  it, 

I  would  beg  leave  to  ask  of  this  wise  son  of  David, 

A  few  simple  questions ;  as  where  ho  e'er  saw 

Men  legally  punish'd  for  not  breaking  the  law ; 

Tarr'd,  feather'd,  and  carted,  for  drinking  bohea, 

And  by  force  and  oppression  compelled  to  be  free  ? 

The  same  men  maintaining  that  all  human  kind 
Are,  have  been,  and  shall  be,  as  free  as  the  wind ; 
Yet  impaling  and  burning  their  slaves  for  believing 
The  truth  of  the  lessons  they're  constantly  giving ; 
Or  what  financiers,  politicians,  or  sages. 
In  the  past  or  the  antediluvian  ages. 
He  ever  had  seen,  ever  heard  of,  or  read. 
Who  to  raise  funds  for  war  first  abolished  their  trade  ? 
»  And,  having  all  channels  of  commerce  obstructed, 

By  which  gold  and  silver  to  States  are  inducted, 
In  an  instant  more  riches  from  paper  produce, 
Or  the  quill  of  a  gray  cabaUstical  goose, 
Than  all  the  disciples  of  sage  Rosicrusius, 
Ever  made  from  their  talisman,  stones,  and  their  cruoes. 
Not  only  from  nothing  our  money  appears. 
From  nothing  our  hopes,  and  from  nothing  our  fears  ; 
From  nothing  our  statesmen,  our  army,  and  fleet, 
From  nothing  they  came,  and  to  nought  they'll  retreat. 
And  no  arms  they  handle  so  well  as  their  feet. 

Bown  at  night  a  bricklayer,  or  carpenter  lies, 
Next  sun  a  Lycurgus,  a  Solon  doth  rise ; 
While  doctors,  who  never  made  curing  their  trade. 
Give  a  bolus  of  iron,  or  a  pill  all  of  lead. 
But  still  counteracted  by  blunders  and  fate, 
Tho'  they  murder'd  in  friendship,  they  spare  in  their  hate. 

1778.]  NEWS  FEOM  FRANCE.  23 

Priests,  tailors,  and  cobblers,  fill  with  heroes  the  camp, 
And  sailors,  lilie  craw-fish,  crawl  out  of  each  swamp ; 
Self-created  from  nought,  like  a  mushroom  we  see, 
Spring  an  able  commander '  by  land  and  by  sea ; 
Late  of  Tories  the  prince,  and  his  country's  great  foe, 
Kow  the  congress's  chairman,  a  split-shirted  beau ; 
All  titles  of  honor  and  profit  do  wait  on, 
Judge,  General,  Counsellor,  Admiral  Drayton,^ 
Who  never  smell'd  powder,  nor  handled  a  rope, 
But  infallible  more  than  Lord  Peter  the  Pope ; 
Who  makes  flesh  of  his  bread  and  blood  of  his  wine. 
While  Drayton,  of  schooners,  makes  ships  of  the.line,' 
Makes  all  laws  of  mechanics  and  nature  knock  under, 
Can  cram  in  an  egg-shell  a  twenty-four  pounder ; 
Can  burn  in  an  instant  the  whole  British  navy, 
And  eat  up  an  army  without  salt  or  gravy.' 

Feeeuaet  19. — Notwithstanding  the  Americans  have  been 
stigmatized,  in  tlie  beginning  of  the  war,  as  coimrcls  and  pol- 
troons, yet  these  cowards  and  poltroons  have  disgraced  the 
British  generals  more  than  any  foreign  enemy  has  yet  done  in 
the  annals  of  Britain  ;  one  being  taken  without  his  breeches,  and 
the  other  obliged  to  lay  down  his  arms.  So  says  a  correspond- 
ent in  London.' 

We  have  undoubted  intelligence  that  there  are  lately  ar- 
rived in  Martinico  and  Guadaloupe,  22,628  French  troops ;  part 
of  them  sailed  the  sixth  of  October  from  Bordeaux,      jj^^^^  ^^,^^ 
and  part  of  them  the  ninth  of  October  from  St.  Ma-        France. 
lo.    They  arrived  at  Martinico  the  22d  and  27th  of  November. 

'  Supposed  to  be  a  gentleman  formerly  confidant  to  Lord  C.  M.,  and  then 
loaded  with  all  the  odium  of  the  patriots,  on  account  of  his  attachment  to  gov- 
ernment. He  was  appointed  one  of  the  judges  in  South  Carolina  by  a  lieutenant- 
governor  ;  but  the  appointment  was  not  confirmed,  and  another  gentleman  was 
sent  out  from  home,  immediately  on  which,  as  it  happened,  Mr.  D.  turned  flaming 
patriot ;  at  least  it  is  so  reported. 

'  The  uniform  of  the  South  Carolina  rebels  is  a  hunting  shirt,  sucn  as  the 
farmers'  servants  in  England. 

'  These  Hnes  allude  to  D.'s  ordering  a  little  fleet  of  schooners  to  be  fitted  out 
from  the  port  of  Charleston;  and  on  board  one  of  them  he  ordered  twenty-four 
nine-pounders ;  but  she  was  so  small,  that  it  was  found  she  could  not  even  float 
with  above  twelve  of  such  guus  on  board. 

*  Pennsylvania  Ledger,  February  14.  '  New  Jersey  Gazette,  May  20. 

24  DIAEY   OF   THE   EEVOLUTION.  [1778. 

Eleven  thousand  eight  hundred  and  thirty-six  of  the  above- 
mentioned  troops  sailed  from  Martinieo  the  first  of  December 
for  St.  Domingo..  They  expected  every  day  a  third  division 
of  troops  from  Brest.  We  also  learn  that  the  coast  of  France, 
from  Dunkirk  to  L' Orient,  was  lined  with  sixty  thousand 

[Rare  news  indeed !  What  a  pity  such  welcome  tidings 
should  want  confirmation  !  But  so  it  has  been  from  the  begin- 
ning. After  a  thousand  solemn  protestations,  disclaiming  the 
remotest  intention  of  renouncing  their  allegiance,  the  Congress 
came  forth  with  their  Declaration  of  Independency,  because 
it  was  a  necessary  step  in  order  to  procure  foreign  assistance ; 
and,  from  the  date  of  that  declaration  to  this  hour,  the  people 
have  been  deceived  with  repeated  assurances  that  the  prom- 
ised assistance  was  at  hand  ;  and  this  tale  of  French  troops  ar- 
riving in  great  numbers  in  the  West  India  islands  has  been  so 
often  repeated,  that,  if  there  was  any  truth  in  it,  there  could 
hardly  by  this  time  be  left  a  single  regiment  in  France  !  And 
yet  this  long  looked  for  French  assistance  is  only  to  be  seen 
by  the  eyes  of  faith,  and  those  eyes  begin  to  grow  very  dim ! 
The  people  begin  to  be  ashamed  of  their  past  credulity ;  and 
their  deceivers,  if  they  had  any  shame,  or  any  regard  for  the 
welfare  of  the  people,  would  cease  the  repetition  of  those  false- 
hoods in  which  they  have  been  so  often  detected.  Mr.  Living- 
ston himself  has  at  last  been  modest  enough  to  confess,  to  his 
New  Jersey  Assembly,  that  they  must  not  count  upon  any 
foreign  assistance,  and  that  the  United  States  must  prepare  to 
renounce  their  dependence  upon  sUch  "  uncertain  contingencies, 
and  rely  solely  upon  themselves  and  their  own  resources."] ' 

Yesterday  evening,  about  eight  o'clock,  Captain  Iloveden, 

with  a  party  of  twenty-four  dragoons,  and  Captain  Tliomas, 

Hoveden-s      "^^^^  fourteen  foot,  left  Philadelphia,  and  passed 

Excursion,      i^to   the  county  of  Bucks,  and,    at   the  fulling 

mill  of  Mr.  Jenks,  surprised  and  took  a  guard  of  continental 

troops  on  their  post  there,  guarding  a  considerable  quantity  of 

'  Pennsylvania  Lodger,  March  21. 

1778.]  hoyeden's  excuesion.  25 

cloth  belonging  to  the  poor  people  of  the  country,  of  which  they 
had  been  robbed  by  orders  from  the  rebel  head-quarters.  This 
•was  performed  with  that  secrecy  the  principal  design  recp;ired, 
which  was  to  take  another  party,  a  small  distance  off:  without 
firing  a  gun,  which  must  have  alarmed  the  other  post,  they 
took  prisoners  the  whole  guard.  Lnmediately  after  they  pro- 
ceeded to  Newtown,  surprised  and  took  the  first  sentry  without 
alarm.  On  approaching  near  the  quarters  of  Major  Murray, 
they  were  fired  upon  by  the  sentry  at  his  door.  This  alarmed 
the  guard  about  fortj^  yards  distant,  who,  being  sixteen  in 
number,  and  under  cover  of  the  guard  hoiise,  immediately  took 
to  their  arms,  and  discharged  their  pieces  on  the  troops  sur- 
rounding them ;  but  such  was  their  activity  and  alertness,  that, 
after  returning  the  fire,  and  before  the  enemy  could  load  a 
second  time,  they  stormed  the  house,  killed  five,  wounded  four, 
and  took  the  rest  of  the  guard  prisoners,  and  with  them  a  con- 
siderable quantity  of  cloth  then  making  up  by  a  number  of 
worlanen  for  the  rebel  army.  All  this  was  done  with  so  much 
secrecy,  conduct,  and  bravery,  that  none  of  either  of  the  pai- 
ties  received  the  least  injury.  About  six  o'clock  this  evening 
they  returned,  bringing  with  them  the  wounded  and  the  pris- 

Too  much  commendation  cannot  be  given  to  this  gallant 
action.  To  march  twenty-eight  miles,  take  and  surprise  one, 
and  storm  another  of  the  enemy's  posts,  kill  and  make  prison- 
ers of  every  officer  and  private,  and  to  return  the  same  distance, 
making  in  the  whole  fifty-six  miles,  in  twenty-two  hours,  and 
that  without  the  least  injury  received,  must  certainly  meet 
with  the  applause  of  the  p^iblic,  and  do  great  credit  to  the  offi- 
cers who  conducted,  and  the  men  who,  under  their  direction, 
accomplished  it,' 

The  Tories,  reduced  to  their  last  shift  for  agreeable  news  to 
strengthen  the  drooping  spirits  of  their  fellows,  are  now  resort- 
ing to  their  imaginations.  The  following  is  their  last  flight  of 
fancy : 

'  Pennsylvania  Ledger,  Fobruary  21. 

26  DIAET   OF   THE   EEVOLUTION.  [1778. 

Beelzebub  E. — ^Wliereas  it  is  necessary  to  tlie  extension, 
support,  and  population  of  our  infernal  kingdom,  that  all  and 

Moioch-s  every  species  of  its  commerce,  arts,  sciences,  and 
Proclamation,  pj-jnciples,  sliould  prevail,  flourish,  and  have  a  free 
and  uninterrupted  reception  upon  earth.  And,  whereas  we 
and  our  council  have  received  certain  and  undoubted  informa- 
tion, as  well  through  the  laudable  and  zealous  communications 
of  our  own  agents  employed  for  the  purpose,  as  by  the  personal 
appearance  and  testimony  before  our  throne  of  many  thousand 
persons,  who  lately  belonged  and  professed  allegiance  to  the 
newly  erected  States  of  North  America,  framed  by  our  sugges- 
tion and  by  the  help  of  our  agents  aforesaid,  that  there  is  at 
present  in  the  said  States  the  most  happy  disposition  for  the 
full  and  perfect  admission  and  entertainment  of  all  our  famous 
arts,  sciences,  principles,  and  commerce ;  and  that  our  loving 
friends  and  hearty  allies,  their  leaders  and  present  governors, 
do  give  their  most  ready  assistance  and  furtherance  to  that 
end  and  purpose.  We  therefore,  in  order  to  promote  all  meas- 
ures which  may  tend  to  establish  the  dignity  of  our  crown, 
the  power  and  influence  of  our  realm  of  darkness,  and  the 
greater  population  of  our  vast  territories  by  more  rapid  migra- 
tions from  the  regions  of  the  earth,  do  hereby  proclaim,  and 
engage  to  bestow,  the  following  rewards  and  bounties  for  the 
encouragement  of  such  persons,  professing  subjection  to  our 
cordial  and  undoubted  allies  the  States  aforesaid,  as  by  their 
assiduity  and  labor  in  our  service,  or  affection  to  our  principles 
and  interests,  may  be  found  to  deserve  them,  viz. : 

For  the  most  plausible  pretence  of  loyalty  to  a  sovereign, 
penned  with  the  fiillest  design  to  deceive  him,  and  pervert 
others  from  their  loyalty — A  flaming  ribband  of  the  order  of 
Machiavel,  with  the  grant  of  two  hundred  thousand  acres  of 
the  most  fertile  soil  yet  unlocated,  and  nearest  to  our  loyal  city 
of  Pandemonium. 

For  the  most  hollow  professions  of  attachment  to  a  consti- 
tution, which  can  best  answer  the  purpose  of  subverting  it — 

For  the  most  sophistical  arguments  to  prove  the  right  of 
subjects  to  forswear  themselves,  to  take  contrary  oaths  jpro 

1778.]  Moloch's  pkoolamation.  27 

renata,  and  to  assert  their  liberty  of  destroying  those  who  differ 
from  them  in  the  notion  of  liberty — ^Tlie  privilege  of  the  next 
seat  in  our  coimcil  to  our  well-beloved  cousin  and  counsellor 
Belial,  Avith  one  hundred  thousand  acres  in  the  warmest  re- 
gions of  Tartarus. 

For  the  most  virulent  perversion  of  truth  and  reason, 
which  can  support  any  of  our  beloved  factions — A  post  of  em- 
ployment near  our  person,  and  our  most  burning  attachment 
and  regard. 

To  every  person  professing  to  preach  the  gospel  of  Christ, 
our  most  dangerous  enemy,  who  shall  subvert  its  pernicious  in- 
tention of  promoting  peace,  order,  and  subjection  among  men, 
and  shall,  mstead  thereof,  promote  our  cause  and  service  by 
inculcating  sedition  and  discord — A  robe  of  the  darkest  sables 
in  Erehus,  warm  apartments  in  our  imperial  palace,  and  a 
double  portion  of  our  increasing  favor. 

For  the  most  rhetorical  panegyric  upon  any  of  our  faithful 
friends,  subjects  of  the  States,  our  allies  aforesaid,  who  may  hap- 
pen to  be  sent  down  to  our  kingdom  earlier  than  usual  by  the 
British  arms — An  honorary  degree  in  the  uifernal  academy  of 
Sophists,  with  a  suitable  benefit. 

For  the  most  perfect  si^ecimen  of  impudence  and  avarice, 
cowardice  and  faction,  pride  and  meanness,  connected,  which 
can  be  produced  by  any  natural  or  adopted  subject  of  our  allies 
aforesaid — A  collar  of  sounding  S  S,  with  a  separate  allotment 
in  Tartarus,  lest  Pandemonium  itself  be  endangered  by  the 

For  the  best  invention  to  delude  a  whole  people  from  their 
real  interests,  and  destroy  them  by  rebellion — ^Tlie  first  post  of 
honor  next  to  our  person. 

AND  in  order  to  display  and  extend  our  imperial  magnifi- 
cence in  the  most  ample  manner,  and  to  show  our  most  con- 
genial attachment  to  our  allies,  the  present  ruling  powers  of 
the  States  aforesaid,  we  do  further  promise  and  engage,  that 
all  and  every  of  their  subjects  or  confederates,  who  shall  most 
strongly  inculcate  and  improve  the  arts  and  sciences  first  in- 
vented in  our  kingdom,  and  now,  of  our  especial  grace,  motion, 
and  favor,  imported  from  thence  into  the  said  States,  so  as  most 

28  DIAET    OF   THE   EEVOLTJTIOU-.  [1778. 

exactly  and  extensively  to  assimilate  and  unite  their  subjects 
to  onr  subjects  now  in  the  realms  below,  and  to  render  their 
country  in  all  quietness,  freedom,  and  satisfaction,  the  most  like 
of  any  other  to  our  own ;  so  that,  in  due  time,  they  may  be- 
come prepared  for  their  final  removal  to  us,  by  which  means 
our  empire  may  be  further  strengthened  and  populated,  and 
the  independency  of  our  territories  more  perfectly  established, 
(in  which  last  measure  we  hope  and  expect,  above  all  things, 
the  aid  of  oiir  dear  allies  aforesaid ;)  shall  not  only  hereafter 
receive  every  reward  proportionate  to  the  merit  of  their  respec- 
tive services,  when  they  descend  to  our  court  and  appear  in  our 
presence,  but  shall  also  obtain,  at  present,  from  us  and  our 
agents,  our  most  hearty  suggestions  and  recommendations  to  our 
dearly  beloved  and  loyal  cousins,  the  congressional  representa- 
tives of  the  high  and  mighty  States  aforesaid,  and  to  oiir  no  less 
loving  and  beloved  friends  the  Commander-in-chief,  and  other' 
right  noble  and  worthy  commanders,  officers,  committee-men, 
selectmen,  and  men  of  all  sorts  invested  with  illustrious  author- 
ity under  them,  from  whose  cordial  attachment  to  our  interests 
and  views,  as  well  as  affinity  to  oi;r  person,  we  doubt  not  they 
will  receive  the  most  indulgent  attention  and  advancement. 

Given  at  our  court  at  Pandemonium,  in  the  5S47tIi  year  of 
our  reign,  and  in  the  year  called  by  mortals  1778.  By  his  in- 
fernal Majesty's  command — Moloch.^ 

9. — The  Southern  States  are  pursuing  the  most 
vigorous  measures  for  strengthening  the  hands  of  General 
Prospects  of  tto  Washington  the  ensuing  campaign.  Yirginia  has 
Americans.  (Jj-afted  two  thousaud  mcu  to  recruit  her  regi- 
ments, who  are  to  serve  for  one  j^ar.  They  have  also  set  on 
foot  an  association  for  raising  five  thousand  volunteers,  to  serve 
six  months ;  North  Carolina  is  exerting  herself  with  equal 
ardor.  The  Eastern  States,  who,  in  public  concerns,  always  act 
with  a  wisdom  and  vigor  that  deserves  imitation,  have  al- 
ready begun  to  draft,  being  resolved  to  fill  their  regiments 
completely,  and  to  have  them  early  in  the  field.     K  the  Middle 

'  Gainc's  Mercury,  February  23. 

1778.]  BEITISH    SPIES   EXECUTED.  29 

States  take  tlie  same  resolute  steps,  (and  no  doubt  they  will,) 
the  next  campaign  must  be  decisive.  Tlie  strength  of  the 
enemy  is  so  mnch  reduced,  that  nothing  but  our  indolence  can 
prevent  their  destruction. 

We  have  often  tliought  it  strange  that  America,  who  could 
bring  three  or  four  hundred  thousand  men  into  the  field,  should 
so  long  suffer  a  paltry  banditti  to  run  through  her  States,  and 
to  nestle  in  her  cities.  One  would  be  tempted  to  imagine  that 
we  were  fond  of  this  destructive  war ;  and  yet  folly,  in  her 
highest  delirium,  Avould  not  wish  to  protract  it.  Tliere  was  a 
time  when  protraction  and  delay  were  prudent — even  neces- 
sary ;  but  at  this  time  of  day  they  will  certainly  be  injurious, 
and  may  be  fatal.  Every  day  the  war  continues  our  piiblic 
debts  will  increase — our  necessities  will  multiply — and  our  cur- 
rency depreciate.  Britain  knows  this — she  founds  her  last 
hopes  upon  it ;  she  no  longer  expects  to  conquer  us  by  the 
sword,  but  she  flatters  herself  that  our  distresses  will  subdue 
our  minds,  break  the  spirit  of  opposition,  and  dissolve  in  time 
the  glorious  confederacy  in  support  of  freedom.  Hence  it 
will  be  the  policy  of  her  generals  to  possess  themselves  of  our 
towns,  to  destroy  our  mamifactures,  to  block  wp  our  harbors, 
and  to  protract  the  war.  We  should  change  our  measures  ac- 
cordingly— bring  our  thousands  iuto  the  field — -push  the  enemy 
with  vigor — drive  them  from  oiir  towns — storm  them  in  their 
strongholds,  and  never  pause  till  we  force  them  from  our  shores. 
Tlie  successes  of  the  last  campaign  teach  us  what  we  are  able 
to  do  if  we  exert  our  strength  ;  and  instead  of  provoking  oiir 
indolence,  should  spur  our  ambition.  These  rising  States  should 
catch  the  spirit  of  the  gallant  Csesar,  and  think  "  that  they  have 
done  nothing,  while  any  thing  remains  to  do."  ' 

JMaecii  16. — Ix  piirsuance  of  orders  from  his  excellency, 
the  Commander-in-chief,  a  general  court-martial  was  held  at 
Lancaster,  in  Pennsylvania,  when  Henry  Mansin     j^^m^yi  s  ies 
(who  confessed  himself  an  officer  in  the  British      Executed. 
army)  and  Wendal  Myer,  an  inhabitant  of  the  county,  were 

'  Extract  of  a  letter  from  a  gentleman  at  tlie  camp  at  Yalley  Forge,  in  tlie  New 
Jersey  Gazette,  March  18. 

30  DIAET   OF   TUE   REVOLUTION.  [1778. 

brouglit  before  the  court  and  charged  with  being  spies,  carry- 
ing on  a  traitorous  corresj^ondence,  and  supplying  the  enemy 
•with  horses,  &c.  The  court,  after  a  fair  and  candid  trial, 
which  lasted  some  days,  and  every  opportunity  given  to  them 
to  make  their  defence,  found  them  guilty,  and  unanimously 
sentenced  them  to  suffer  death  ;  in  consequence  of  which,  they 
were  to-day  executed  near  Lancaster,  amidst  a  very  numerous 
concourse  of  spectators.  Tlie  unliappy  wretches,  before  their 
execution,  acknowledged  the  justice  of  their  sentence,  and  died 
fully  convinced  of  the  heinousness  of  their  offence.  They 
have  discovered  several  persons  who  have  aided  and  assisted 
them,  but  unfortunately  made  their  escape  x:pon  the  capture 
of  these  culprits.  However,  it  is  hoped  that  justice  will  over- 
take them,  and  inflict  the  punishment  due  to  such  parricides.' 

Though  Mr.  Burgoyne  is  much  praised  for  his  dramatic 

abilities,  a  correspondent  in  London  observes  :    Major-General 

Gates  has  the  advantage  of  him  even   in  that 

General  Burgoyne.  i.  ^i         i-  vi       x         • 

respect,  as  the  lormcr  was  never  able  to  rise 
above  ^  farce;  whilst  the  latter  has  executed  a  very  affect iiuj 

Last  winter,  Mr.  Wilkes  ^  was  at  Batli,  and  meeting  Bur- 
goyne in  one  of  the  rooms,  he  asked  if  he  proposed  to  go  next 
summer  to  Albany  througli  the  lakes.  "  Certainly,"  replied 
the  other.  "  Why,  then,"  said  Wilkes,  "  you  will  as  certainly 
be  taken  prisoner  by  Arnold ;  therefore,  pray  accept  a  letter 
from  me  to  Hancock."  "  Sir,"  said  Burgoyne,  "  no  man's  recom- 
mendation would  be  more  acceptable  to  me  on  all  occasions; 
but  I  am  well  assured  that  I  shall  have  no  use  for  your  friend- 
ship at  this  time." ' 

March  21. — After  a  most  ridiculous  gasconade  upon  the 
late  movement  of  a  detachment  from  the  British  troops  into 
Maiiam  Piiipioy's  ^^^  Jcrscy,  tlic  publisher  of  the  last  week's  Tren- 
Prophccy.       ^^^^  papcr "  iiitroduccs  a  most  comfortable  proph- 
ecy of  a  good  lady  who  lately  di('(l  at  Wilmington.     It  is  no 

'  New  Jersey  Gazette,  March  25.  •  John  Wilkes,  tlio  Patriot. 

^  New  Jersey  Gazette,  May  27.  *  Same,  March  11. 

1778.]  MADAM  Shipley's  prophecy.  31 

new  device  among  these  deceivers  of  the  people,  to  call  in  the 
aids  of  popular  superstition  in  support  of  their  ambitious  pro- 
jects. And  though  we  think  it  rather  a  profanation  to  amuse 
the  people  with  such  idle  tales  under  the  name  of  prophecy, 
we  hope  our  readers  will  excuse  our  inserting  this  of  the  good 
Madam  Shipley,  not  doubting  but  it  will  have  all  the  weight 
which  it  merits  with  those  for  whose  encouragement  it  was 
published  in  'New  Jersey : 

"  Trenton,  March  11. 
"  The  public  has  been  already  infoi-med  of  the  death  of  Eliz- 
abeth Shipley,  of  Wilmington ;  but  a  circumstance  relating 
thereto  is  (perhaps)  a  secret,  except  to  a  few.  On  her  death- 
bed, as  well  as  during  her  better  state  of  health,  she  was  nnich 
affected  with  the  calamity  that  this  country  now  labors  under 
from  the  cruel  oppression  of  the  King  and  Parliament  of  Eng- 
land ;  but  a  ray  of  that  light  by  which  the  soul  can  look  into 
future  events  springing  up  in  her,  she  was  comforted,  and 
with  godly  confidence  declared.  That  this  country  should  not 
he  conquered  hj  Great  Britain.  Tliis  she  uttered  with  such 
solemnity  that  it  commanded  the  particular  notice  of  all  who 
heard  her,  and  is  now  made  public  for  the  encouragement  of 
every  well-wisher  to  the  freedom  and  liberties  of  America. 
Every  one  who  had  an  opportunity  of  knowing  this  great  and 
good  woman,  whether  they  be  Whig  or  Tory,  will  be  inclined 
to  give  credit  to  her  prophecy ;  and  for  the  sake  of  all  such 
who  knew  her  not,  they  are  now  informed  that  she  was  a  wo- 
man eminently  endowed  with  knowledge,  both  natural  and 
divine." ' 

March  25. — It  is  whispered  that  Congress,  finding  at  length 
the  baseness  and  depravity  of  their  Amei-ican  subjects,  and  the 
folly  of  France  in  deserting  them,  are  determined  con-ress" 
to  retire  beyond  the  Mississippi  with  a  chosen  in'^tions. 
band  of  fatriots.,  to  be  drafted  chiefly  from  New  England  and 
the  minority  of  St.  Stephen's  cliapel.  There,  breathing  from 
the  fatigues  of  this   glorious,  though   unsuccessful  struggle. 

32  DIABT  OF  THE   EEVOLUTION.  [1778. 

they  will  liave  leisure  to  put  in  practice  those  excellent  refine- 
ments in  government  and  morals  of  which  they  have  already 
given  such  specimens  !  And  being  possessed  of  the  viisclom 
both  of  the  new  and  old  world,  they  will  exhibit  to  mankind 
such  a  perfect  model  of  society  as  shall  astonish  and  confound 
them.  Tliey  will  so  mould  their  new  commonwealth  that  it 
shall  not  have  the  least  trace  of  any  that  now  does  or  ever  has 
existed ;  especially  that  of  Great  Britain,  whose  constitution 
they  wisely  consider  as  the  most  ridiculous  jumble  and  com- 
pound of  folly  ever  produced  by  the  ignorance  of  man. 

Theirs  will  be  nearly  patriarchal,  resembling  one  great 
family;  and  as  it  is  an  assemblage  of  worthies  whose  lives 
have  been  devoted  to  the  good  of  mankind,  who  have  subdued 
all  vicious  appetites  and  inclinations,  their  laws  will  be  rather 
persuasive  than  directory.  Property,  that  source  of  all  crimes, 
M'ill  either  be  abolished,  or  confined  to  the  mere  right  of  occu- 
pancy. 'No  one  will  be  allowed  to  possess  more  ground  than 
he  can  till,  which,  when  he  i-elinquishes,  returns  to  the  public 
stock,  and  is  open  to  the  next  occupant.  The  rights  of  con- 
science, of  private  judgment,  and  freedom  of  speecJi,  will  be 
secured  as  heretofore.  But  above  all,  they  will  be  solicitous  to 
preserve  public  faith,  for  which  purpose  treaties,  compacts, 
conventions,  &c.,  will  be  made  religious  ceremonies.  The 
strictest  threatenings  will  be  denounced  against  every  species 
oi  falsehood  and  misrepresentation  ;  and  then  comes  their  pe- 
culiar characteristic,  Momanity,  to  crown  the  whole. 

There  can  be  no  doubt  but  Providence  will  take  this  people 
under  its  immediate  protection,  and  therefore  all  fear  of  for. 
eign  invasion  vanishes.  Forbear,  then !  ye  sovereigns  of  the 
earth,  to  disturb  this  abode  of  philosophy  and  virtue.  And 
'ye  people  of  America,  whose  lot  it  must  be  to  return  to  that 
state  of  slavery  you  have  been  brought  Tip  in,  may  you  be 
pimished  for  your  supineness  by  a  total  unconscioiisness  of 
your  wretched  situation." 

Apeil  1. — Amongst  those  who  left  Philadelphia  on  the  ap- 

'  Pennsylvania  Lcdirer,  March  25. 


proacli  of  the  enemy  to  that  city,  a  gentleman  who  had  with 
him  a  portable  printing  press,  took  refuge  somewhere  near 
Egg  Harbor.  By  means  of  a  well-conducted  corre-  ^j,^  j^j^^j^ 
spondence  with  a  friend  in  the  city,  he  obtained  inteiugencer. 
constant  and  authentic  intelligence  of  the  most  minute  occur- 
rences there.  Thus  provided,  he,  for  the  amusement  of  him- 
self and  a  few  friends,  publishes  a  paper  every  fortnight, 
which  he  calls  Pasquin,  or  the  Minute  Intelligencer.  As  these 
papers  are  not  for  sale,  and  but  a  few  copies  struck  off,  they 
do  not  circulate,  and  are  but  little  known.  Being  an  old  ac- 
quaintance, he  constantly  sends  me  some  of  his  performances. 
As  a  specimen  of  the  work,  I  have  selected  the  following 
articles : 

"  It  is  said  that  the  English  ministry,  having  no  hopes  of 
subduing  America  by  force  of  arms,  whilst  the  inhabitants 
retain  their  native  virtue,  have  instructed  the  officers  in  their 
army  to  try  a  more  certain  method  of  success,  by  debauching 
the  morals  of  the  men,  and  seducing  the  virtue  of  the  women. 
For  this  purpose  play  houses  are  opened,  gaming  tables  estab- 
lished, and  balls  promoted  in  a  city  languishing  iinder  a  scar- 
city of  the  necessaries  of  life. 

"  His  Excellency  General  Howe,  ever  attentive  to  the  health 
of  his  army,  took  the  advantage  of  some  fair  weather  in  De- 
cember last,  and  determined  to  give  his  troops  an  airing,  of 
which  they  stood  in  great  need.  For  this  purpose  he  ordered 
the  whole  of  his  forces  out,  and  heading  them  himself,  took  a 
walk  into  the  country.  His  benevolent  intention  was  to  pro- 
ceed as  far  as  Lancaster,  but  finding  the  roads  about  Edge 
Hill  much  infested  with  armed  rebels,  he  thought  to  return  to 
the  city,  which  he  did  with  considerable  precipitation,  being- 
apprehensive  of  an  approaching  storm.  Some  think  he  might 
have  forced  his  way  through  the  banditti,  but  he  was  too  prii- 
dent  a  general  to  expend  his  Majesty's  powder  and  shot  on 
such  a  ragged  crew. 

"  We  have  the  pleasure  of  assuring  the  public  that  the  dis- 
putes respecting  the  arrangement  of  the  Royal  African  licg- 
iment  are  now  at  an  end,  his  excellency  having  determined 
that  arrangement  in  the  following  manner : 
ToL.  II.— 3 

34  DIAEY    OF   THE   KEVOLUTION.  [17Y8. 

"  Quacko — Colonel ;  Sambo — Lieutenant-Colonel ;  Cuffj 
— Major;  Toney  and  Cudjoe — Captains. 

"  The  contest  for  pre-eminence  between  Qnacko  and  Sambo, 
was  long  and  obstinate ;  it  is  evident  that  Sambo  has  the  thick- 
est lips,  and  the  whitest  teeth,  but  his  excellency  is  partially  in 
favor  of  Quacko,  as  he  has  honored  him  with  the  command ; 
and  at  the  entertainment  lately  given  by  the  officers  of  the 
Royal  African  Regiment,  his  excellency  opened  the  ball  with 
Colonel  Quacko's  lady,  and  danced  very  gracefully  to  the 
music  of  a  full  orchestra  of  banjoes  and  hurdy-gurdies.  How 
far  the  superior  beauty  of  Colonel  Quacko's  lady  may  have 
contributed  to  his  promotion,  is  uncertain. 

"  We  hear  that  general  orders  have  been  issued  for  having 
the  Royal  African  Regiment  shorn  every  three  months,  in  order 
to  supply  the  ladies  of  the  court  of  Great  Britain  -with  wool 
sufficient  for  the  present  fashionable  head-dress."  ' 


"Now  in  the  press  and  shortly  will  be  published,  neatly 
bound  in  calf,  the  miscellaneous  works  of  his  Excellency  Gen- 
eral Howe,  in  prose  and  verse,  containing,  amongst  many  other 
curious  particulars,  the  following  articles  : 

"  1st.  The  history  of  the  American  war ;  or  the  art  of  insur- 
ing infamy  in  this  world  and  misery  in  the  next.  2d.  A  dis- 
sertation on  the  cardinal  virtues,  in  which  it  is  proved  that 
justice  and  mercy  ought  to  be  excluded  from  holding  any  rank 
amongst  them.  3d.  The  game  of  picquet  in  a  new  way,  by 
which  is  shown  how  a  person  may  win  ten  thousand  gold 
guineas  at  a  game,  and  yet  the  loser  remain  perfectly  satisfied. 
By  this  method,  cards  become  not  only  an  anmsement,  but 
very  useful  in  the  settlement  of  accounts.  N.  B. — ^In  this 
learned  work  his  excellency  acknowledges  that  he  has  been 
assisted  by  Mr.  Ware,  the  commissary-general.  4th.  The  value 
of  British  gold  ;  or  the  art  of  paying  off  large  accounts  with 

'  A  carpenter  the  other  day,  ivalking  behind  a  little  woman,  dressed  in  the 
latest  European  method,  took  occasion  gently  to  measure  her  head-dress,  when  it 
was  found  to  be  just  one-half  of  her  height. — Carver. 


small  sums  ;  illustrated  by  a  variety  of  real  cases,  particularly 
one,  in  whicli  a  just  bill  of  £550  was  discharged  by  fifty  guin- 
eas, and  a  receipt  in  full  obtained.  5th.  Men  immortalized, 
and  death  defeated ;  or,  the  returns  of  the  British  army ; 
wherein  is  shown  how  the  pay  and  rations  of  a  thousand  sol- 
diers may  be  drawn,  who  have  long  since  died  of  putrid  fevers, 
or  been  slain  in  battle.  6th.  The  contented  cudcold ;  an  heroic 
poem.  7th.  Songs  and  amorous  odes  in  the  eastern  style ;  a 
hymn  to  Venus ;  Chloe,  or  the  African  beauty ;  an  invitation 
to  Bacchus,  in  the  German  taste  ;  the  progress  of  cruelty,  in 
six  cantos,  &c. 

"  The  work  will  be  comprised  in  three  vols.,  octavo ;  a  fourth 
volume  will  contain  congratulatory  addresses  to  his  excellency, 
from  the  several  provinces  wherein  he  haS  restored  constitii- 
tional  liberty.  But  these  addresses  have  not  yet  come  to 

"  Now  publishing  in  sheets,  and  to  be  sold  at  Philadelphia, 
The  Political  Liar,  or  the  new  Fairy  Tales,  wherein  is  related 
liow  a  shameful  defeat  may  with  ease  be  converted  into  a  glo- 
rious victory — how  large  reinforcements  may  be  obtained  by 
magic  arts — how  France  is  abandoning  America  by  sending 
lier  large  supplies  of  warlike  stores  and  other  necessaries — ^how 
General  "Washington  lost  his  senses,  and  left  a  portemanteau 
containing  all  his  original  letters  and  secrets  of  State  with  a 
sick  negro,  whereby  they  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  British 
officers,  and  are  now  publishing  at  large  in  the  Political  Liar,' 
with  many  other  entertaining  articles  of  the  same  kind. 

"  A  great  price  in  hard  money  will  be  given  for  a  little 
heari's  ease.     Apply  to  the  superintendent-general." 

"  From  the  late  London  Papers. 
"  To  be  sold  by  public  auction,  on  the  1st  April,  1778,  at  the 
Eoyal  Exchange,  Hanovei-  with  all  the  private  estate  of  George 
"Whelps.  The  vast  sums  arising  from  this  sale  are  by  his  Maj- 
esty's most  gracious  promise,  to  be  distribiited  amongst  the 
Tories  in  America,  who  have  suffered  so  miich  on  his  account."  ° 

'  Rivington's  Gazette.  ^  Now  Jersey  Gazette,  April  15. 

86  DIAET   OF  THE   KEVOLUTION.  [1778. 

Apeil  15. — Throughout  the  whole  past  ■winter,  with  Gen- 
eral "Washington  within  twenty  miles  of  them,  the  British  have 
General  Howe  at  remained  in  Philadelphia  qnite  unalarmed  and 
piiiiadeiphia.    ^^^^^     ^^^  ^  gj^g^g  j^(.(.^g]^  |jj^g  i^ggj^  attempted ; 

and  wliat  is  as  extraordinary,  not  a  single  fire  has  happened, 
or  even  a  common  riot  to  disturb  the  peace.  It  is  amazing  to 
think  that  a  garrison  so  confined  in  its  lines,  composed  of 
troops  of  difi'erent  nations  and  languages,  together  with  a 
motley  crew  of  inhabitants,  besides  the  sailors  of  the  navy, 
and  transports,  in  all  amounting  to  upwards  of  fifty  thousand 
people,  should  have  lived  together  in  the  most  perfect  har- 
mony and  peace.  Nothing  reflects  more  honor  on  the  charac- 
ter of  General  Howe  than  this  very  circumstance,  as  notliing 
but  the  highest  attention  to  good  discipline,  regularity,  and 
order,  could  have  efi'ected  what  seems  so  very  incredible.  Tlie 
early  support  he  gave  to  the  police  he  had  established  for  the 
government  of  the  city,  the  public  countenance  he  gave  to  it 
on  all  occasions — never  suffering  its  authority  in  any  one  in- 
stance to  be  violated  or  insulted — and  the  satisfaction  given  to 
the  inhabitants  by  the  measure  itself,  have  had  the  liigliest 
good  e0"ects,  and  justly  endear  him  to  both  ai-my  and  coimtry. 
Perhaps  there  never  was  a  general  commanding  an  amiy  more 
universally  beloved  by  officers  and  soldiers,  than  Sir  William ; 
nor  in  whom,  as  an  officer,  a  more  general  confidence  has  pre- 
vailed, both  for  abilities  and  spirit.' 

April  22. — An  elaborate  production  in  the  Lancaster  pa- 
pers of  to-day,  signed  Uenricus^  concludes  thus: — "Believe 
me;  the  present  time  with  the  enemy  is  a  time  of 
fearful  expectation  and  desperate  trial.  Their  all 
depends  upon  being  abie  to  procrastinate  the  approaches  of 
General  "Washington ;  in  distracting  the  minds  of  tlie  people  ;  in 
producing  confusion  in  otir  military  councils  and  operations, 
and  concealing  their  inability  to  act  offensively  under  a  most 
pompous  parade  of  pushing  on  the  war.  "\Yherefore,  while  our 
bleeding  country  beckons  us  to  shut  up  the  temple  of  Janus, 

^  Fpcott,  V.  133. 


1778.]  HENKICUS.  37 

and  annihilate  the  power  of  Great  Britain  in  America  by 
one  exertion  of  our  combined  strength — who  dare  be  idle? 
"Where  is  the  man  who  lays  claim  to  the  enjoyment  of  freedom 
that  will  not  exert  himself  in  assisting  our  great  general  to 
complete  what  he  so  disinterestedly  engaged  in — what  he  pre- 
served after  the  loss  of  a  capital  part  of  his  army,  and  a  most 
disheartening  retreat  on  the  memorable  banks  of  the  Delaware, 
with  a  handful  of  brave  followers.  Is  there  an  American  who 
can  fight  but  this  moment  wishes  to  share  with  our  conmiander 
the  glory  of  completing  the  independence  and  happiness  of  the 
continent  ?  I  dare  say,  nay,  I  am  confident  of  it,  that  there 
will  not  be  found  one  out  of  the  field  when  it  is  known  their 
services  are  required,  but  such  as  cowardice  or  tlie  lurking 
principles  of  Toryism  detains.     Such  men  we  want  not. 

"  'Tis  said  that  Hannibal  swore  to  his  father  never  to  be  at 
peace  with  the  Romans.  I  call  upon  all  those  'who  are  in 
league  with  virtue  and  independence,  to  swear  with  me,  and 
to  each  other,  by  the  honor  of  their  ancestors — by  the  faith 
they  have  pledged  to  the  States — ^by  their  abhorrence  of  chains 
and  slavery — by  sacred  liberty  and  religion — -by  their  wives 
and  children — ^by  the  ardent  principles  of  revenge  kindled  up 
in  virtuous  bosoms — by  the  dear  spirits  of  those  who  have 
fallen  in  battle — ^by  the  ghosts  of  their  starved  and  murdered 
brethren,  never  to  make  peace  with  Britons  till  they  have 
humbled  them  with  the  dust,  and  taken  consummate  ven- 
geance for  all  their  outrages,  rapines,  ravages,  and  murders, 
by  the  final  establishment  of  a  Glorious  Independence.'''' 

[By  such  pitiful  productions  have  the  unthinking  multitude 
been  diverted  out  of  their  liberty  and  property — oaths  on  the 
holy  evangelists  having  been  found,  by  experience,  of  no  value 
amongst  rebels.  "We  cannot,  tlierefore,  be  surprised  to  find 
them  in  search  of  objects  more  suitable  to  their  purpose  than 
the  sacred  records.  The  notion  .of  departed  spirits,  ghosts, 
&c.,  may  serve  to  frighten  the  ignorant  to  the  field,  where  they 
will,  like  many  of  their  predecessors,  procure  independency  for 
theu-  sinful  souls.] ' 

'  Rivington's  Gazette,  May  9. 

6S  DIAET   OF   THE   EEVOLUTIOX.  [i  H  ^. 

April  23. — ^The  enemy,  says  a  correspondent,  after  tlie 
flogging  of  Burgoyne,  have  resumed  their  old  trick  of  sham 
The  conciliatory  treaty.  General  Tryon  (by  Avhat  authority  he  best 
Bills.  knows)  has  introduced  into  New  Jersey  a  ridicu- 
lous publication  under  the  title  of  "  Draught  of  a  bill  for  de- 
claring the  intentions  of  the  Parliament  of  Great  Britain  con- 
cei-ning  the  exercise  of  the  right  of  imposing  taxes  within  his 
Majesty's  colonies,  provinces,  and  plantations  in  North  Amer- 
ica," which  just  amounts  to  the  old  nauseous  dish  (which  no 
honest  American  could  ever  SAvallow)  with  a  little  amendation 
in  the  cookery  and  sauces,  together  with  the  "  Draught  of  a  bill 
to  enable  his  Majesty  to  appoint  Commissioners  with  sufficient 
powers  to  treat,  consult,  and  agree  upon  the  means  of  cpiieting 
the  disorders  now  subsisting  in  certain  of  the  colonies,  prov- 
inces, and  plantations  in  Nortli  America."  What  renders  this 
nonsensical  manoeuvre  still  more  ominous  is,  that  General 
Tryon  (and  by  the  name  of  governor,  too)  certifies  them  to  be 
true  copies."  Siirely  the  ministry  might  have  found  a  more 
proper  person  for  tlmt  purpose  than  the  most  obnoxious  of  all 
obnoxious  animals  by  his  professed  declarations  in  the  pleasiire 
he  takes  in  burning,  kidnapping,  and  every  species  of  desola- 
tion. And  ofi'ering  pardon  too — consummate  impudence! 
Who  wants  and  will  stoop  to  accept  of  a  pai'don  for  defending 
his  country  agamst  the  most  villanous  tyranny  that  was  ever 
devised  by  the  art  of  man  ?  Divide  and  rule.  But  America 
has  too  much  sense  to  be  so  gulled." 

These  bills  were  published  in  all  the  loyal  newspapers  of  the  time.  In  Kiv- 
ington's  Gazette  they  were  published  with  the  subjoined  introduction: — "The  fol- 
lowing draughts  of  two  bills,  presented  and  read  in  the  House  of  Commons,  on 
the  19th  of  February  last,  are  produced  to  the  public  through  the  channel  of  this 
paper.  They  deserve  the  most  serious  attention  of  our  unhappy  fellow-sub- 
jects now  in  rebeUion  against  the  parent  State,  which  hath  from  the  first  period 
of  their  existence,  nursed  and  protected  them  with  the  tenderest  and  fondest 
care ;  overlooking  the  petulant  humors  which  sometimes  showed  themselves,  and 
which,  from  the  first  origin  of  the  present  troubles,  hath  endeavored  by  every 
prudent,  mild,  and  reasonable  method,  to  prevent  those  scenes  of  desolation 
and  bloodshed  which  now  distress  the  country,  and  threaten  it  with  complete 
and  horrid  ruin.  Here  again  dbes  the  lenity  and  mercy  of  Great  Britain  hold  out 
peace,  safety,  and  happiness  upon  a  broad  and  firm  basis  to  the  deluded  inhabit- 
ants of  tlic  colonies."  ''  New  Jersey  Gazette,  April  23. 

177S.]  TEEATT  WITH  FEANCE.  39-- 

At  lengtli  we  have  intelligence  from  France  tliat  the  Con- 
gress have  concluded  a  treaty  of  alliance  with  the  King  of  the 
French: — ^His  Most  Christian  Majesty  gnaran-  Trentvwith 
tees  the  independence,  sovereignty,  liberties,  and  I'l-^nce. 
all  the  possessions  of  the  United  States  of  America ;  and  they, 
on  their  part,  guarantee  all  the  dominions  of  that  prince  in  the 
West  Indies.  The  pai-t  he  has  acted  upon  this  occasion  is 
truly  noble  and  magnanimous.  No  monopoly  of  our  trade  is 
desired ;  it  is  left  open  to  all  we  choose  to  trade  with.  Tliis  is 
wise  as  it  is  generous,  it  being  undoubtedly  the  interest  of 
France  that  this  treaty  shoiild  be  durable,  which  would  not 
have  been  so  likely  had  hard  terms  been  exacted  of  us.  We 
are,  moreover,  liberally  assisted  there  with  all  kinds  of  siipplies. 
The  treaties  were  signed  on  the  sixth  of  February,  but  were  not 
piiblicly  known  when  the  frigate  which  brought  them  to  Con- 
gress, sailed ;  but  they  were  talked  of  as  highly  probable,  from 
circiimstances  :  and  the  English  minister  to  defeat,  if  possible, 
this  expected  union,  and  recover  the  dependence  of  the  colo- 
nies, has  brought  in  two  bills,  which  he  calls  conciliatory,  but 
which  are  a  composition  of  artifice  and  uncertainty.  Tire  right, 
as  they  are  pleased  to  call  it,  of  laying  taxes  on  us  is  not  given 
up ;  the  Parliament  only  declared,  that  in  consideration  of  some 
inconveniences  found  in  the  exercise  of  this  right,  they  intend 
not  to  exercise  it  hereafter,  except  for  regulating  trade ;  but  the 
next  Parliament  may  find  this  declaration  inconvenient,  and 
may  repeal  it,  and  may  resume  the  right.  Commissioners  are 
appointed  to  treat  with  any  body  of  men  in  America,  on  the 
means  of  quieting  the  disorders  there,  but  can  do  nothing  defi- 
nite, except  granting  pardons,  declaring  and  revoking  cessa- 
tion of  arms,  &c.  On  this,  a  gentleman  of  character  says,  in 
one  of  his  letters,  "  I  hope  no  American  wiU  be  mean  enough 
to  accept  their  pardons ;  and  I  am  sure  they  will  not  be  so 
weak  as  to  disband  or  disarm,  in  the  smallest  degree,  on  the 
faith  of  their  declaring  a  cessation  of  arms."  He  adds,  "  Be- 
lieve me,  the  malice  of  the  British  court  is  as  great  against  us 
as  ever,  but  they  are  at  present  in  a  great  consternation,  unable 
to  go  on,  and  dread  to  give  up,  and  fearing  a  war  with  France 
and  Spain,  which  they  see  must  ruin  them.    If  they  can  divide 

40  DIAEY    OF   THE   EETOLmON.  [1778. 

and  weakeii  us,  or  deceive  us  into  a  submission,  they  will  pun- 
ish us  at  their  leisure."  France  has  this  same  year  renewed 
her  fifty  years'  alliance  with  the  thirteen  United  States  of 
Switzerland,  which  she  has  faithfully  kept  for  two  hundred 
years.  A  good  omen  for  us.  The  accession  of  Spain  to  the 
treaties  was  not  doubted.  Those  events  are  most  important  in 
favor  of  America ;  they  give  us  a  stability  that  must  support 
and  extend  our  credit  in  Europe,  while  that  of  Britain  is  daily 
sinking.  Tlie  good  will  to  our  cause  in  Europe  is  universal ; 
all  nations  wish,  and  are  ready  to  concur,  in  the  humiliation 
of  England,  as  soon  as  they  dare.  By  returning  to  their  gov- 
ernment, we  should  have  them  and  all  Europe  against  us ;  we 
are  now,  with  all  Europe,  against  them.  Tliere  is  no  hesitating 
a  moment  which  to  choose  of  these  two  situations.  Tlie  public 
may  rely  on  the  authenticity  of  the  above  accounts,  which,  if 
improved  with  wisdom  and  spirit  here,  must,  by  the  favor  of 
Heaven,  prove  decisive  for  America.' 

'  New  York  Journal,  May  18. 


Mat  1. — ^This  morning,  at  dayliglit,  the  American  camp, 
which  lay  near  the  Crooked  Billet,'  was  surroiinded  with  a 
body  of  the  enemy,  who  appeared  on  all  quarters,  j..^^^  ^^  ^^^ 
The  scouts  neglected  last  night  to  patrol  the  roads  ^^""^"'^  ''"''''• 
as  they  were  ordered,  but  lay  in  camp  till  near  day,  though 
their  orders  were  to  leave  it  by  two  o'clock  in  the  morning. 
On  the  disobedience  of  some  officers  of  the  scouts  we  have  to 
lay  our  misfortunes. 

The  alarm  was  so  sudden,  we  had  scarcely  time  to  mount 
our  horses  before  the  enemy  was  within  musket  shot  of  our 
quarters.  "U^e  observed  a  party  in  our  rear  had  got  into  houses 
and  behind  fences ;  their  numbers  appearing  nearly  equal  to 
ours,  we  did  not  think  it  advisable  to  attack  them  in  that  situa- 
tion, especially  as  another  body  appeared  in  our  front  to  the 
east  of  the  Billet ;  and  not  knowing  what  nximbers  we  had  to 
contend  Avitli,  we  thought  it  best  to  open  our  way  under  cover 
of  a  wood  to  the  left  of  our  camp,  towards  Colonel  Hart's,  for 
which  our  little  party  moved  in  columns,  the  baggage  follow- 
ing in  the  rear.  "We  had  not  passed  far  before  our  flanking 
parties  began  to  change  shot  with  the  enemy,  but  kept  moving 
on  till  we  made  the  wood,  when  a  party  of  both  foot  and  liorse 
came  up  the  Biberry  road,  and  attacked  our  right  flank ;  the 
party  from  the  Billet  fell  upon  our  rear ;  the  horse,  from  the 
rear  of  our  camp,  came  upon  our  left  flank.  A  body  of  liorse 
appearing  in  our  front,  we  made  a  stand  in  the  wood,  and  gave 
them  some  Avarm  fires,  Avhich  forced  them  to  retire ;   their 

'  Xear  Ncshaminy  Bridge. 

42  DIAKV    OF   THE   EEVOLUTION.  [1778. 

horse  suffered  considerably  as  tliej  charged  us,  and  were 
severely  repulsed ;  their  strength  gathering  from  all  quarters, 
Ave  thought  it  best  to  move  on,  Avhich  vre  did  with  the  loss  of 
our  baggage,  the  horse  giving  way  in  the  front  as  we  advanced. 
We  continued  skirmishing  for  upwards  of  two  miles,  when 
we  made  a  turn  to  the  left,  Avhich  entirely  extricated  us  from 
them.  We  came  into  the  York  road  near  the  cross  roads,  and 
moved  slowly  down  toward  the  Billet,  in  hopes  to  take  some 
advantage  of  them  on  that  quarter,  where  they  must  least  ex- 
pect us,  but  we  found  they  retired  toward  the  city.  Our  peo- 
ple behaved  well ;  our  loss  is  upwards  of  thirty  killed  and 
wounded ;  some  were  butchered  in  a  manner  the  most  brutal 
savages  could  not  equal ;  even  while  living  some  were  throAvn 
into  buckwheat  straw,  and  the  straw  set  on  fire ;  the  clothes 
were  burnt  on  others,  and  scarcely  one  without  a  dozen  woimds 
Avith  bayonets  and  cutlasses.  Fifty-eight  are  missing.  Tlie 
enemy's  loss  is  not  known,  but  it  is  currently  reported  one  field 
officer  is  among  the  slain ;  we  took  three  of  their  horse,  five 
Tvere  left  dead  on  the  field,  the  riders  either  killed  or  wounded." 

May  2. — Among  the  slain,  near  the  Crooked  Billet,  yester- 
day, fell  the  gallant  Captain  John  Downey,  late  schoolmaster 
in  Philadelphia,  whose  Avorth  entitles  him  to  a 
place  in  the  annals  of  America.  He  took  an  ac- 
tiA'c  and  early  part  in  our  struggles  for  liberty.  He  Avent  as  a 
volunteer  to  Jersey  last  Avinter  Avas  a  year,  Avhere  he  behaved 
gallantly  in  the  battle  of  Trenton  and  Princeton.  He  being 
chosen  captain  of  a  company  of  Philadelphia  militia,  served 
his  tour  of  duty  two  months  last  summer  at  Billingsjiort,  when 
on  account  of  his  STiperior  knoAvledge  in  mathematics,  the  ex- 
ecutive council  employed  him  to  make  a  military  survey  of  the 
river  DelaAvare,  which  he  performed  with  great  exactness; 
since  Avhich  time  he  has  performed  many  A'ery  iinportant  ser- 
A'ices  to  his  country,  a  loA^e  to  Avhich  prompted  him  to  attempt 
any  thing  which  promised  its  Avclfiire.  He  lately  acted  as  an 
assistant-commissary,  and  in  this  capacity  Avas  Avitli  our  brave 

1778.]  TUE  FEEUCH  ALLI.VNCE.  43 

militia  iu  the  attack  yesterday.  From  his  known  readiness  to 
fight  and  bleed  for  his  country,  it  is  more  than  probable  that 
when  the  attack  began  he  attempted  to  join  his  countrymen, 
when  he  was  shot  through  the  shoulder,  and  that  he  lay  in  his 
blood  till  the  enemy  returned,  when  they  despatched  him  in  a 
cruel  manner ;  for  his  body  was  foimd  with  one  of  his  hands 
almost  cut  off,  his  head  slashed  in  several  places,  his  skull  cut 
through,  his  brains  coming  out  at  his  nose  and  scattered  all 
around.  He  was  an  enlightened  patriot,  an  affectionate  friend, 
a  gallant  soldier,  a  fond  husband,  and  an  indulgent  parent. 
He  had  no  inheritance  to  leave,  as  his  little  property  was  left 
in  PhiladeljAia ;  but  he  has  left  a  sorrowful  widow  and  five 
helpless  children  in  very  indigent  circumstances.  They  are 
worthy  of  the  notice  of  the  charitable.' 

Tnis  day,  Mr.  Simeon  Deane  arrived  at  Congress  express 
from  the  American  plenipotentiaries  ^  at  the  court  of  France, 
and  delivered  his  despatches   to   the   president.  The  Aiiifmce  with 
The  imj^ortant  contents  are,  by  a  correspondent,         France, 
thus  communicated  : 

"  Tlie  news  of  the  defeat  and  captivity  of  General  Bur- 
goyne  was  received  in  France  the  beginning  of  December, 
with  as  much  joy  as  if  a  victory  by  their  own  troops  had  been 
announced.  Our  plenipotentiaries  took  this  opportunity  again 
to  attract  the  attention  of  the  court  of  France  to  the  object  of 

'  New  York  Journal,  June  1. 

''  When  Dr.  Franklin  and  Silas  Deane  were  introduced  to  the  French  King  in 
the  quality  of  ambassadors  from  North  America,  they  went  in  elegant  coaches, 
attended  by  domestics  in  superb  French  hveries,  with  a  suite.  On  their  entrance 
into  the  court-yard,  martial  music  struck  up,  the  soldiers  were  under  arms,  aud  the 
French  flag  was  lowered  as  a  solemn  salute,  which  all  the  ofiRcers  accompanied. 
In  the  inner  part  of  the  palace  they  were  received  by  les  cent  Suisses,  the  major 
of  which  announced  '^  Zen  ambassatkttrs  dcs  treize  provinces  'unics,^"  i.  e.,  The 
ambassadors  from  the  "Thirteen  United  Provinces."  "When  they  were  ushered 
into  the  royal  presence,  the  college  of  Paris,  the  bishops,  the  nobility,  ministers, 
foreign  and  domestic,  and  ladies  arose  and  saluted  them.  Old  Franklin  was  ob- 
served to  weep,  but  the  Count  de  A^ergennes  relieved  the  confusion  of  the  philos- 
opher, by  waiving  certain  forms,  and  immediately  presenting  him  to  the  King, 
who,  i\  rAiir/laise,  took  the  ambassador  by  the  hand,  and  viewing  his  credentials, 
entered  directly  into  conversation. — Xcw  Yovl-  Journal,  July  6. 

44  DIAET    OF  THE   REVOLUTION.  [1778. 

their  negotiation.  On  the  16th,  Monsieur  Gerard,  royal  syndic 
of  Strasburgh,  and  secretary  of  his  Majesty's  Council  of  State, 
waited  on  our  plenipotentiaries,  and  informed  them,  by  order 
of  the  King,  '  That  after  long  and  full  consideration  of  our 
affairs  and  propositions  in  council,  it  was  decided,  and  his 
Majesty  was  determined  to  acknowledge  our  independence, 
and  make  a  treaty  with  us  of  amity  and  commerce ;  that  in 
the  treaty  no  advantage  would  be  taken  of  our  present  situa- 
tion to  obtain  terms  from  us  which  otherwise  would  not  be  con- 
venient for  us  to  agi'ee  to,  his  Majesty  desiring  that  the  treaty, 
once  made,  should  be  durable,  and  our  amity  subsist  forever, 
which  could  not  be  expected,  if  each  nation  did  not  find  its 
interest  in  the  continuance  as  well  as  in  the  commencement  of 
it.  It  was  therefore  his  intention  that  the  terms  of  the  treaty 
should  be  such  as  we  might  be  willing  to  agree  to  if  our  state 
had  been  long  established,  and  in  the  fulness  of  strength  and 
power,  and  such  as  we  should  approve  of  when  that  time 
should  come;  that  his  Majesty  was  fixed  in  his  determination 
not  only  to  acknowledge,  but  to  support  our  independence  by 
every  means  in  his  power ;  that  in  doing  this  he  might  probably 
be  soon  engaged  in  war,  with  all  the  expenses,  risk,  and  damage 
usually  attending  it ;  yet  he  should  not  expect  any  compensation 
from  us  on  that  account,  nor  pretend  that  he  acted  wholly  for 
our  sakes,  since,  besides  his  real  good-will  to  us  and  our  cause, 
it  was  manifestly  the  interest  of  France  that  the  power  of 
England  should  be  diminished  by  our  separation  from  it.  He 
should,  moreover,  not  so  much  as  insist,  that,  if  he  engaged  in 
a  war  with  England  on  our  account,  we  should  not  make  a 
separate  peace  for  ourselves,  whenever  good  and  advantageous 
terms  were  offered  to  us.  The  only  condition  he  woiild  require 
and  rely  on  would  be  this  :  Tltat  we,  in  no  peace  to  he  made 
loith  England,  should  give  tip  our  independence  and  return  to 
the  obedience  of  that  government!' 

"  That  upon  such  principles,  by  virtue  of  full  powers  by  the 
King  of  France,  to  Monsieur  Gerard,  royal  syndic  of  the  city 
of  Strasburgh,  and  secretary  of  his  Majesty's  Council  of  State, 
dated  the  30th  of  January,  1778,  this  minister,  with  oi;r  pleni- 
potentiaries, signed  at  Paris  on  the  Cth  of  February,  a  treaty 

1778.]  THE   FKEUCH    ALLIANCE.  45 

of  alliance  and  commerce  between  the  crown  of  France  and  the 
United  States  of  America,  almost  in  the  very  terms  in  which  the 
American  plenipotentiaries  had  been  instructed  by  Congress. 
In  the  treaty  of  alliance  the  following  articles  are  conspicuous  : 

"  Article  I.  If  war  should  break  out  between  France  and 
Great  Britain,  during  the  continuance  of  the  present  war  be- 
tween the  United  States  and  England,  his  Majesty  and  the 
United  States  shall  make  it  a  common  cause,  and  aid  each 
other  mutually  with  their  good  offices,  their  councils,  and  their 
forces,  according  to  the  exigence  of  conjunctures,  as  becomes 
good  and  faithful  allies. 

"  Article  II.  Tlie  essential  and  direct  end  of  the  present  de- 
fensive alliance  is,  to  maintain  effectually  the  liberty,  sovereign- 
ty, and  independence,  absolute  and  unlimited,  of  the  said  United 
States,  as  well  in  matters  of  government  as  of  commerce. 

"  Article  YI.  The  most  Christian  King  renounces  forever 
the  possession  of  the  island  of  Bermuda,  as  well  as  of  any  part 
of  the  continent  of  North  America,  which  before  the  treaty  of 
Paris,  in  17G3,  or  in  virtue  of  that  treaty,  were  acknowledged 
to  belong  to  the  crown  of  Great  Britain,  or  to  the  United  States, 
heretofore  called  British  Colonies,  or  M-hicli  are  at  this  time,  or 
have  lately  been,  under  the  power  of  the  King  and  crown  of 
Great  Britain." ' 

'  Pennsylvania  Gazette,  Postscript,  May  2.  "This,''  503-3  Rivington,  in  his 
Gazette  of  May  20tli,  "  may  be  looked  upon  as  the  masterpiece,  or  licystone  of  the 
arch  that  supports  that  system  of  lies  with  which  the  good  people  of  America 
have  been  gulled  and  deceived ;  but  the  foundation  is  rotten,  and  the  whole  fabric 
must  soon  fall  to  the  ground.  FranUlin  Unew  this,  and  makes  use  of  the  last 
effort  to  support  his  own  consequence.  But  the  deception  is  too  gross,  too  pal- 
pable almost  for  the  congress  itself.  They  have  only  ventured  to  publish  in  an 
indirect  manner,  three  of  the  most  conspicuous  articles,  by  which,  supposing  them 
to  be  really  genuine,  France  engages  to  do  nothing.  She  renounces  the  possession 
of  a  country  to  which  she  docs  not  pretend  to  have  the  least  claim.  She  will 
also  be  very  glad  to  see  the  independency  of  America  established,  and  enjoy  a 
share  of  its  trade,  provided  it  can  be  done  without  hurting  the  little  finger  of  one 
of  her  own  subjects.  And  if  ever  she  should  be  engaged  in  a  war  with  England, 
she  will  then  join  her  rcbeUious  subjects,  and  give  them  all  the  aid  in  her  power. 
0  wonderful !  But  there  is  wanted  no  ghost,  nor  a  Simeon  Deane  to  tell  us  this ! 
The  truth  is,  the  leaders  of  rebellion  are  alarmed  for  their  own  safety  ;  they  see 
peace  and  happiness  held  out  to  the  people  in  the  clearest  and  most  unreserved 
terms ;  but  for  themselves  there  is  no  retreat,  only  what  must  ultimately  end  in 
infamy  and  disgrace." 

46  DIAEY  OF  THE  EEVOLUTION.  [1778. 

Tlie  treaty  of  commerce  stands  upon  the  broad  basis  of 
equality ;  and  considering  the  established  great  po'sver  of  France, 
and  the  infancy  of  the  United  States,  is  an  act  without  parallel. 
In  a  word,  the  sentiments  delivered  on  the  16th  of  December 
by  Monsieur  Gerard,  by  order  of  the  King  of  France,  are  sen- 
timents rarely  entertained  by  princes,  and  which,  together  with 
these  equal  treaties,  must  rank  him,  not  only  among  the  great- 
est monarchs  of  France,  but  in  history. 

These  important  advices  were  brought  in  the  Le  Sensible, 
M.  Marignie  commander,  a  royal  frigate  of  France,  of  twenty- 
eight  twelve-pounders,  and  three  hundred  men.  She  left  Brest 
on  the  eighth  of  March,  and,  after  a  passage  of  thirty-five 
days,  arrived  at  Casco  Bay,  from  whence  she  sailed  on  her 
return,  after  two  days'  stay  to  take  in  water. 

Of  this  extraordinary  publication,  says  the  editor  of  the 
Pennsylvania  Ledger,  we  doubt  not  but  oiir  readers  will  think 

Tory  Eemarks  on  ^^  '"'®  ^'^ ^^^^^  ^^  ^^''^"^'*^  g°0"^^  rCaSOU  tO  SUSpCCt  it 

the  Alliance,  ^g^  what  many  former  publications  from  the  same 
quarter  certainly  have  been,  a  seasonaMe  piece  of  tnisrepreseii- 
tation.  Tliere  is  an  art,  well  known  by  these  adepts,  of  mix- 
ing truth  and  falsehood,  or  of  conveying  falsehood  in  the  vehi- 
cle of  truth. 

The  hasty  resolution  of  Congress  to  reject  all  possible  oft'ers 
of  accommodation  with  Great  Britain,  was  found  to  alarm  the 
people,  who  must  be  supposed  to  prefer  a  re-imion  with  the 
mother  country,  on  the  generous  terms  proposed,  before  any 
romantic  and  hazardous  scheme  of  ambition  whatever.  It 
was,  therefore,  necessary  to  pacify  the  popular  alarm,  and  en- 
deavor to  reconcile  vis  to  the  idea  of  a  ruinous  connection  with 
France,  by  representing  the  terms  of  that  connection  in  a  flat- 
tering light.  However,  supposing  this  to  be  a  true  and  faith- 
ful account,  it  certainly  ought  the  more  to  alai-m  every  true 
friend  to  the  future  peace  ai^d  prosperity  of  America.  Surely 
we  have  reason  to  distrust  the  restless  and  enterprising  S2:)irit 
of  France,  and  of  those  other  commercial  powers  who  are  said 
to  favor  the  project  of  American  independency  !  And,  if  the 
French  King  has  agreed  to  such  a  treaty  as  this,  of  which, 
however,  a  samjjlc  only  is  given  us,  we  must  be  madly  cred- 

177S.]  TUE   FRENCH   ALLIAKCE.  47 

\ilous  indeed  if  we  believe  it  proceeds  from  any  otlier  motives 
than,  at  all  events,  to  prevent  our  enjoying  now  the  benefits  of 
a  happy  reconciliation,  and  with  a  view,  when  the  times  will 
bear  it,  to  bring  us  into  such  a  state  of  domestic  expense  and 
foreign  dependence,  as  must  make  us  forever  repent  our  folly 
in  not  having  embraced  the  opportunity,  now  presented,  of 
securing  our  civil  and  religious  freedom,  peace,  and  safety, 
against  the  arts  or  violence  of  all  the  world,  by  a  cordial  re- 
union with  our  mother  country  ! 

Is  it  possible  that  we  can  now  wish  for  a  final  separation 
from  Britain,  the  ancient  and  chief  support  of  the  Protestant  re- 
ligion in  the  world,  for  the  sake  of  upholding  a  little  longer, 
at  the  expense  of  our  lives  and  fortmies,  the  arbitrary  power 
of  that  Congress,  ■who  mthoi;t  even  asking  our  consent,  have 
disposed  of  us,  have  mortgaged  us  like  vassals  and  slaves,  by 
refusing  to  treat  with  Britain,  and  by  entering  into  a  treaty 
with  that  ambitious  and  treacherous  power,  whose  religious 
and  political  maxims  have  so  often  disturbed  the  peace  and  in- 
vaded the  rights  of  mankind  ?  Tlie  Congress  have  wonderfully 
altered  their  tone  of  late.  The  time  was  when  the  bare  tolera- 
tion of  the  Homan  Catholic  religion  in  Canada,  though  stipu- 
lated for  by  articles  of  capitulation,  was  treated  as  a  wicked 
attempt  to  establish  "  a  sanguinary  faith,  which  had  for  ages 
filled  the  world  with  blood  and  slaughter !  "  But  now  the 
Congress  are  willing  to  make  lis  the  instruments  of  Aveakening 
the  best  friends,  and  of  strengthening  the  most  powerful  and 
ambitious  enemies  of  the  Eeformation  to  such  a  degree  as  must 
do  more  than  all  the  world  besides  could  do,  towards  the 
universal  re-establishment  of  Popery  through  all  Christen- 
dom. It  will  be  said  that  the  French  are  no  longer  such  a 
bigoted  people  as  they  were  in  the  day  of  the  St.  Bartholomew 
massacre,  and  that  we  need  not  fear  imbibing  any  improper 
sentiments  from  her  maxims  of  religion  or  government.  Tliat 
France  is  not  so  blindly  bigoted  to  her  religious  faith  as  former- 
ly, we  readily  gi-ant — indeed,  her  religion  is  little  more  at  this 
day  than  an  outside  show  to  cover  a  general  infidelity ;  but 
there  is,  for  this  very  reason,  the  more  cause  to  fear  and  dis- 
trust her  views,  as  the  less  real  religion  she  has  at  heart,  the 

48  DIAEY   OF   THE   REVOLUTION.  [1778. 

moi'e  "will  slie  be  disposed  to  encourage  the  political  tenets  of 
the  Clnircli  of  Eome,  on  account  of  the  advantages  they  afford 
to  her  ambition,  in  the  pious  work  of  enslaving  mankind.  As 
to  Spain,  the  confederated  ally  of  France,  Ave  know  how  zeal- 
ously she  continues  to  support  the  horrid  authority  of  an  in- 
quisition for  the  same  reasons.  Judge,  then,  what  we  have  to 
hope  or  expect  from  such  an  alliance !  We  not  only  run  a 
manifest  risk  of  becoming  slaves  ourselves,  under  the  treach- 
erous title  of  independency,  but  we  are  doing  every  thing  in 
our  power  to  overturn  the  Protestant  religion,  and  extinguish 
every  spark,  both  of  civil  and  religious  freedom,  in  the  world ! 
These  sentiments,  no  doubt,  will  be  ridiculed  by  those  who  are 
interested  in  supporting  the  measures  of  Congress ;  but  they 
surely  demand  the  serious  attention  of  every  disinterested 
friend  of  this  country,  and  of  every  man  who  wishes  well  to 
the  rights  of  humanity  and  conscience  in  every  part  of  the 

Hay  5. — Tnis  afternoon,  the  Commander-in-chief  issued, 
from  head-quarters  at  Valley  Forge,  the  following  after  or- 
The  Alliance  witii  ^^^^  '•     ^^  having  pleased  the  Almighty  Euler  of 

Trance.  ^|jg  Univcrse,  propitiously  to  defend  the  cause  of 
the  United  American  States,  and  finally,  by  raising  up  a  pow- 
erful friend  among  the  Princes  of  the  Earth,  to  establish  our 
Liberty  and  Independence  upon  lasting  foundations — it  be- 
comes us  to  set  apart  a  day  for  gratefully  acknowledging  the 
divine  goodness  and  celebrating  the  important  event  which  we 
owe  to  his  benign  interposition. 

Tlie  several  brigades  are  to  be  assembled  for  this  purpose, 
at  nine  o'clock  to-morrow  morning,  when  their  chaplains  will 
communicate  the  intelligence  in  the  postscrijDt  to  the  Pennsyl- 
vania Gazette  of  the  second  instant,  and  offer  up  a  thanksgiv- 
ing, and  deliver  a  discourse  suitable  to  the  occasion. 

At  half  after  ten  o'clock  a  cannon  will  be  fired,  which  is  to 
be  a  signal  for  the  men  to  be  under  arms. 

The  brigade  inspectors  will  then  inspect  their  dress  and 

'  Pennsylvania  Ledger,  May  13. 

1778.]  THE   ALLIANCE    CELEBRATED.  id 

amis,  form  the  battalions  according  to  instructions  given  them, 
and  announce  to  the  commanduig  officers  of  brigades  that  the 
battalions  are  formed. 

Tlie  brigadiers  will  then  appoint  the  field  officers  to  com- 
mand the  battalions,  after  -which  each  battalion  will  be  ordered 
to  load  and  ground  their  arms.  At  half-past  eleven  another 
cannon  will  be  fired  as  a  signal  for  the  march,  upon  which  the 
several  brigades  will  begin  their  march  by  wheeling  to  the 
right  by  platoons,  and  proceed  by  the  nearest  way  to  the  left 
of  their  ground,  in  the  new  position  that  will  be  pointed  out  by 
the  brigade  inspectors.  A  third  signal  will  be  given,  upon 
wliich  there  will  be  a  discharge  of  thirteen  cannon ;  when  the 
thirteenth  has  fired,  a  running  fire  of  the  infantry  will  begin 
on  the  right  of  Woodford's,  and  continue  throughout  the  whole 
front  line ;  it  will  be  then  taken  up  on  the  left  of  the  second 
line,  and  continue  to  the  right.  Upon  a  signal  given  the  whole 
army  will  Huzza, !  long  live  the  King  of  France  ! 

Tlie  artillery  then  begins  again,  and  fires  thirteen  rounds. 
This  will  be  succeeded  by  second  general  discharge  of  mus- 
ketry in  a  running  fire — Huzza  !  long  live  the  friendly  Euro- 
pean powers  !  Then  the  last  discharge  of  thirteen  pieces  of 
artillery  will  be  given,  followed  by  a  general  running  fire — 
Huzza  for  the  American  States  ! ' 

May  6. — Agreeably  to  the  special  orders  issued  yesterday 
at  head-quarters,  the  alliance  has  been  splendidly  celebrated. 
A  wi-iter  gives  the  following  mimite  account  of  the  festivities, 
in  a  familiar  letter  to  a  friend : 

"  How  often  have  you  told  me  that  a  man  of  my  contem- 
plative turn,  so  fond  of  the  shades  of  retirement  and  the  endear- 
ments of  domestic  life,  could  find  but  little  fell-  TheAuunce 
city  amidst  the  uncontrollable  vicissitudes  of  war.  celebrated. 
You  did  not  recollect  that  there  is  in  nature  a  principle  much 
stronger  than  the  passion  for  ease,  and  more  powerful  than  the 
incitements  to  pleasure,  which  operates  like  the  strength  of  a 
Samson  in  drawing  us  from  our  retirements,  and  breaking 

'  New  Jersey  Gazette,  May  13. 

50  DIABT   OF   THE   EETOLUTION.  [1T78. 

asunder  the  silken  cords  of  oiir  Helens  or  Delilalis.  I  laave 
long  since  discovered  that  pleasures  of  the  most  agreeable  kind 
may  be  found  even  in  the  bustle  of  a  camp.  AVhat  do  you 
think,  my  dear  friend,  does  the  soldier  feel,  in  reviewing  the 
dangers  he  has  passed — in  planning  or  executing  the  overthrow 
of  tyranny — or  celebrating  the  exploits  of  heroes  ?  And  what 
spectacle  can  you  imagine  more  splendid,  than  an  army  of  free- 
men drawn  up,  within  hearing  of  their  enemy,  to  celebrate  the 
ackowledgment  of  our  independence,  and  alliance  with  the 
first  monarch  in  the  world  ;  and  whom  can  you  conceive  more 
happy  than  those  who  have  borne  no  inconsiderable  part  in 
the  struggles  and  adversities  that  served  to  produce  an  event 
so  favorable  to  the  interests  of  mankind  ?  I  wished  for  you 
more  than  once,  during  our  feu  de  joie,  to  have  shared  with 
me  in  the  festivity  of  the  day.  It  Avoiild  have  given  you  new 
ideas  of  military  pleasures,  and  helped  the  poem  on  oiir  inde- 
pendence, which  you  have  promised,  to  some  elegant  strokes 
of  the  epic.  Heretofore  we  have  celebrated  the  day  in  which 
a  prince  was  vested  with  the  poAver  to  kill  and  enslave  us ;  but 
this  was  the  day  of  rejoicing  at  the  interment  of  tyranny,  and 
the  coronation  of  American  Independence. 

"  After  the  chaplains  had  finished  their  discourses,  and  the 
second  cannon  was  fired,  the  troops  began  their  march  to  the 
lines  in  the  following  order  : — Each  major-general  conducted 
the  first  brigade  of  his  command  to  the  ground  ;  the  other  bri- 
gades were  conducted  by  their  commanding  officers  in  separate 
columns.  Major-General  Lord  Stirling  commanded  on  the 
right,  the  Marquis  De  La  Fayette  on  the  left,  and  the  Baron 
De  Kalb  the  second  line.  But  this  ai*rangement  can  convey 
no  adequate  idea  of  their  movements  to  their  several  posts — of 
the  appearance  of  his  excellency  during  his  circuit  roimd  the 
lines — of  the  air  of  our  soldiers — the  cleanliness  of  their  dress 
— the  lirilliancy  and  good  order  of  their  arms,  and  the  remark- 
able animation  with  which  they  performed  the  necessary  salute 
as  the  general  passed  along.  Indeed,  during  the  whole  of  the 
review,  the  utmost  military  decorum  was  preserved,  while  at 
the  same  time  one  might  observe  the  hearts  of  the  soldiery 
struggling  to  express  their  feelings  in  a  way  more  agreeable  to 

1778.]  TirE   ALLIANCE   CELEEKATED.  51 

''  Tlie  Commander-in-chief,  his  suite ;  the  Marquis  Dc  La 
Fayette,  his  train ;  Lord  Stirling,  General  Greene,  and  the 
other  principal  officers,  who  had  joined  his  excellency,  having 
finished  the  review,  retired  to  the  centre  of  the  encampment, 
to  a  kind  »f  amphitheatre,  which  had  been  fonned  to  entertain 
the  officers  of  the  army,  who  were  invited  to  partake  of  a  col- 
lation with  his  excellency,  after  the  feu  dejoie. 

"  On  firing  of  the  third  signal  gun,  the  feu  de  joie  com- 
menced. It  was  conducted  with  great  judgment  and  regu- 
larity. The  gradual  progression  of  the  sound  from  the  discharge 
of  cannon  and  musketry,  swelling  and  rebounding  from  the 
neighboring  hills,  and  gently  sweeping  along  the  Schuylkill, 
with  the  intermingled  huzzas — ^to  long  live  the  King  of  France 
— long  live  the  friendly  European  powers,  and  long  live  the 
American  States,  composed  a  military  music  more  agreeable 
to  a  soldier's  ear  than  the  most  finished  pieces  of  your  favorite 

"  T\ie  feu  dejoie  being  over,  and  the  troops  marched  back  to 
their  different  quarters,  the  officers  came  forward  to  the  enter- 
tainment provided  by  his  excellency.  But  I  must  not  pass 
over  the  description  of  their  order  of  march. 

"  Some  of  the  ancients  were  not  more  attached  to  their  mys- 
tical figures  than  many  of  the  moderns.  We  of  America  have 
our  number  tiiikteen.  The  oflicers  approached  the  place  of 
entertainment  in  difi'erent  columns,  thirteen  abreast,  and  closely 
linked  together  in  each  other's  arms.  Tlie  appearance  was 
pretty  enough.  The  number  of  officers  composing  each  line, 
signified  the  Tliirteen  American  States ;  and  the  interweaving 
of  arms  a  complete  union  and  most  perfect  confederation. 

"  The  amphitheatre  looked  elegant.  The  outer  seats  for  the 
officers  were  covered  with  tent  canvas  stretched  out  upon  poles ; 
and  the  tables  in  the  centre  shaded  by  elegant  markees,  raised 
high,  and  arranged  in  a  very  striking  and  agreeable  style.  An 
excellent  band  of  music  attended  during  the  entertainment ; 
but  the  feast  was  still  more  animating  by  the  discourse  and 
behavior  of  his  excellency  to  the  officers,  and  the  gentlemen 
in  the  country  (many  of  them  our  old  Philadelphia  acquaint- 
ances) who  were  present  on  this  occasion.     Mrs.  Washington, 

52  DIAEY   OF   THE   EEVOLtTTION.  [1778. 

the  Countess  of  Stirling,  Lady  Kitty  her  daughter,  Mrs.  Greene, 
and  a  number  of  other  ladies,  favored  the  feast  with  their  com- 
pany, amongst  whom  good  humor  and  the  graces  were  con- 
tending for  the  pre-eminence.  Tlie  wine  circulated  in  the  most 
genial  manner — to  the  King  of  France — the  friendly  European 
powers — the  American  States — the  Honorable  Congress,  and 
other  toasts  of  a  similar  nature,  descriptive  of  the  spirit  of 

"  About  six  o'clock  in  the  evening  the  company  broke  up, 
and  his  excellency  returned  to  head-quarters.  Tlie  French 
gentlemen  of  rank  and  distinction  seemed  peculiarly  pleased 
with  this  public  approbation  of  our  alliance  with  their  nation. 
The  general  himself  wore  a  countenance  of  uncommon  delight 
and  complacence.  I  wish  that  you,  who  are  so  great  an  adept 
in  preserving  the  expressions  of  nature,  had  been  here  to  have 
done  justice  to  him  and  the  army.  Tlie  latter,  in  particular, 
never  looked  so  well,  nor  in  such  good  order,  since  the  begin- 
ning of  the  war.  And  here  I  cannot  forbear  mentioning  a  little 
anecdote  that  I  am  told  happened  during  the  review.  An 
officer  was  called  to  one  side  in  order  to  know  what  was  to  be 
done  with  a  spy  Mdio  was  making  observations  on  the  army. 
But  the  officer  coolly  observed  to  the  gentleman  who  gave  the 
information,  that  he  thought  it  best  to  take  no  further  notice 
of  the  spy,  but  suffer  him  to  return  to  his  employers,  as  they 
must  feel  more  pain  from  his  account  of  the  army,  than  grief 
on  hearing  of  his  detection  and  death. 

"  ■\Vliat  may  be  reckoned  somewhat  remarkable,  not  one  ac- 
cident happened  to  lessen  or  disturb  the  joy  of  the  day;  and 
the  whole  was  closed  by  the  officers  returning  to  the  duties  of 
their  several  stations  M'ith  hearts  filled  with  the  warmest  sen- 
sations to  the  great  cause  of  their  rejoicings."  ' 

May  19. — Yesterday  the  British  army,  anxious  to  give  Sir 

William  Howe  the  most  public  and  splendid  testimony  of  the 

The         ^"?^^^  esteem  they  entertain  of  him  as  a  general, 

Mischianza.      j^j^^j  ^f  ^]^g  affcctiou  and  attachment  which  his 

popular  conduct  has  secured  to  him  from  all  ranks,  both  of 

'  Kew  York  Journal,  June  15. 

1778.]  THE   MISCHIAI>ZA.  53 

officers  and  men,  prepared  a  magnificent  entertainment  to 
grace  liis  departure  from  Philadelphia.  It  consisted  of  a 
variety  of  parts,  and  was  therefore  called  the  MISCHIANZA. 
Tlie  admission  tickets  were  decorated  with  a  sun  just  verging 
towards  the  horizon,  with  this  inscription,  Luces  descedens 
aucto  spJendore  resurgam.  On  the  lower  part  of  the  shield 
was  the  sea — at  top  the  general's  crest,  with  the  words  Vive, 
vale,  and  at  the  bottom  and  all  round,  different  military 
trophies.  Tlie  fete  began  at  four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  by  a 
grand  procession  on  the  Delaware,  consisting  of  three  divisions 
— a  galley  and  ten  flat-boats  in  each  division.  In  the  centre 
division  was  the  Hussar  galley,  with  the  general,  the  admiral, 
General  Sir  Henry  Clinton,  and  the  ladies  of  their  party.  Tliree 
flat-boats,  with  bands  of  music  in  each,  led  the  procession. 

They  set  out  from  Knight's  wharf  at  a  signal  from  the  Vigi- 
lant, and  proceeded  till  they  arrived  off  the  Market  Place,  where 
the  Fanny  armed  ship  was  drawn  off  into  the  stream,  and 
beautifully  decorated  with  a  variety  of  colors.  Here  they  lay 
on  their  oars  while  the  music  played  "  God  save  the  King." 
Tliey  then  proceeded  to  the  Old  Fort,  where  a  landing  place 
was  prepared,  and  as  soon  as  the  general  landed  he  was  saluted 
with  nineteen  guns  from  the  Eoebuck,  and  the  same  number 
from  the  Vigilant.  Tlie  company,  as  they  cjuitted  the  boats, 
formed  themselves  into  a  line  of  procession,  and  advanced  be- 
tween two  flies  of  grenadiers  till  they  came  to  a  square  of  four 
hundred  yards  on  every  side,  railed  in  and  prepared  for  the 
tournament.  In  front  of  the  square  was  Sir  Harry  Colder's 
house,  appearing  through  two  triumphal  arches,  erected,  one  in 
honor  of  Lord  Howe,  the  other  of  Sir  William.  Two  sofas, 
in  form  of  amphitheatres,  formed  the  advanced  wings  of  one 
of  these  arches.  On  these  the  ladies  took  their  places,  advanc- 
ing to  them  through  the  centre  of  the  square.  On  the  lowest 
seat  of  each  were  seven  young  ladies  dressed  in  the  Asiatic 
habits,  and  wearing  the  different  colors  of  the  kniglits  who 
chose  them  for  their  damsels.  Here  the  tournament  com- 
menced, when  the  elegance  and  richness  of  the  different  dresses 
of  the  knights  and  squires,  their  horses'  trappings  and  capari- 
sons, the  taste  displayed  in  their  mottoes  and  devices,  the 

5i  DIAET   OF   THE   EEVOLUTION.  [1778. 

various  evolutions  and  feats  of  arms  tliey  performed,  exhibited 
altogether  a  spectacle  as  new,  as  it  surpassed  the  most  sanguine 
expectations  of  the  beholders.  As  soon  as  the  tournament 
ended,  the  knights  and  squires,  two  and  two,  moved  through 
the  first  triumphal  arch,  which  was  decorated  with  naval  orna- 
ments. At  the  top  was  the  statue  of  l^eptime  with  his  tri- 
dent ;  in  the  interior  were  the  attributes  of  that  god,  and  in  a 
niche  on  each  side  stood  a  sailor  with  his  sword  drawn ;  on  the 
two  wings  were  plumes  of  feathers,  with  this  description  on  the 
entablature,  Laus  illi  debetur,  et  alme  gratia  major.  An 
avenue  of  three  hundred  yards  iu  length,  and  thirty-five  in 
breadth,  lined  with  troops,  and  decorated  with  the  colors  of  the 
difi"erent  regiments,  planted  at  proper  distances,  led  to  the  sec- 
ond triumphal  arch.  Between  these  colors  the  knights  Avith 
their  attendants  ranged  themselves,  and  the  company,  preceded 
by  all  the  music  of  the  army,  advanced  in  procession.  Tliey 
were  led  into  the  house  through  the  second  arch,  erected  in 
honor  of  the  general.  Tliis  arch  was  of  the  Tuscan  order ;  on 
the  pediment  was  Fame  with  her  trumpet ;  in  the  interior  was 
a  plume  of  feathers,  and  military  trophies,  and  on  the  entabla- 
ture, 7",  hone,  quo  virtus  vocat  tiia,  I pede  fausto.  The  house 
within  side  was  painted  in  a  light  elegant  style,  with  festoons, 
and  several  emblematical  figures ;  mirrors,  girandoles  and  chan- 
deliers, decorated  with  wreaths  of  diff'erent  colored  gauze, 
adorned  the  walls.  Tlie  company  were  entertained  with  tea 
and  refreshments,  and  then  danced  till  half  after  ten  o'clock ; 
the  windows  being  then  suddenly  thrown  open,  a  grand  and 
beautiful  display  of  fireworks  was  exhibited. 

Towards  the  conclusion,  the  triumphal  arch  next  the  house 
appeared  magnificently  illuminated,  and  Fame  blcAV  from  her 
trumpet  in  letters  of  light,  "  Tliy  laurels  shall  never  fade." 

After  the  fireworks  the  company  sat  down  to  a  supper  con- 
sisting of  a  thousand  and  twenty-four  dishes,  in  a  magnificent 
apartment  built  for  the  occasion,  decorated  in  the  same  style 
and  elegance  as  the  rooms  in  the  house.  Tlie  herald  of  the 
hlended  rose,  in  his  robes  of  ceremony,  announced  by  sound  of 
trumpet  the  King's  health  ;  the  Queen  and  Royal  Family ;  the 
Army  and  Navy,  and  their  respective  commanders ;  the  La- 

1778.]  TIIE   MISCHIAIfZA.  55 

dies.  A  salute  of  music  and  three  cheers  graced  each  of  tliese 
toasts.  After  supper  tlie  company  returned  to  the  ball  room, 
and  at  four  o'clock  they  all  withdrew. 

Tlie  following  lines  were  intended  to  have  been  delivered 
by  the  herald,  (after  the  knights  had  approached  the  pavilion 
in  which  were  the  general  and  the  ladies,)  holding  a  laiirel 
wreath  in  his  hand,  with  the  following  inscription ;  but,  in  del- 
icacy to  the  general,  they  were  suppressed  : 

Mars,  conquest-plum'' d,  the  Cyprian  Queen  disarms, 
And  victors  vanquished  yield  to  beauty's  charms. 

[He  hangs  the  crown  on  the  front  of  the  pavilion,  and  proceeds.^ 

Here  then  the  laurel — here  the  palm  we  yield, 

And  all  the  glories  of  the  tilted  field ; 

Here,  Whites  and  Blacks,  -n-ith  blended  homage  pay, 

To  each  device  the  honors  of  the  day. 

Hard  were  the  task,  and  impious  to  decide. 

Where  both  are  fairest,  which  the  fairer  side. 

Enough  for  us,  if  by  such  sports  we  strove 

To  deck  this  feast  of  military  love, 

And,  joining  in  the  wish  of  ev'ry  heart, 

Honor'd  the  friend  and  leader,  ere  we  part. 

When  great  in  arras,  our  brave  forefathers  rose, 
And  loos'd  the  British  lion  on  his  foes ; 
When  the  fall'n  Gauls,  then  perjur'd  too  and  base, 
The  faithless  fathers  of  a  faithless  race, 
First  to  attack,  tho'  still  the  first  to  yield. 
Shrunk  from  their  rage  on  Poictiers'  laurell'd  field ; 
Oft,  while  grim  war  suspended  his  alarms. 
The  gallant  bands  with  mimic  deeds  of  arms, 
Thus,  to  some  fav'rite  chief  the  feast  decreed, 
And  deck'd  the  tilting  knight,  th'  encount'ring  steed, 
In  manly  sports,  that  servM  but  to  inspire 
Contempt  of  death,  and  feed  the  martial  fire ; 
The  lists  beheld  them  celebrate  his  name, 
Who  led  their  steps  to  victory  and  fame, 
Thro'  ev'ry  rank  the  grateful  ardor  ran. 
All  fear'd  the  chieftain— but  all  lov'd  the  man, 
And  fir'd  with  the  soul  of  this  bright  day. 
All  paid  to  Sal'sh'ky  what  to  Howe  WE  pay. 

Shame  to  the  envious  slave  that  dares  bemoan 
Their  sons  degen'rate,  or  their  spirits  flown. 

56  DIAET   OF  THE   EEVOLUTION.  [1778. 

Let  the  madd'ning  faction  drive  this  guilty  land, 
With  their  worst  foes,  to  form  th'  unnat'ral  baud ; 
In  TON  brave  crowd,  old  British  courage  glows 
Unconquer'd — growing  as  the  danger  grows. 
With  hearts  as  bold  as  e'er  their  father's  bore 
Their  country  they'll  avenge,  her  fame  restore. 
Rous'd  to  the  charge,  methinks  I  hear  them  cry, 
Revenge  and  glory  spurkling  in  each  eye, 
"  Chain'd  to  our  arms,  while  Howe  the  battle  led. 
Still  round  these  files  her  wings  shall  conquest  spread; 
Lov'd,  the'  he  goes,  the  spirit  stUl  remains, 
That  with  him  bore  us  o'er  these  trembling  plains. 
On  Hudson's '  bank  the  sure  presage  we  read, 
Of  other  triumphs  to  our  arms  decreed; 
Nor  fear  but  equal  honors  shall  repay 
Each  hardy  deed  where  Clinton  points  the  way." " 

May  20. — Br  two  deserters  just  come  into  New  York  from 
Fishkill,  we  are  informed  that  there  are  two  regiments  of  New 
Affairs  at  Fishkiii  Englanders  at  that  place.  "WTien  the  draughts 
Hew  York.  '  ^f  ^he  bills'  got  among  them,  they  laid  down 
their  arms ;  but  after  being  treated  with  a  roasted  ox  and 
plenty  of  rum,  they  took  them  up  again  ;  yet  they  refuse  to 
work  on  the  West  Point  Fort,  saying  it  is  a  trap  laid  for  them 
by  General  Washington.  The  militia  at  Fishkiii  were  some 
time  ago  put  in  three  classes,  each  to  work  at  the  fort  by  turns ; 
aboiit  twenty-two  of  the  first  turned  out,  biit  none  of  the  second 
and  third.  The  young  men  have  almost  all  left  that  place,  and 
are  secreted  in  different  parts  of  the  country,  or  come  or  coming 
to  New  York.  The  above  was  reported  by  one  of  them  lately 
at  Tarrytown  ;  those  of  pi'operty  give  one  hundred  dollars  and 
upwards  to  such  as  will  attend  a  fortnight  for  them.  About 
three  weeks  ago  there  were  not  a  hundred  men  at  the  West 
Point ;  General  M'Dougal  is  at  the  village  above  Peekskill ; 
Colonel  Graham  commands  one  or  two  regiments  at  Tarry- 
town  ;  Colonel  Hammond  one  at  the  White  Plains.  Tltey 
have  likewise  some  militia,  the  mmibers  of  either  not  known. 

Since  the  conciliatory  offers  were  published,  the  friends  to 

"  Alluding  to  the  North  JRivcr  expedition. 

'  Pennsylvania  Ledger,  May  2:3.  '  The  Conciliatory  Bills. 

1778.]  AFFAIRS   AT   FISHKILL.  57 

government  have  been  and  are  handled  more  severely  than 
ever.  At  Northcastle,  and  other  parts,  if  they  are  not  soon 
relieved,  they  expect  to  he  extirpated.  TIao  reports  circulated 
in  the  country  are,  that  France  and  Spain  have  declared  war 
against  England  ;  that  all  the  troops  are  called  home ;  that 
Emmerick '  had  left  Kingsbridge  some  days  ago,  and  that 
neitlier  King  nor  Parliament  conld  raise  either  more  men  or 
more  money.  These  things  they  believe,  or  pretend  to  believe, 
and  treat  the  poor  Tories  accordingly.  It  is  not  certain  that 
the  above  is  the  real  disposition  of  their  force,  but  it  is  gen- 
erally reported  and  believed  to  be  such.  Tliey  have  procured 
no  volunteers  for  a  long  time  past. 

About  the  middle  of  April  last,  one  "Williams  went  out  of 
'New  York,  in  order  to  bring  down,  if  possible,  his  wife  and  a 
numerous  and  destitute  family  of  young  children,  who  were 
siifiering  for  the  want  of  the  necessaries  of  life  in  some  part  of 
Northcastle.  He  was  apprehended  (at  an  honest  farmer's 
house  where  he  had  just  stopped  to  refresh  himself)  by  a 
party  of  twenty-two  of  the  rebels,  after  he  had  got  within  a 
few  miles  of  his  suffering  family.  He  frankly  told  them  he 
came  from  New  York,  and  the  urgent  business  he  was  upon, 
and  told  them  that  now  he  looked  upon  himself  as  their  pris- 
oner, and  delivered  himself  up  accordmgly.  They  suspected 
him  for  a  horse-stealer,  as  they  pretended,  and  with  ropes  and 
theii-  garters  tied  him  fast  to  a  place  convenient  for  their  pur- 
pose, and  withoiit  allowing  him  to  speak  one  word  in  his  OAvn 
defence,  every  one  of  the  party  discharged  the  contents  of 
their  muskets  through  his  body.  Not  yet  satiated,  they  made 
the  man  who  received  him  the  object  of  their  cruelty,  and  he 
only  received  him  from  a  principle  of  hospitality,  because  he 
saw  he  was  worn  out  with  fatigue.  With  the  same  ropes 
and  garters  they  fixed  him  to  four  horses,  in  order  to  quarter 
him  ;  but  luckily  for  him,  this  scene  shocked  one  of  the  party 
so  powerfully  that  he  prevented  the  rest  of  the  tragedy  from 
being  acted.^ 

Commander  of  the  Chasseurs,  see  page  499,  vol. 
Eivington's  Gazette,  May  20. 

58  DIAEY   OF  THE   EEVOLUTION.  [1778. 

Mat  20. — A  coeeespondent  writes  as  follows :  Tlie  con- 
ciliatory bill  is  not  foimded  on  any  secret  negotiation  wliatever. 
The  Conciliatory  '^^'^  noblc  pepson  wlio  introduced  it '  formed  it 
^'"-  upon  the  state  of  the  nation,  and  the  situation  of 
the  times.  Though  the  resources  of  war  are  far  from  Leing  im- 
possible to  be  got,  there  would  be  no  prudence  in  squandering 
millions  on  the  mere  punctilio  of  a  right  to  tax  a  country  in- 
capable of  furnishing  a  revenue  adequate  to  the  expense  of 
the  force  necessary  to  raise  it.  Besides,  how  can  war  go  on 
with  spirit  or  success,  when  the  wheels  of  executive  govern- 
ment are  clogged  by  the  opposition.  By  taking  their  groimd, 
the  minister  has  defeated  their  views,  and  has  left  America 
without  excuse,  should  she  refuse  to  listen  to  the  offers  of  the 
representatives  of  the  nation.  Tlie  acts,  however,  though 
breathing  peace,  are  not  meant  to  suspend  war.  On  the  con- 
trary, every  nerve  of  the  state  is  to  be  exerted,  in  order  to 
force  an  acquiescence  to  the  terms  proposed.  Should  the 
Americans  continue  obstinate,  a  time  is  limited  for  the  expira- 
tion of  offers,  which  are,  perhaps,  too  favorable  to  rebels,  and 
then  they  nrast  abide  by  such  terms  as  the  clemency  of  the 
victors  shall  bestow  on  the  vanqTiished." 

May  31. — Last  week,  a  party  of  British  troops,  from  Ehode 
Island,  made  a  descent  upon  the  towns  of  Bristol  and  War- 
Attempt  to  Burn  ^'^^)  ^^^  ^^^^^  plundering  and  destroying  all  they 
Tiverton.  eould  lay  their  hands  on,  they  made  a  hasty  re- 
treat. Tliis  morning,  about  daybreak,  another  party  from  the 
same  place,  consisting  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  men,  under  the 
command  of  Major  Eyre,  landed  at  the  mouth  of  Fall  Kiver, 
with  a  design  to  burn  Tiverton  and  the  mills.  Tliey  set  fire  to 
the  lower  mill,  and  a  house  that  stood  on  the  shore ;  but  the 
town,  and  upper  mills,  by  the  vigilance  of  the  inhabitants,  were 
saved.  Apprised  of  the  enemy's  intention,  they  took  up  the 
bridge,  and  posted  themselves  behind  a  wall  that  commanded 
it,  from  whence  they  kept  up  so  brisk  a  fire,  that  after  an  en- 
gagement of  nearly  an  liour  and  a  half,  the  enemy  were  com- 

'  Lord  North.  '  Rivington's  Gazette,  Mny  30. 

1778.]  MAJOE   EYKE   AT   TIVEETON.  59 

pelled  to  retire,  leaving  behind  them  one  killed  and  another 
mortally  wonnded.  Five  muskets  and  as  many  hats  have  since 
been  found,  and  from  every  circumstance  it  appears  that  their 
loss  -was  considerable.  The  militia  turned  out  with  great  alac- 
rity, and  repaired  to  the  place  of  action  ;  but  the  precipitate 
retreat  of  the  enemy  deprived  those  spirited  fellows  of  an  op- 
portunity to  revenge  the  injuries  they  have  repeatedly  received, 
and  of  treating  the  detestable  conflagrators  as  they  justly  de- 

The  enemy's  boats  and  shipping,  in  passing  down  the  river, 
received  considerable  annoyance  from  the  American  fort  on 
Bristol  Neck.  A  galley  that  came  up  to  cover  them  from  the 
well-directed  fire  of  the  fort,  was  driven  on  the  Ehode  Island 
shore,  and  the  men  were  obliged  to  abandon  her ;  a  sloop  that 
attempted  to  assist  hei-  shared  the  same  fate.  The  Americans 
had  not  a  man  killed  or  wounded." 

'  New  Hampshire  Gazette,  June  16.  A  writer  in  the  British  army  gives  the 
following  account  of  these  excursions: — "The  general  having  received  certain 
intelligence  that  the  rebels  were  collecting  their  boats  with  a  probable  intention 
of  disturbing  our  quiet,  last  Saturday  sent  the  galleys  and  flat-boats  up  the  river, 
and  the  next  day  the  22d  regiment,  light  companies  and  chasseurs,  under  the 
command  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Campbell,  marched  out  of  town.  The  night  was 
rainy,  and  I  expected  but  little  from  this  movement,  but  in  the  morning  I  was 
agreeably  disappointed ;  the  roar  of  cannon  and  columns  of  smoke  soon  convinced 
me,  that  the  rod  of  correction  was  judiciously  applied  to  the  backs  of  the  rebels. 
I  hastened  out  of  town  to  be  a  spectator  of  this  scene;  and  I  assure  you  it 
was  grand  and  solemn  beyond  description.  The  fire  of  the  musketry,  the  blaze 
of  houses  and  vessels,  the  explosions  of  magazines,  with  pillars  of  smoke  as- 
cending like  pyramids  into  the  air,  to  a  person  not  used  to  the  desolating  scenes 
of  war,  was  not  a  Httle  affecting;  and  believe  me,  my  friend,  nothing  could  have 
supported  me,  under  so  distressing  a  transaction,  but  a  consciousness  of  the  ex- 
pediency and  necessity  of  the  measure.  The  conquering  troops  returned  about 
twelve  o'clock  that  day,  having  performed  a  march  of  at  least  fifty  miles,  and 
burnt  one  hundred  and  fifty  boats,  mostly  large,  two  magazines,  a  large  privateer, 
a  galley,  a  number  of  carriages  and  other  stores,  with  about  thirty  houses  in  the 
towns  of  Bristol  and  Warren.  A  fine  galley  belonging  to  the  rebels  was  taken  at 
the  same  time  by  the  boats  from  the  ships,  and  brought  off  with  her  captain,  and 
about  thirteen  rebel  prisoners.  In  short,  the  business  they  went  upon  was  com- 
pletely accomplished ;  does  honor  to  the  officers  and  men,  and  is  of  the  highest 
importance  to  government.  About  eight  of  our  men  were  wounded,  and  Lieu- 
tenant Hamilton  of  the  22d,  but  happily  none  dangerous.  Last  evening  we  had 
another  expedition  up  Fall  River,  with  one  hundred  men,  under  Major  Eyre,  de- 

60  DIAKY    OF   THE   EEVOLUTION.  [1778. 

A  WEiTEE  in  New  York  offers  the  following  appeal  to  the 
loyal  inhabitants  of  America : 

My  honest  counteyjien  :■ — ^I  presume  j'on  have,  for  the 
most  part,  read  such  articles  of  a  treaty  between  France  and 
An  Appeal  to  the  ^^^  Congress,  as  the  latter  have  been  pleased  to 

Tories.  publish  ;  and  I  doubt  not  you  have  read  them 
with  that  virtuous  indignation  which  must  burn  in  every  loyal 
breast.  The  declaration  delivered  by  the  French  ambassador 
to  our  court,  fully  evinces  the  duplicity  of  conduct  which  has 
ever  characterized  that  nation,  and  which  our  unhappy  and 
deluded  countrymen  have,  for  four  long  years,  invariably  pur- 
sued. "We  are  now  arrived  at  a  period  of  time  which  we  be- 
fore could  not  have  thought  in  the  power  of  fate  to  bring  about. 
We  have  lived  to  see  the  offspring  of  Britain  leagued  in  solemn 
alliance  with  her  most  inveterate  foe.  I  blush  while  I  think 
of  it.  I  blush  that  the  soil  from  whence  I  sprung  should  have 
given  birth  to  such  unnatural  feuds,  and  that  the  sons  of 
America  should  hold  out  the  hand  of  friendship  to  ambitious 
France,  while  they  are  plunging  their  swords  into  their  parent's 

In  this  situation,  we,  her  true-born  children,  enjoy  the 
heartfelt  satisfaction  of  having  uniformly  opj^osed,  as  far  as 
was  in  our  power,  the  rise  and  progress  of  rebellious  folly ;  and 
our  sufferings  display  our  virtue.  The  Congress  have  again 
rejected  the  mild  and  equitable  terms  of  peace  held  out  to  them 
by  Parliament,  and  have  resolved  to  proceed  in  the  footsteps 
of  blood,  and  the  ruin  of  us  all.  It  now  becomes  our  duty  to 
exert  ourselves  with  an  intrepidity  of  soul  that  will  in  the  end 
pull  down  their  high-blown  pride.  Britain  is  prepared  to  meet 
her  enemies ;  her  fleets  are  numerous — her  armies  disciplined, 
and  bravely  determined  for  the  conflict.  We,  the  friends  to 
her  government,  are  many  in  every  province ;  we  have  tasted 
the  sweets  of  it,  and  felt  the  pangs  inflicted  by  usurpers.  "We 
must  now  lend  a  more  helping  hand  than  ever.     You,  wlio 

stroyed  two  or  three  saw  and  grist  mills,  three  and  four  houses  and  stores,  a  quantity 
of  boards,  &c.  The  troops  returned  in  the  morning,  having  two  men  Icillod  and 
seven  or  eight  wounded,  amongst  whom  is  Lieutenant  Goldsmith  of  the  54th." — 
lihinffton's  Gazette,  June  6. 

1T78.]  AN   APPEAL   TO   THE   TORIES.  61 

still  groan  under  their  tyranny,  I  am  certain  will  not  be  back- 
ward. I  have  exj^erienced  your  distresses,  and  I  feel  for  yon. 
Your  counsels  and  assistance,  however,  as  far  as  circumstances 
will  admit,  must  not  be  wanting.  To  you  who  are  driven  from 
your  once  happy  habitations  by  cruel  persecution,  little  argu- 
ment is  necessary  to  urge  you  to  every  exertion.  Forced  from 
your  families,  your  connections,  and  your  property,  you  have 
here  found  a  peaceful  asylum.  The  soldiers  of  your  King  afford 
you  that  protection  which  was  denied  you  by  your  inexorable 
neighbors.  Tlie  calamity  which  has  fallen  upon  you  is  very 
great,  but  the  noble  conviction  of  having  acted  an  honest  part, 
is  far  greater.  You  withstood  the  torrent  with  manly  forti- 
tude, till,  overpowered  by  its  force,  yoii  have  been  obliged  to 
fly  before  it.  Your  loyalty  is  acknowledged,  and  your  perse- 
verance will  insure  success. 

My  fellow-citizens  claim  their  share  of  merit.  Yoii  saw,  at 
the  first,  rebellion  rearing  its  head,  and  you  endeavored  to  lop 
it  off.  You  stood  firm  in  opposition  to  the  measures  pursued 
by  the  Congress,  while  every  other  city  upon  the  continer.t  was 
agreeing  to  their  resolves.  But  unsupported  at  that  time,  yoii 
were  obliged  to  yield.  The  imprisonment  and  captivity  of  your 
persons — the  destriiction  of  your  dwellings  and  your  effects, 
and  the  long  train  of  evils  consequent  upon  them,  conspire  to 
raise  in  your  breasts  a  jiistifiable  revenge.  Our  King,  our  coun- 
try, and  constitutional  government,  are  the  causes  which  impel 
all  of  us  to  action,  and  every  lover  of  theni  will  lend  his  aid  in 
their  siipport.  Let  rebels  seek  unnatural  alliance  with  perfid- 
ious Frenchmen !  We  boast  a  natural  one  with  the  brave,  the 
generous  Britons,  founded  upon  the  ties  of  consanguinity,  and 
a  reciprocity  oi  language,  of  manners,  and  of  religion/ 

I  will  not  point  out  to  you  the  dismal  consequences  which 
would  ensue  to  themselves,  as  well  as  to  us,  should  these  blind- 
folded people  obtain  the  independency  they  wish  for,  because 
I  have  not  an  idea  of  their  establishing  it.  Every  one  who  is 
acquainted  with  our  strength,  and  their  weakness,  must  know 
they  cannot.  Let  not  the  war  bo  protracted.  Every  day  it 
continues,  injures  our  country.  It  is  not  sufficient  that  we 
stand  prepared  to  repel  an  attack,  it  is  necessary  that  we  should 

62  DIARY   OF   TUE    KEVOLrXIO?^.  [1T7S. 

assist  in  some  other  way.  A  subscription  for  a  bounty  to  be 
added  to  Avhat  is  now  allowed  to  recruits,  would  induce  many 
more  to  enlist  than  do  at  present ;  and  such  subscription,  I  am 
certain,  would  be  very  considerable  in  this  and  the  other  places 
which  are  possessed  by  the  King's  troops. 

Nothing  further  need  be  urged ;  your  generosity  has  been 
experienced  upon  other  occasions,  and  certainly  will  on  this. 
On  this  your  safety,  perhaps  your  very  existence,  depends,  for 
you  must  look  to  Heaven- — -to  the  magnanimity  of  Britain,  and 
to  your  o^vn  public  spirit,  for  a  return  of  that  peace,  security, 
and  happiness  you  once  enjoyed  above  every  other  people  on 

June  5. — ^The  last  accounts  from  Philadelphia  are,  that  the 
transports  with  the  baggage  have  fallen  down  the  river — that 
the  British  have  begun  to  destroy  some  of  their  outworks — 
that  they  have  broken  off  the  trunnions  of  the  heavy  cannon 
which  arc  not  put  on  board,  and  that  the  whole  army  is  or- 
dered to  be  in  readiness  to  march  at  a  minute's  warning. 

A  flag  came  out  from  the  city  yesterday,  with  a  packet  for 
Congress,  containing  the  acts  for  appointing  commissioners 
Arrival  of  the  ^"^^  otlier  purposcs.  Tlic  Commissioners  are  Lord 
Commissioners,  Carlisle,  Govcruor  Johnston,  and  William  Eden, 
Esquire.  There  was  also  a  letter  from  General  Clinton  to  his 
Excellency  General  Washington,  proposing  an  exchange  of  the 
prisoners  who  are  in  Philadelphia,  the  others  to  remain  until 
a  cartel  is  settled.  The  British  officer  informed  General  Lee, 
who  received  him,  that  the  British  intended  to  leave  Philadel- 
phia soon,  and  that  he  had  permission  to  mention  it. 

Tlie  commissioners  mentioned  in  the  above  arrived  at  Phil- 
adelphia on  Sunday  morning  last.  Lord  Cornwallis  also  ar- 
rived at  the  same  time,  but  without  troops.' 

June  17. — Tms  day  the  Congress  agreed  to  an  answer  to 
the  letters  and  inclosurcs  sent  to  them  by  the  commissioners 

"  A  Citizen,"  in  Rivington's  Gazette,  June  6. 

Extract  of  a  letter  from  Valley  Forge,  in  the  New  Jersey  Gazette,  June  10. 


lately  arrived  at  Pliiladelpliia,  to  treat  of  reconciliation,  of 
wliieli  the  following  is  an  extract :  '• — ■"  Tlie  acts  of  the  British 
Parliament,  the  commission  from  your  sovereign,  Congress'  Eepiy  to 
and  your  letter,  suppose  the  people  of  these  "'^"^°"™'^'™""- 
States  to  be  subjects  of  the  crown  of  Great  Britain,  and  are 
founded  on  the  idea  of  dependence,  which  is  utterly  inadmis- 
sible. I  am  further  directed  to  inform  your  excellencies,^  that 
Congress  are  inclined  to  peace,  notwithstanding  the  unjust 
claims  from  which  this  war  originated,  and  the  savage  manner 
in  which  it  hath  been  conducted.  They  will  therefore  be  ready 
to  enter  upon  the  consideration  of  a  treaty  of  peace  and  com- 
merce, not  inconsistent  with  treaties  already  subsisting,  when 
the  King  of  Great  Britain  shall  demonstrate  a  sincere  dis- 
position for  that  purpose.  The  only  solid  -proof  of  this  dis- 
■position  will  he  an  explicit  acknowledgment  of  the  independence 
of  these  States,  or  the  tvithdrawing  his  fleets  and  armies.''''  ^ 

Last  Saturday  night,  about  eleven  o'clock,  a  small  party  of 
rebels,  from  Jersey,  landed  at  New  Utrecht,  on  Long  Island,  and 
immediately  proceeded  to  Flatbush,  where  several  j^^^^  ^^^  ^jsif 
gentlemen  of  New  York  have  country  houses.  riatbush. 
The  rebels,  being  well  informed  of  this  circumstance,  and 
joined  and  led  on  by  one  of  the  rebel  officers  named  Forrest, 
who  was  on  parole  there,  and  who  deserted  with  them,  being 
assisted  by  many  of  the  rebel  officers  then  also  on  their  parole, 
and  residing  at  Flatbush,  who,  it  appears,  had  intelligence  of 
their  coming,  divided  themselves  into  three  parties,  and  sur- 
rounded the  houses  of  Major  l^Ioncrieffe,  David  Mathews,  Es- 
quire, mayor  of  the  city,  and  Mr.  Tlieophylact  Bache ;  finding 

'  Letter  of  Governor  Livingston. 

^  The  answer  was  drawn  by  a  committee,  and  sent  with  the  signature  of  the 

'  Broadsides,  v.  i.,  p.  30,  and  Gordon,  ii.  366.  Smythe,  in  his  Diary  for  July  1, 
in  noting  this  decision  of  the  Congress,  says,  "What  next?  That  school  of  im- 
pudence and  ingratitude,  the  Congress,  even  refuse  to  listen  to  the  proposals  of 
the  commissioners,  and  say,  'till  the  British  fleets  and  armies  be  withdrawn,  we 
will  not  treat.'  Clinton  soon  will  bring  them  to  their  senses,  by  hanging  the 
leaders  higher  than  Haman's  top-knot,  and  setting  the  dupes  on  the  stoniest  stools 
of  repentance." 


easy  access  into  tlie  houses  of  the  major  and  Mr.  Bache,  they 
surprised  them  both  before  they  had  the  least  suspicion  of  dan- 
ger. They  were  civil  to  the  major,  but  at  Mr.  Bache's  they  be- 
haved in  their  usual  savage  style ;  they  gave  Mrs.  Baelie  seve- 
ral blows  on  her  entreating  them  not  to  use  her  husband  ill ; 
wounded  one  of  the  female  servants  with  their  bayonets,  plun- 
dered the  house  of  the  plate  they  could  find,  and  dragged  away 
Mr.  Bache  without  giving  him  time  to  put  on  his  clothes. 
They  were  not  so  successful  at  the  mayor's,  who  seemed  to 
have  been  their  principal  object.  From  an  apprehension  tliat 
the  rebels  Avould  embrace  the  first  opportunity  of  taking  him, 
and  being  suspicious  that  such  an  opportunity  might  possibly 
happen,  he  had  taken  care  that  his  doors  and  windows  shoidd  be 
well  secured,  and  never  opened  at  night  on  any  pretence,  until 
it  should  be  well  known  within  who  were  without.  Tlie  first 
tap  at  the  door,  which  was  in  a  seeming  friendly  manner, 
alarmed  Mr.  Mathews,  who  instantly  concluded  they  were  a 
party  come  to  take  him,  and  without  the  least  inquiry,  took 
such  a  post,  that,  although  they  should  force  in  below,  it  would 
require  a  considerable  time  to  gain  the  place  where  he  had  fixed 
himself,  and  where  he  was  resolved  to  have  lost  his  life  rather 
than  be  carried  off.  He  at  the  same  time  ordered  one  of  his 
blacks  to  an  upper  window  and  endeavor  to  alarm  the  inhabit- 
ants. The  loud  cry  of  murder  from  the  black  was  the  first  in- 
telligence tlie  rebels  had  of  their  being  suspected,  upon  which 
they  began  a  most  furious  attack  on  the  door  with  the  butts  of 
tlieir  muskets,  and  threatening  destruction  to  the  whole  family 
unless  they  were  immediately  let  in ;  but  finding  their  threats 
were  of  no  service,  the  alarm  still  kept  up  by  the  servants,  and 
one  or  two  of  their  muskets  being  broke,  and  no  impression 
made  on  the  door,  they  then  attacked  the  windows,  which  for 
a  long  time  withstood  their  efforts,  but  at  length  one  of  the 
windows  gave  way,  which  aflTorded  sufficient  room  for  their 
entrance.  The  cry  of  the  servant  awakened  a  negro  belonging 
to  Mr.  Chief  Justice  Horsmanden,  living  in  the  neighborhood, 
who  discovered  what  was  going  forward  at  the  instant  the 
rebels  were  entering  the  mayor's  window,  and  immediately  re- 
collecting tliat  he  had  a  musket  in  the  house,  ran  out  and  fired 


it,  wliicli  so  terrified  these  sliabby  cord-svainers,  that  they  in- 
stantly fled  with  the  greatest  precii^itation,  carrying  off  with 
them  the  major  and  Mr.  Bache. 

Messrs.  Miles  Sherbrooke,  and  Angnstns  Van  Cortlandt, 
were  also  to  have  been  taken  off,  had  they  not  been  alarmed 
by  the  Ethiopian's  fire.  Immediately  on  the  intelligence  being 
received  at  Brooklyn,  where  Colonel  Cockburn  commanded. 
Captain  Drew,  with  a  detachment  from  the  35th  regiment, 
marched  to  Flatbiish,  and,  highly  to  his  honor,  arrived  there 
much  sooner  than  could  possibly  have  been  expected,  but  the 
wonted  speed  of  the  rebels  saved  them  to  Jtr/ht  another  da>j.' 

A  coEEEsroNDENT  iu  Loudon  observes  the  contest  with 
America  to  be  somcAvhat  like  the  game  of  All  Fours.  Eng- 
land deals,  America  begs,  England  refuses  and  deals  on.  This 
strengthens  America's  hand,  who,  in  the  course  of  play,  takes 
England's  Jack  (John  Burgoyne)  and  several  of  her  tens. 
Afterward  England  begs,  and  America  in  her  turn  refuses, 
who,  only  wanting  three  to  be  np,  reckons  highest,  Jack  and 
Game — England  is  lowest.'' 

June  19.- — The  British  arms  having  proved  ineffectual  to 
subdue  America,  the  arts  of  negotiation  are  now  to  be  tried. 
What  confidence  we  ouofht  to  place  in  the  com-  „....,, 

o  1  British  Evacuate 

missioners,  the  following  fact  will  show : — On  the  Pi'i'sdeiphia. 
30th  of  November,  1776,  Lord  Howe  and  General  Howe,  com- 
missioners under  the  British  tyrant,  publish.ed  a  proclamation, 
offering  pardon  to  every  one,  without  exception,  who  would 
comply  with  its  terms.  In  a  letter  of  the  same  date,  and  in- 
closing the  same  proclamation  to  Lord  George  Germaine,  after 
apologizing  for  so  apparently  lenient  a  measure,  they  say  "  ex- 
ceptions from  his  Majesty's  pardon,  as  well  as  any  prolonga- 
tion of  the  time  within  which  a  pardon  may  be  obtained,  will 
be  a  matter  of  future  consideration,  according  to  the  circum- 
stances that  may  arise."  If  any  infidel  Tory  discredits  this  re- 
cent proof  of  British  perfidy  and  baseness,  by  looking  into  the 

'  Rivington's  (Jazette,  June  17.  '  New  York  Journal,  September  7. 

Vol.  II.— 5 

(iO  DIARY    OF   THE   EETOLUTION.  [1778. 

Parliamentary  Eeglster,  number  forty-eiglit,  and  mimber  six 
of  the  fourth  session  of  the  present  Parliament,  he  will  find  the 
letter,  among  others,  laid  before  the  House  of  Lords. 

Tlie  British  army,  early  yesterday  morning,  completed  their 
cA^acuation  of  Philadelphia,  having  before  transported  their 
stores  and  most  of  their  artillery  into  Jersey,  -where  they  had 
thrown  up  some  works,  and  several  of  their  regiments  were 
encamped.  Tliey  manned  the  lines  the  preceding  night,  and 
retreating  over  the  commons,  crossed  at  Gloucester  Point.'  It 
is  supposed  they  will  endeavor  to  go  to  New  York.  A  party 
of  the  American  light  horse  pursued  them  very  close,  and  took 
a  great  number  of  prisoners,  some  of  whom  were  refugees. 
Soon  after  the  evaciiation,  the  Honorable  Major-Gen eral  Ar- 
nold took  possession  of  Philadelpliia,  Avitli  Colonel  Jackson's 
Massachusetts  regiment." 

June  29. — His  Excellency  General  "Washington,  having 
early  intelligence  of  the  intended  movement  of  the  enemy  from 

Battle  of  Philadelphia,  detached  a  considerable  body  of 
Monmouth,  troops  uudcr  the  command  of  Major-General  Lee, 
in  order  to  support  General  Maxwell's  brigade  of  continental 
troops  already  in  New  Jersey,  and  the  militia  under  Generals 
Dickinson  and  Heard.  These  troops  were  intended  to  harass 
the  enemy  on  their  march  through  the  State  to  Amboy,  and 
retard  them  till  General  "Washington,  with  the  main  body,  could 
get  up.  La  the  mean  time  several  small  skirmishes  happened 
between  the  enemy  and  General  Maxwell's  troops,  joined  by  the 
militia,  but  without  any  considerable  execution  on  either  side. 

The  march  of  the  enemy  being  by  this  means  imi^eded,  and 
the  main  army  having  crossed  the  Delaware  at  Coryell's  ferry 
on  the  20th  and  21st  ultimo,  proceeded  by  the  Avay  of  Hope- 
well, Kocky  Hill,  Kingston,  and '  Cranbury,  and  on  the  27th 
overtook  the  enemy  at  Monmouth  Court  House,  whither  they 
retired  from  Allentown  on  the  approach  of  our  troops,  leaving 
their  intended  route  to  Amboy. 

'  Gloucester  Point  is  in  New  Jersey,  on  the  Delaware,  .about  three  miles  below 
Camden.  "  Pennsylvania  Evening  Post,  June  20. 

1778.]  BATTLE    OF    MONMOUTIF.  67 

It  having  been  previously  determined  to  attack  tlie  enemy 
on  their  march,  a  suitable  disposition  was  made  the  same  even- 
ing. General  Lee,  with  a  detachment  of  picked  men,  consist- 
ing of  about  fifteen  hundred,  and  reinforced  by  a  strong  body 
of  Jersey  militia,  advanced  to  English  Town,  (about  six  miles 
from  Monmouth  Court  House ; )  the  militia  then  proceeded  to 
the  meeting-house,  the  main  army,  under  General  Washington, 
being  about  four  miles  in  the  rear  of  English  Town.  In  this 
position  the  whole  halted  until  advice  could  be  received  of  the 
enemy's  motion. 

At  three  o'clock  yesterday  (Sunday)  morning,  their  first 
division,  under  General  Knyphausen,  began  their  march,  of 
which  we  had  intelligence  in  about  two  hours,  when  General 
Lee  had  orders  to  advance  and  begin  the  attack,  the  mai)i  army 
at  the  same  time  advancing  to  support  him.  About  half  a  mile 
beyond  the  Court  House,  General  Lee  began  his  attack,  and 
drove  the  enemy  for  some  time,  when  they  being  reinforced, 
he  was  obliged  to  retreat  in  turn,  till  met  by  General  Washing- 
ton with  the  main  army,  which  formed  on  the  first  advantage- 
ous ground.  In  the  mean  time  two  field-pieces,  covered  by 
two  regiments  of  the  detachment,  and  commanded  by  Colonels 
Livingston  and  Stewart,  were  advanced  to  check  the  enemy's 
approach,  which  they  performed  with  great  spiiit  and  con- 
siderable loss  on  both  sides.  Tliis  service  being  performed, 
they  retired  with  the  pieces  to  the  front  line,  then  completely 
formed,  when  the  severest  cannonade  began  tliat  it  is  thought 
ever  happened  in  America.  In  the  mean  time,  strong  detach- 
ments marched  and  attacked  the  enemy  with  small  arms,  with 
various  success.  Tlie  enemy  were  finally  obliged  to  give  way, 
and  we  took  possession  of  the  field  covered  with  dead  and 
wounded.  The  intense  lieat  of  the  weather,  and  the  preceding 
fatigue  of  the  troops,  made  it  necessary  to  halt  them  to  rest  for 
some  time ; '  the  enemy,  in  the  mean  time,  presenting  a  front 

'  The  heat  of  the  weather  proved  fatal  to  many  in  both  armies.  A  corre- 
spondent in  a  letter  to  London,  says,  "  A  major-general,  high  in  command,  lost 
three  horses  during  the  engagement  from  the  intense  heat  of  the  weather,  the 
thermometer  having  been  at  the  astonishing  height  of  ninety-two." — Upcott,  v. 

68  DIAEY   OF   THE   EEVOLUTIOX.  [1778. 

about  one  mile  advanced  beyond  the  seat  of  action.  As  soon 
as  the  troops  had  recovered  breath,  General  "Washington  or- 
dered two  brigades  to  advance  upon  each  of  their  flanks,  in- 
tending to  move  on  in  front  at  a  proper  time  to  support  tliem, 
but  before  they  could  reach  their  destination,  night  came  on, 
and  made  any  further  movements  impracticable. 

The  British  left  on  the  field  the  Honorable  Colonel  Monckton 
with  several  other  ofliccrs,  and  a  great  number  of  privates,  which 
cannot  yet  be  ascertained  with  precision.  About  twelve  o'clock 
last  night  they  moved  otf  with  great  pi-ecipitation,  towards 
Middletown,  leaving  at  the  Court  House  five  wounded  officers, 
and  above  forty  privates.  Tliey  began  the  attack  with  their 
veteran  grenadiers  and  light  infantry,  which  renders  their  loss 
still  more  important.  On  our  side  Lieutenant-Colonel  Bon- 
ner, of  Pennsylvania,  and  Major  Dickinson,  of  Virginia,  are 
slain.  Colonel  Barber,"  of  New  Jersey,  is  wounded  by  a  mus- 
ket ball,  which  passed  through  the  right  of  his  body  ;  but  it  is 
hoped  will  not  prove  mortal.  Our  troops  behaved  with  the 
greatest  bravery,  and  opposed  the  fiower  of  tlie  British  aiTay. 
Our  artillery  was  well  served,  and  did  amazing  execution.  Be- 
fore, during,  and  after  the  action,  deserters  came  over  to  us  in 
great  numbers,  and  still  continue  so  to  do.  Of  the  enemy's 
dead  many  have  been  found  without  any  wound,  but  being 
heavily  clothed,  they  sank  under  the  lieat  and  fatigue.  We 
are  well  assured  the  Hessians  absolutely  refused  to  engage, 
declaring  it  was  too  hot.  Tlieir  line  of  march  from  the  Court 
House  was  strewed  with  dead,  with  arms,  knapsacks,  and 
accoutrements,  which  they  dropped  on  their  retreat.  Tliey 
had  the  day  before  taken  about  fifteen  prisoners,  whom  in  their 
haste  they  left  behind.  Had  we  been  possessed  of  a  powerful 
body  of  cavalry  on  the  field,  there  is  no  doubt  the  success 
would  have  been  much  more  complete,  but  they  had  been 
employed  in  harassing  the  enemy  during  the  march,  and 
were  so  detached,  as  to  give  the  enemy  a  great  superiority  in 
number,  much  to  their  advantage.  Our  success,  under  Heaven, 
is  to  be  wholly  ascribed  to  the  good  disposition  made  by  his 

'  Francis  Barber. 

1778.]  EETEEAT   FKOJI   MONMOUTH.  69 

excellency,  supported  by  tlie  firmness  and  bravery  of  both, 
officers  and  men,  wlio  were  emulous  to  distinguisb  themselves 
on  this  occasion.  The  great  advance  of  the  enemy  on  their 
way,  their  possession  of  the  strong  grounds  at  Middletown, 
added  to  the  exhausted  state  of  our  troops,  made  an  immediate 
pursuit  ineligible ;  and  the  American  army  now  remains  about 
one  mile  advanced  from  the  field  of  battle,  having  been  since 
employed  in  collecting  the  dead  and  wounded,  and  burying 
the  former.' 

June  30. — ^This  evening,  the  party  despatched  yesterday  by 
his  excellency  to  observe  the  motions  of  the  enemy,  returned 
to  camp.  They  report  that  the  enemy  have  con-  Retreat 
tinned  their  march  very  precipitately.  The  roads  ^""^  Monmouth. 
are  strewn  with  knapsacks,  firelocks,  and  other  implements  of 
war.  On  the  night  of  their  retreat,  they  moved  oft'  the  field  so 
silently,  that  our  outposts  did  not  discover  their  absence  until 

'  New  York  Journal,  July  13.  Gaine  gives  the  following  account  of  this  ac- 
tion : — "  On  Sunda)'  morning,  the  28th  instant,  the  rear  of  the  royal  army,  under 
the  command  of  General  Sir  Henry  Clinton,  was  attacked  by  the  rebel  army,  com- 
manded by  Generals  Washington,  Lee,  Gates,  Wayne,  and  La  Fayette,  about  one 
mile  and  a  half  west  of  Freehold  Court  House,  in  Monmouth  county.  New  Jersey, 
when  the  grenadiers,  light  infantry,  and  Queen's  Rangers  distinguished  themselves 
in  a  particular  manner,  having  opposed  the  whole  of  Mr.  Washington's  army  and 
pursued  them  several  miles.     Their  loss  we  know  not,  but  it  is  said  to  be  great. 

"  The  following  officers  are  amongst  the  killed,  in  the  royal  army  : — Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Monckton  and  Captain  John  Gore  of  the  5th.*  The  wounded  are,  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Trelawney  of  the  Guards  ;  Lieutenant-Colonel  Abercrombie,  37th  ; 
Major  William  Gardner,  10th ;  C-aptain  Andrew  Cathcart,  15th ;  Captain  William 
Brereton,  l^th;  Captain  Harry  Ditmass,  15th;  Captain  Baldwin  Leighton,  46th; 
Lieutenant  Mungo  Paumier,  do.;  Lieutenant  Disborough  of  the  marines;  Captain 
John  Powell,  52d ;  Captain  Thomas  Wills,  23d;  Lieutenant  Patrick  Belley,  Guards ; 
Captain  Stephenson,  Queen's  Rangers,  (before  the  action ;)  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Simcoe,  Queen's  Rangers ;  Captain  Lloyd,  46th ;  Lieutenant  Kennedy,  44th.  We 
are  informed  that  the  following  is  an  exact  return  of  the  loss  of  the  royal  army : 
killed,  110;  wounded,  172;  missing,  50;  total  338. 

"  It  is  certain  the  rebels  have  not  suffered  so  heavy  a  loss  as  on  this  occasion,  in 
any  engagement  since  their  defeat  on  Long  Island." — New  York  Gazette,  July  0. 

*  A  private  letter  from  an  olTicer  in  the  guards  to  his  friend  in  London,  mentions,  that  in 
the  affair  between  the  American  rebels  and  tlio  royal  army  on  the  2Sth  of  June,  General  Clinton 
behaved  with  the  greatest  coolness  and  intrepidity ;  that  his  manoeuvres  were  highly  capital, 
but  that  he  narrowly  missed  bein?:  killed  hy  a  musket  ball,  which  passed  within  a  few  Inches 
of  his  head  and  knocked  down  a  sergeant  who  stood  near  him. —  Upcoft,  v.  1-13 


late  in  the  morning.     To-day  they  are  at  Sandy  Hook,  from 
whence  it  Is  expected  they  will  soon  remove  to  New  York.' 

Tims  (says  a  correspondent)  the  enemy  have  had  two  cam- 
paigns to  march  from  New  York  to  Philadelphia,  and  back 
again,  with  the  diminution  of  at  least  half  his  amiy.  How 
much  cheaper  might  his  Britannic  Majesty  buy  sheep  and  oxen 
in  England,  in  the  usual  manner,  than  he  now  gets  them,  by 
employing  an  army  to  steal  them  in  America ! '' 

July  11. — Early  this  afternoon,  his  Excellency  Monsieur 
Gerard,  ambassador  from  his  Most  Christian  Majesty  to  the 
Gerard  at  United  Statcs,  arrived  at  Philadelphia.  He  was 
Philadelphia,  accompanied  from  Chester  to  an  elegant  apart- 
ment provided  for  him  in  Market  Street,  by  a  committee  of 
Congress,  appointed  for  that  purpose.  On  his  entrance  into  the 
city,  he  was  saluted  by  Colonel  Proctor's  artillery.  It  is  im- 
possible to  describe  the  joy  that  appeared  in  every  good  man's 
countenance  on  this  auspicious  event.  His  excellency  came  in 
a  frigate,  part  of  a  fleet  of  twelve  ships  of  the  line  from  Toi^lon, 
mider  the  command  of  Coimt  D'Estaing.^ 

July  13. — General  Wasiiingtox's  army  is  now  encamped 
at  Elizabethtown,  Newark,  Hackensack,  etc.,  in  New  Jersey ; 
and  the  following  regiments  are  at  the  White  Plains,  viz. :  Put- 
nam's, "Webb's,  Enos',  Mieg's,  Sheldon's,  Nixon's,  Sherbiirn's, 

"  Carver,  ii.  31.  Smythe,  ia  his  diary,  November  8,  says:  "This  afternoon  a 
party  of  our  horse  brouglit  in  two  rebel  privates  from  Powles  Hook.  One  of  them 
is  very  intelligent  and  communicative ;  but  the  other  is  the  most  vrhimsical  tony 
I  ever  have  seen.  Wherever  he  goes,  he  carries  witli  him  a  large  gray  cat, 
wliich  he  says  came  into  the  rebel  camp  on  the  night  after  the  battle  at  Freehold 
Mecting-House,  and  which  he  first  discovered  lapping  a  spot  of  dry  blood  on  his 
sleeve,  as  he  lay  on  his  arms  expecting  another  dash  at  the  British.  Ilis  affection 
for  the  cat  is  as  wonderful  as  hers  is  for  him,  for  they  are  inseparable.  He  says 
if  we  don't  allow  him  extra  rations  for  his  cat,  he  shall  be  obliged  to  allow  them 
out  of  his  own." 

-  New  York  Journal,  July  13. 

'  TJpcott,  V.  189.  The  afternoon  of  the  same  day,  D'Estaing  arrived  off 
Sandy  Hook,  but  being  unable  to  cross  the  bar,  on  the  2'2d,  at  the  solicitation  of 
General  Washington,  he  sailed  for  Rhode  Island,  to  co-operate  with  the  land  forces 
under  General  Sullivan. 


Graliam's,  and  "Willis's,  witli  some  light  horse.  They  occiipy 
the  groTind  on  which  General  IIoavc  engaged  General  Wash- 
ington in  the  j^ear  1776,  and  are  commanded  by  Generals  Gates, 
McDougall,  Parsons,  and  two  other  brigadier-generals.' 

July  20. — Dueing  the  past  week  many  of  the  distressed 
refugees  from  the  Wyoming  settlement  on  the  Snsqnehannah, 
who  escaped  the  general  massacre  of  the  inhabit-  ^^^  Wyoming 
ants,  have  passed  through  Poughkeepsic,  in  Xew  Massacre. 
York.  From  them  we  have  collected  the  following  account, 
viz. : — Previous  to  the  narrative,  it  may  be  necessary  to  inform 
some  of  our  readers,  that  this  settlement  was  made  by  the 
people  of  Connecticnt,  on  a  grant  of  lands  piircliased  by  the 
inhabitants  of  that  colony,  nnder  sanction  of  the  government, 
of  the  Indian  pi-oprietors ;  and  that  these  lands,  falling  within 
the  limits  of  the  Pennsylvania  claim,  a  dispute  concerning  the 
right  has  arisen  between  the  two  governments,  and  proceeded 
to  frequent  acts  of  hostility.  When  it  was  at  a  height  that 
threatened  the  disturbance  of  the  other  governments.  Congress 
interposed,  by  whose  recommendation  and  authority  the  de- 
cision of  the  dispute  was  suspended  till  that  with  Great  Britain, 
equally  interesting  to  every  American  State,  was  concluded, 
when  there  might  be  more  leisure  to  attend  to  the  other,  and 
consider  the  justice  of  each  claim. 

On  this  footing  the  dispute  has  lain  dormant  for  two  or 
three  years ;  the  inhabitants  lived  happily,  and  the  settlement 
increased,  consisting  of  eight  townships,  viz. :  Lackawanna, 
Exeter,  Kingston,  Wilkesbarre,  Plymouth,  Nanticoke,  Hunt- 
ington, and  Salem,  each  containing  five  miles  square.  The 
six  lower  townships  were  pretty  full  of  inhabitants,  tlie  two  up- 
per ones  had  comparati^•ely  but  few,  thinly  scattered.  Tlie 
lands  are  exceeding  good,  beautifully  situated  along  both  sides 
of  the  Susquehannali,  navigable  for  flat-bottomed  boats,  and 
produced  immense  quantities  of  grain  of  all  sorts,  roots,  fruits, 
hemp,  flax,  &c.,  and  stock  of  all  kinds  in  abundance.  The 
settlement  had  lately  supplied  the  continental  army  with  three 

'  Gaine's  Mercury,  July  13. 

72  DLIEY    OF  TUE   EEVOLUTIOX.  [1778. 

tliousand  bushels  of  grain,  and  tlie  ground  was  loaded  -witli  the 
most  iironiising  crops  of  every  kind.  The  settlement  included 
upwards  of  a  thousand  families,  which  had  furnished  our  army 
with  a  thousand  soldiers,  besides  the  garrisons  of  four  forts,  in 
the  townships  of  Lackawanna,  Exeter,  Kingston,  and  Wilkes- 
barre.  One  of  these  forts  was  garrisoned  by  upwards  of  four 
hundred  soldiers,  chiefly  of  the  militia,  the  principal  officers  in 
which  were  Colonels  Dennison  and  Zebulon  Butler. 

The  Tories  and  Indians  had  given  some  distui-bance  to  these 
settlements  last  year,  before  General  Herkimer's  battle  at 
Oneida  Creek,  near  Fort  Stanwix,  and  our  skirmishes  soon 
after  with  parties  of  the  enemy  at  and  near  Schoharie,  when 
they  were  dispersed,  and  the  Tories  concealed  themselves 
among  our  diftcrent  settlements;  the  people  here  remained 
undisturbed  during  the  rest  of  the  year. 

About  tl«s  time  the  inhabitants  having  discovered  that 
many  of  these  villanous  Tories  who  had  stirred  up  the  In- 
dians, and  been  with  them  in  fighting  against  us,  were  within 
the  settlements,  twenty-seven  of  them  were,  in  January  last, 
taken  up  and  secured.  Of  these,  eighteen  were  sent  to  Con- 
necticut, the  rest  after  being  detained  some  time  and  examined 
were,  for  want  of  sufficient  evidence,  set  at  liberty ;  they  im- 
mediately joined  the  enemy,  and  became  active  in  raising  in 
the  Indians  a  spirit  of  hostility  against  us.  This  disposition 
soon  after  began  to  appear  in  the  behavior  of  the  Tories  and 
Indians,  which  gave  the  people  apprehensions  of  danger,  and 
occasioned  some  preparations  for  defence. 

Tlie  people  had  frequent  intimations  that  the  Indians  had 
some  mischievous  design  against  them,  but  their  fears  were 
somewhat  abated  by  the  seeming  solicitude  of  the  Indians  to 
preserve  peace ;  they  sent  down  at  different  times,  several  par- 
ties with  declarations  of  their  peaceable  disposition  toward  us, 
and  to  request  the  like  on  our  part  towards  them.  Tliey  were 
always  dismissed  with  assurances  that  there  was  no  design  to 
disturb  them.  But  one  of  those  Indians  getting  drunk,  said  he 
and  the  otiier  messengers  were  only  sent  to  amuse  the  people 
in  the  settlement,  but  that  the  Indians  intended,  as  soon  as 
they  were  in  order,  to  attack  them.     On  this  tlie  Indian  men 

1778.]  THE   AVTOMING   MASSACRE.  73 

■were  confined,  and  the  women  sent  back  Avith  a  flag.  In 
March,  appearances  became  more  alanning,  and  tlie  scattered 
families  settled  for  thirty  miles  np  the  river,  were  collected 
and  brought  into  the  more  populous  parts.  In  April  and  May, 
strolling  parties  of  Indians  and  Tories,  about  thirty  and  under 
in  a  company,  made  frequent  incursions  into  the  settlement, 
robbing  and  plundering  the  inhabitants  of  provision,  grain,  and 
live  stock.  In  June,  several  persons  being  at  work  on  a  f;inn 
from  which  the  Tory  inhabitants  had  gone  to  the  enemy,  were 
attacked,  and  one  man  of  them  killed ;  soon  after,  a  woman 
(wife  of  one  of  the  twenty-seven  Tories  before  mentioned)  was 
killed,  with  her  five  children,  by  a  party  of  these  Tories  and 
Indians,  who  plundered  the  house  of  every  thing  they  could  take 
away,  and  destroyed  the  rest. 

On  the  iirst  instant  (July)  the  whole  body  of  the  enemy, 
consisting,  it  is  supposed,  of  near  sixteen  hundred.«(about  three 
hundred  of  whom  were  thought  to  be  Lidians,  imder  their  o^vn 
chiefs,  the  rest,  Tories,  painted  like  them,  except  their  ofiicers, 
who  were  dressed  like  regulars,)  the  whole  under  the  command 
of  Colonel  John  Butler,  (a  Connecticut  Tory,  and  cousin  to 
Colonel  Zebulon  Butler,  the  second  in  command  in  the  settle- 
ment,) came  down  near  the  iipper  fort,  but  concealed  the  great- 
est part  of  their  number ;  here  they  had  a  skirmish  with  the 
inhabitants,  who  took  and  killed  two  Indians,  and  lost  ten  of 
their  own  men,  three  of  whom  they  afterwards  found  killed, 
scalped,  and  mangled  in  the  most  inhuman  manner. 

Thursday,  July  2. — The  enemy  appeared  on  the  mountains, 
back  of  Kingston,  when  the  women  and  children  then  fled  into 
the  fort.  Most  of  the  garrison  of  Exeter  fort  were  Tories,  who 
treacherously  gave  it  np  to  the  enemy.  Tlie  same  night,  after 
a  little  resistance,  they  took  Lackawanna  fort,  killed  Squire  Jen- 
kins and  his  family,  with  several  others,  in  a  barbarous  manner, 
and  made  prisoners  of  most  of  the  M'omen  and  children;  a 
small  number  only  escaped. 

Friday,  July  3. — ^This  morning  Colonel  Zebulon  Butler, 
leaving  a  small  number  to  guard  the  fort,  (Wilkesbarre,) 
crossed  the  river  with  about  four  liundred  men,  and  marched 
into  Kingston  fort.     The  enemy  sent  in  a  flag,  demanding  a 

7-i  DIAIiY   OF   THE   EEVOLTJTIOX.  [1778. 

STirrender  of  tlie  fort  in  t-\vo  liours.  Colonel  Bntler  answered 
he  sliould  not  snrrcnder,  bnt  was  ready  to  receive  them.  They 
sent  in  a  second  flag,  demanding  an  immediate  surrender, 
otherwise  that  the  fort  slioiiM  be  stormed,  plundered,  and  burnt, 
with  all  its  contents,  in  a  few  hours,  and  said  that  they  had 
with  them  three  hundred  men.  Colonel  Butler  proposed  a 
parley,  wliich,  being  agreed  to,  a  place  in  Kingston  was  ap- 
pointed for  the  meeting,  to  which  Colonel  Z.  Butler  repaired 
witli  four  hundred  men  well  armed,  but  finding  nobody  there, 
he  proceeded  to  the  foot  of  the  mountain,  where  at  a  distance 
he  saw  a  flag,  Avhich,  as  he  advanced,  retired,  as  if  afraid, 
twenty  or  thirty  rods ;  he  following,  was  led  into  an  ambush, 
and  partly  surrounded  by  the  enemy,  who  suddenly  rose  and 
fired  upon  them.  ]S^otwithstandiiig  the  great  disproportion  of 
sixteen  hundred  to  four  hundred,  he  and  his  men  bravely  stood 
and  returned  the  fire  for  three-quarters  of  an  hour,  with  such 
briskness  and  resolution,  that  the  enemy  began  to  give  way, 
and  were  upon  the  point  of  retiring,  when  one  of  Colonel  Z. 
Butler's  men,  either  through  treachery  or  cowardice,  cried  out 
that  the  colonel  ordered  a  retreat.  This  caused  a  cessation  of 
their  fire,  threw  them  into  confusion,  and  a  total  rout  ensued. 
Tlie  greatest  part  fled  to  the  river,  which  they  endeavored  to 
pass,  to  Fort  "Wilkesbarre  ;  the  enemy  pursued  them  with  the 
fury  of  devils ;  many  were  lost  or  killed  in  the  river,  and  no 
more  than  about  seventy,  some  of  whom  were  Avounded,  escaped 
to  Wilkesbarre. 

Saturday  morning,  July  -i. — Tlie  cnemj-  sent  one  hundred 
and  ninety-six  scalps  into  Fort  Kingston,  which  they  invested 
on  the  land  side,  and  kept  up  a  continual  fire  upon  it. 

This  evening  Colonel  Z.  Butler,  with  his  family,  cpiitted  the 
fort,  and  went  down  the  river. 

Colonel  Nathan  Dennison  went  with  a  flag  to  Exeter  fort. 
to  know  of  Colonel  John  Butler  what  terms  he  would  grant  on 
a  surrender.  Butler  answered,  the  Ilatchd.  Colonel  Denni- 
son returned  to  Fort  Kingston,  which  he  defended  till  Sunday 
morning,  when  his  men  being  nearly  all  killed  or  wounded,  he 
could  hold  out  no  longer,  and  was  obliged  to  surrender  at  dis- 
erutiop.    The  enemy  took  away  some  of  tlie  unlmppy  prisoners. 

177S.]  THE    WYOMING   MASSACEE.  75 

and  shiitting  up  the  rest  iu  the  liouses,  set  fii-e  to  thorn,  and 
they  were  all  consumed  together.  Tliese  infernals  then  crossed 
the  river  to  Fort  WiUiesbarre,  which  in  a  few  minntes  snrrcn- 
dered  at  discretion.  About  seventy  of  the  men,  who  had  listed 
in  the  continental  service  to  defend  the  frontiers,  they  inhu- 
manly butchered,  with  every  circumstance  of  horrid  cruelty ; 
and  then  shutting  up  the  rest,  witli  the  women  and  cliildren  in 
the  houses,  they  set  fire  to  them,  and  they  all  perished  together 
in  the  flames. 

After  burning  all  the  buildings  in  the  fort,  they  proceeded 
to  the  destruction  of  every  building  and  improvement  (except 
what  belonged  to  some  Tories)  that  came  within  their  reach, 
on  all  these  flourishing  settlements,  which  they  have  rendered  a 
scene  of  desolation  and  horror,  almost  beyond  description, 
parallel,  or  credibility ;  and  were  not  the  facts  attested  by  num- 
bers of  the  unhappy  sufterers,  from  different  quarters  of  the 
settlement,  and  unconnected  with  each  other,  it  woiild  be  im- 
possible to  believe  that  human  nature  could  be  capable  of  such 
prodigious  enormity. 

When  these  miscreants  had  destroyed  the  other  improve- 
ments, they  proceeded  to  destroy  the  crops  on  the  ground,  let- 
ting in  the  cattle  and  horses  to  the  corn,  and  cutting  up  as 
much  as  they  could  of  what  was  left.  Great  numbers  of  the 
cattle  they  shot  and  destroyed,  and  cutting  oiit  the  tongiies  of 
many  others,  left  them  to  perish  in  misery. 

Tlie  course  of  these  truly  diabolical  proceedings  was  marked 
by  many  particiilar  acts  of  distinguished  enormity,  among 
which  were  the  following,  viz. : 

Tlie  Captains  James  Bedlock,  Robert  Duryee,  and  Samuel 
Eansom,  being  made  prisoners  by  the  enemy,  they  stripped 
Captain  Bedlock,  tied  him  to  a  tree,  and  stuck  him  full  of 
sharp  splinters  of  pine  knots,  then  piling  a  heap  of  pine  knots 
round  him,  they  set  all  on  fire,  put  Duryee  and  Ransom  into 
the  fire,  and  held  tliem  down  with  pitchforks. 

Tliomas  Hill,  (whose  father  was  killed  by  the  Indians  last 
Indian  war,)  witli  his  own  hands  killed  his  own  mother,  his 
father-in-law,  his  sisters,  and  tlieir  families. 

Partial  Terry,  the  son  of  a  man  who  bore  a  very  respectable 

76  DIAEY    OF   THE   EEVOLUTION.  [1778. 

character,  had  several  times  sent  his  father  -word  that  he  hoped 
to  wash  his  hands  in  his  heart's  blood.  Agreeable  to  such  a 
liorrid  declaration,  the  monster,  with  his  own  hand,  murdered 
his  father,  mother,  brother  and  sisters,  stripped  off  their  scalps, 
and  cut  otf  his  father's  head. 

Colonel  Dennison  was  seen  surrounded  by  the  enemy,  and 
was  doubtless  murdered.  Colonel  Zebulon  Butler  is  sujjposed 
to  be  the  only  officer  who  escaped. 

It  is  said  he  had  several  times  written  letters  to  the  Con- 
gress and  General  Washington,  acquainting  them  with  the  dan- 
ger the  settlement  was  in,  and  requesting  assistance,  but  that 
he  received  no  answer,  except  that  he  had  no  cause  to  fear, 
since  the  Indians  were  all  for  peace  and  quite  averse  to  war. 
However,  he  lately  received  a  letter  from  Captain  Spaulding, 
acquainting  him  that  neither  the  Congress  nor  General  Wash- 
ington had  received  any  of  his  letters,  Avhich  had  been  inter- 
cepted by  the  Pennsylvania  Tories,  who,  in  all  probability, 
acted  in  concert  with  these  execrable  miscreants,  against  Wyo- 
ming. It  is  reported  that  these  wretches,  after  completing 
their  horrid  business  at  Wyoming,  are  going  or  gone  to  Cherry 
Valley,  and  the  parts  adjacent. 

We  liear  that  a  party  of  infernals,  of  the  like  kind,  Iiave, 
within  this  week  or  two,  infested  the  parts  about  Leghawegh, 
near  Koehester,  on  the  Minisink  road  to  Philadelphia,  where  a 
party  of  them,  about  forty  in  number,  have  plundered  and 
burnt  several  houses,  abused  some  people,  and  caiTied  off  three 
men.  It  is  hoped  speedy  and  effectual  measTires  will  bo  taken 
to  punish  and  extirpate  these  moui^ters  in  human  shape,  from 
the  face  of  the  earth.' 

Tms  afternoon  sailed  for  England  his  Majesty's  ship  Mont- 
real, commanded  by  Stair  Douglass,  Esquire,  having  on  board 
„     „  ,  ,       Lieutenant-Gcneral  Sir  Guy  Carleton,  Knight  of 

Guy  Carleton  '^  ~ 

leaves  America,  ^jjg  Bath,  aiul  latc  Govcruor  of  Canada,  over 
which  he  has  presided  since  the  27th  of  September,  1700.  He 
left  the  castle  of  St.  Lewis  about  one  o'clock,  (Lady  Maria  and 

'  New  York  Journal,  July  20. 


the  children  having  gone  on  board  the  preceding  evening,)  and 
was  accompanied  to  the  water  side  by  his  Excellency  the  Gov- 
ernor, his  Honor  the  Lientenant-Governor,  the  jndges,  and 
most  of  the  principal  gentlemen,  both  civil  and  military,  as 
well  British  as  Canadians.  The  troops  in  garrison  with  the 
British  and  Canadian  militia,  nnder  arms,  lined  the  streets  on 
both  sides  from  the  castle  to  the  place  of  embarkation.  After 
Sir  Gny,  his  Excellency  General  Ilaldiraand,  and  several  other 
gentlemen  who  went  on  board  with  him,  had  got  into  Captain 
Pierson's  barge,  Avhich  carried  him  to  the  frigate ;  jnst  as  she 
pushed  off,  he  got  iip  and  took  an  indiscriminate  farewell  of 
the  multitude  on  the  beach,  with  an  air  of  humanity  and  polite- 
ness peculiar  to  him,  and  which  seemed  to  indicate  regret.  A 
royal  salute  was  then  fired  from  the  ramparts,  and,  as  soon  as 
he  got  on  board,  from  the  vessels.  His  departure  is  smcerely 
regretted  by  many.  His  Excellency  the  Governor,  and  several 
gentlemen  who  accompanied  him  as  far  as  Patrick's  Hole, 
dined  with  him  on  board,  and  returned  this  evening.' 

Yesterday,  to  the  great  joy  of  every  good  subject,  the  fleet 
of  his  Most  Christian  Majesty,  the  great  and  wise  ally  of  these 
States,  commanded  by  Admiral  Count  D'Estaing,  French  riect  at 
arrived  oif  Point  Judith,  when  a  number  of  pilots  ^'^"^^  ^^■''°'^- 
belonging  to  Providence  went  immediately  on  board,  and 
brought  them  safe  to  anchor  off  the  harbor  of  Newport,  where- 
by our  savage  enemies  are  in  their  turn  completely  blockaded. 

To-day,  two  French  ships  of  the  line  came  up  on  the  west 
side  of  Conanicut,  and  took  their  stations  above  the  north  end 
of  that  island ;  several  shots  were  fired  at  them  as  they  passed, 
and  a  few  retiirned.  The  enemy's  ship  which  lay  there  got 
under  sail  on  the  near  approach  of  our  friends,  entered  New- 
port harbor  by  the  east  side  of  Conanicut,  and  fled  to  Rhode 
Island,  having  previously  blown  up  the  magazine,  spiked  their 
cannon,  destroyed  the  works,  and  set  fire  to  the  barracks. 
The  Kingfisher,  of  sixteen  guns,  with  two  galleys,  were  blown 
up  by  the  enemy  in  Seconet  River,  on  the  approach  of  two 

'  Gaine's  Mercury,  November  16. 

78  DIARY   OF   TUE   EEVOLUTIOX.  [1778. 

other  French  ships.  The  Britons,  with  their  friends  the  Tories, 
are  in  great  consternation,  and  a  few  days  will  probably  pro- 
duce events  of  the  utmost  importance. 

The  fleet  have  brought  in  fifteen  sail  of  prizes,  one  of  them 
a  ship  bound  to  New  York,  laden  with  warlike  stores,  among 
which  are  six  large  mortars,  and  a  quantity  of  shells.' 


"  How  hard  is  your  Congress'  exacted  conditions!  " 
Cry  tlie  gentlemen  come  with  pacific  commissions, 
Withdrawing  our  troops,  they  premise,  and  our  fleet, 
And  on  no  other  terms  will  they  deign  for  to  treat ! 
The  word  Independence,  what  can  they  intend  in't? 
In  spite  of  our  efforts  you  are  Independent. 
Were  we  left  to  ourselves,  faith,  ere  now  we  had  scamper'd ; 
But  consider,  good  folks,  we  are  terribly  hampered. 
True,  an  army  we  have— but  completely  invaded ; 
And  our  fleet  to  the  full  is  as  nicely  blockaded ; 
Sure  the  world  then  can  judge,  and  as  readily  say, 
If  it's  left  at  our  option  to  go  or  to  stay  ? 
Get  consent  from  Estaing,  and  your  chief  Washington, 
And  we  need  not  a  prompter  to  set  off  and  run." 

The  British  army  is  now  arrived  at  New  York  from  Phila- 
delphia ;  some  little  time  ago  they  arrived  at  Philadelphia  from 
New  York.  How  finely,  says  a  correspondent,  are  the  charges 
sunk.  From  Philadelphia  to  New  York,  to  Long  Island,  to 
Mud  Island,  from  action  to  eeling,  from  eeling  to  action.  Our 
American  possessions  are  not  equal  to  the  space  between  Smith- 
field  and  Highgate.     Omne  quod  exit  in — Hum. 

It  is  remarkable,  that  the  hostilities  with  France  commenced 
just  that  day  three  years  on  which  the  first  battle  of  import- 
ance happened  in  America.  Tlie  battle  of  Bunker's  Hill  was 
fought  on  the  17th  of  June,  1775,  and  the  hostilities  with  France 
commenced  on  the  17th  of  June,  1778.' 

August  1. — -We  hear,  from  good  authority,  that  iudcpcndcnt 
of  the  cruelties  and  oppressions  of  the  new  States,  which  have 

'  Now  York  .Journal,  August  17.  '"  Same,  August  3. 

^  New  Jersey  Gazette,  November  18. 

1778.]  THE   FEEXCH   TOEATY.  79 

alienated  the  minds  of  the  people  from  their  new  systems  of 
government,  and  the  petty  tyrants  in  possession  of  tliem,  there 
are  other  causes  of  disaflection,  equally  powerful  ^g^^i^  ^j  the 
and  alarming  to  the  liberties  of  America.  Many  ^'™'=''  '^''"'y- 
of  the  warmest  independents  themselves,  whose  eyes  are  not 
blinded  by  a  share  in  the  power  and  emoluments  of  the  tyr- 
aimy,  now  confess  their  apprehensions  that  their  coimtry  is  sold 
to  the  French  king,  and  that  all  their  boasted  struggles  for 
liberty,  Avill  end  in  Avretched  submission  to  French  despotism 
and  Popish  superstition,  should  Great  Britain  give  up  her  col- 

The  solemn  ceremony  of  delivering  the  turf  and  twig,'  per- 
formed by  Mr.  Deane,  Ambassador  of  the  Congress,  to  Mr. 
Gerard,  the  Plenipotentiary  from  the  court  of  Paris,  the  people 
in  general  believe,  M-as  a  transfer  of  some  right,  either  absolute 
or  conditional,  to  the  territory  of  Anaerica,  in  pxirsuance  of 
some  of  the  six  articles  of  their  treaty,  which  Congress  have 
perfidiously  concealed  from  their  constituents."      This   belief 

'  The  ceremony  observed  at  the  landing  of  the  French  ambassador  and  Mr. 
Silas  Deane,  has  created  a  good  deal  of  uneasiness  in  the  minds  of  the  spectators. 
Immediately  on  setting  foot  on  shore,  Mr.  Deane  cutting  a  piece  of  turf,  formally 
delivered  it  to  Monsieur  Gerard,  who  received  it  with  great  solemnity,  applied  it 
to  liis  lips  and  then  croxsed  himself  loith  vmch  apparent  devotion.  The  delivering 
of  the  turf  may  be  easily  construed,  it  being  the  well  known  and  ancient  symbol 
of  giving  possession  of  land,  and  was  by  the  common  law  absolutely  necessary  to 
all  transfers  of  real  property.  The  receiving  and  !;issing  of  it  may  denote  the  ac- 
ceptance and  taking  possession  of  the,  gift.  JuUus  Cfesar,  when  he  invaded 
Britain,  is  said  to  have  made  use  of  a  similar  ceremony  to  the  same  purpose.  If 
this  be  considered  as  the  cession  of  the  whole  or  part  of  America,  in  consequence 
of  the  late  treaty,  the  Congress  have  acted  wisely  in  keeping  back  from  the  peo- 
ple's view  the  secret  articles  which  related  to  it:  for  we  believe  that  however 
fond  their  constituents  may  noiu  be  of  their  great  and  good  alb/,  the  King  of 
France,  they  are  hardly  yet  so  infatuated  as  to  choose  Louis  for  their  master. — 
Extract  of  a  letter  from  Philadelphia  in  JRivington^s  Gazette,  July  29. 

^  A  correspondent  writes : — It  is  a  maxim  generally  believed,  the  truth  of  which 
he  has  not  the  least  doubt,  that  the  people  are  the  origin  of  all  delegated  powers. 
If  so,  he  calls  in  question  the  propriety  of  keeping  secret  certain  articles  of  the 
treaty  subsisting  between  the  court  of  France  and  the  States.  If  it  is  said  to 
keep  them  from  the  knowledge  of  the  court  of  Great  Britain,  he  thinks  they  may 
safely  be  communicated  to  the  several  assemblies  of  the  United  States  at  least, 
who  are  the  legal  representatives  of  the  people,  and  who,  he  thinks,  have  a  right 
to  know  them. — Pennsylvania  Packet,  November  3. 

80  DIAET    OF   THE    REVOLUTION.  [1778. 

sconis  founded  on  voiy  good  reasons,  because  this  ceremony 
was  the  ancient  and  almost  universal  mode  of  conveying  real 
estates  in  England,  derived  from  the  customs  of  the  civil  law, 
which  yet  prevails  in  France,  and  has  never  been  made  iise  of 
on  any  other  occasion ;  and  the  Congress,  who  must  know  the 
suspicions  and  anxiety  of  the  people  on  this  matter,  and  whose 
interest  it  is  to  remove  their  fears,  have  never  yet  attempted 
any  other  explanation  of  that  ceremony ;  but,  on  the  contrary, 
have  observed  a  jjrofound  secrecy  in  regard  to  it,  as  well  as  to 
the  six  articles  before  mentioned ;  all  which  circumstances, 
if  they  do  not  amount  to  positive,  it  must  be  confessed  do  to 
the  strongest  presumptive  proof,  crpial  in  the  scale  of  credi- 
bility, to  positive,  that  the  people's  belief  and  fears  are  justly 

AtTGUST  6. — Tnis  being  the  day  appointed  by  Congress  for 
the  reception  of  Sleur  Gerard,  Minister  Plenipotentiary  from 
Ecco  tirni  of  the  ^^^^  Most  Christian  Majesty,  that  Minister  received 
French  Minister,  audiciice  accordingly.  In  pursuance  of  the  cere- 
monial established  by  Congress,  the  Honorable  Eichard  Henry 
Lee,  Esquire,  one  of  the  Delegates  from  Yirginia,  and  the 
Honorable  Samuel  Adams,  Esquire,  one  of  the  Delegates  from 
Massachusetts  Bay,  in  a  coach  and  six  provided  by  Congress, 
waited  upon  the  Minister  at  his  house.  In  a  few  minutes,  the 
Minister  and  the  two  delegates  entered  the  coach,  Mr.  Lee  plac- 
ing himself  at  the  Minister's  left  hand  on  the  bade  seat,  Mr. 
Adams  occupying  the  front  seat.  The  Minister's  chariot  being 
behind,  received  his  secretary.  The  carriages  being  arrived  at 
the  State  House,  Philadelphia,  the  two  members  of  Congress, 
placing  themselves  at  tlie  Minister's  left  hand,  a  little  before 
one  o'clock,  introduced  him  to  his  chair  in  the  Congress  cham- 
ber, the  President  and  Congress  sitting;  the  chair  was  placed 
fronting  tlie  President.  The  Minister  being  seated,  lie  gave 
his  credentials  into  the  hand  of  his  Secretary,  who  advanced 
and  delivered  them  to  the  President.  The  Secretary  of  Con- 
gress then  read  and  translated  them,  which  being  done,  Mr. 
Lee  announced  the  Minister  to  the  President  and  Congress ;  at 

'  "An  American  Freeman,"  in  Rivington'a  Gazette,  August  22. 

1778.]  THE   EECKPTION    OF   GEEAED.  81 

tins  time,  the  President,  the  Congress,  and  the  Minister  rose 
togetlier ;  he  bowed  to  the  President  and  Congress,  they  bowed 
to  him ;  whereupon  the  whole  seated  themselves.  In  a  mo- 
ment tlie  Minister  arose  and  made  a  speech  to  the  Congress, 
they  sitting.  The  speech  to  the  Congress  being  finished,  the 
Minister  sat  down,  and  giving  a  copy  of  his  speech  to  his  Secre- 
tary, he  presented  it  to  the  President.  Tlie  President  and  the 
Congress  then  rose,  and  the  President  pi-onounced  their  answer 
to  the  speech,  the  Minister  standing.  Tlie  answer  being  ended, 
the  whole  were  again  seated,  and  the  President  giving  a  copy 
of  the  answer  to  the  Secretary  of  the  Congress,  he  presented  it 
to  the  Minister.  The  President,  the  Congress,  and  the  Minister 
then  again  arose  together.  The  Minister  bowed  to  the  Presi- 
dent, who  retnrnd  the  salute,  and  then  to  the  Congress,  who 
also  bowed  in  return.  The  Minister,  having  again  bowed  to 
the  President,  and  received  his  bow,  he  withdrew,  and  was 
attended  home  in  the  same  manner  in  which  he  had  been  con- 
ducted to  the  audience. 

"Within  the  bar  of  the  house,  the  Congress  formed  a  semi- 
circle on  each  side  of  the  President  and  the  Minister:  the 
President  sitting  at  one  extremity  of  the  circle,  at  a  table  upon 
a  platform  elevated  two  steps,  the  Minister  sitting  at  the  oppo- 
site extremity  of  the  circle,  in  an  arm  chair,  upon  the  same 
level  with  the  Congress.  Tlie  door  of  the  Congress  chamber 
being  thrown  open,  below  the  bar,  about  two  hundred  gentle- 
men were  admitted  to  the  audience,  among  whom  were  the 
Vice-President  of  the  Supreme  Executive  Coiyicil  of  Pennsyl- 
vania, the  Supreme  Executive  Council,  the  Speaker  and  Mem- 
bers of  the  House  of  Assembly,  several  foreigners  of  distinction, 
and  officers  of  the  army. 

Thus  has  a  new  and  noble  sight  been  exhibited  in  this  new 
world — the  representatives  of  the  United  States  of  America, 
solemnly  giving  public  audience  to  a  Minister  Plenipotentiary 
from  the  most  powerful  prince  in  Europe.  Four  years  ago, 
such  an  event,  at  so  near  a  day,  was  not  in  the  view  even  of 
imagination :  but  it  is  the  Almighty  who  raiseth  up  ;  he  hath 
stationed  America  among  the  powers  of  the  earth,  and  clothed 
her  in  robes  of  sovereignty. 
Vol.  11.-6 

82  DIAET   OF   THE    EEYOLUTION.  [1778. 

Tlie  audience  being  over,  the  Congress  and  tlie  Minister,  at 
a  proper  hour,  repaired  to  an  entertainment  by  Congress,  given 
to  the  Mmister,  at  which  were  present,  by  invitation,  several 
foreigners  of  distinction,  and  gentlemen  of  public  character. 
The  entertainment  was  conducted  with  a  decorvim  suited  to  the 
occasion,  and  gave  the  most  perfect  satisfaction  to  the  whole 

A  COEEESPONDENT  iu  London  says :  In  the  fate  of  the  mer- 
cenary Hessians  employed  against  our  fellow  subjects  in  Amer- 
Heaven  with  the  ^'^^>  '^®  ^^7  TG&d  the  disapprobation,  and  mark 
Americans.  ^]^q  manifest  Intervention  of  Heaven.  Of  the  pri- 
vate men  who  embarked  from  Hesse  Cassel  on  their  sanguinary 
exjj edition,  not  above  a  fourth  part  are  in  a  state  of  militation ; 
tlie  rest  are  either  killed,  wounded,  or  prisoners.  Of  the  com- 
manders, their  fate  is  not  less  exemplary;  General  De  Heister 
died  a  few  days  since,  being  returned  to  engage  fresh  mercen- 
aries ;  Colonel  Eahl  killed  at  Trenton,  Colonel  Donop  killed 
in  the  attack  of  the  fort  on  Mud  Island,  General  Knypliausen 
slightly  wounded  at  the  attack  of  Germantown — sic  periunt 
inimici  libertatis. 

"  The  supremacy  of  Parliament,"  and  "  unconditional  sub- 
mission," two  favorite  terms  adopted  by  the  court,  the  ministry, 
and  the  legislature,  have  produced  wonderful  efiects :  the  total 
separation  of  America  from  the  British  empire,  and  the  forma- 
tion of  a  new  monarchy  of  Independent  States — ^the  loss  of 
above  thirty  millions  of  money — the  destruction  of  thirty  thou- 
sand troops,  and  the  most  shameful  disgrace  to  the  English 
anns  that  was  ever  incurred  since  the  foundation  of  the  em- 
pire. It  is  time  to  discard  and  disgrace  Avords  which  have 
produced  such  horrid  consequences,  and  adopt  others  more 
conformable  to  common  sense  to  constitutional  liberty,  and  to 

A  gentlemen  just  returned  from  Paris  informs  us  that  Dr. 
Franklin  has  shaken  off  entirely  the  mechanical  rust,  and  com- 
menced the  complete  courtier.     Eeing  lately  in  the  gardens  of 

'  New  Tork  Journal,  AuKust  24. 


Versailles,  sliovring  the  Queen  some  electrical  experiment,  she 
asked  him,  in  a  fit  of  raillery,  if  he  did  not  dread  the  fate  of 
Prometheus,  who  was  so  severely  served  for  steal- 

„         „      '        -r  o         -t»  1  -HI-'      Doctor  Franklin. 

mg  fire  from  Heaven?  "les,  please  yonr  Maj- 
jesty,"  (replied  old  Franklin,  with  infinite  gallantry,)  "  if  I  did 
not  behold  a  pair  of  eyes  this  moment  which  have  stolen  infi- 
nitely more  fire  from  Jove  than  ever  I  did,  pass  nnpimished, 
though  they  do  more  mischief  in  a  week  than  I  have  done  in 
all  my  experiments." ' 

August  17. — ^The  following  oath  is  part  of  an  act  lately 
passed  by  the  New  York  Congress  at  the  Fishkills,  which  is  to 
be  taken  by  every  subject,  agreeable  to  the  new  uewoathot 
constitution  established  by  the  Congress : — "  I  A.  Allegiance. 
B.  do  solemnly,  and  without  any  mental  reservation  whatever, 
swear  and  call  God  to  witness,  (or,  if  the  people  called  Quak- 
ers, affirm,)  that  I  believe  and  aclcnowledge  the  State  of  ISTew 
York  to  be  of  right  a  free  and  independent  State,  and  that 
no  authority  or  power  can  of  right  be  executed  in  or  over  the 
said  State,  but  what  is,  or  shall  be  granted  by,  or  derived  from 
the  people  thereof;  and  further,  that  as  a  good  subject  of  the 
said  free  and  independent  State  of  New  Yoi-k,  I  will,' to  the 
best  of  my  knowledge  and  ability,  faithfully  do  my  duty,  and 
as  I  shall  keep  or  disregard  this  oath,  so  help  and  deal  with 
me  Almighty  God." 

The  first  person  who  was  cited  before  the  commissioners  to 
take  the  oath,  was  Cadwallader  Golden,  Esq.,  of  Coldenham, 
in  Ulster  county,  New  York,  and  eldest  son  of  the  cadwaiiadcr 
late  lieutenant-governor  of  that  province.  This  coiden. 
gentleman  showed  an  iinshaken  attachment  to  his  sovereign 
and  the  constitution,  from  the  first  of  the  present  rebellion. 
He  had  been  a  prisoner  among  the  rebels  for  above  two  years, 
great  part  of  the  time  closely  confined  in  a  common  jail,  or  on 
board  a  sloop  in  the  Hudson  Kiver,  (in  company  Avith  many 
other  loyal  sufferers,)  for  no  other  cause  than  avowing  his  sen- 
timents with  candor,  modesty,  and  firmness,  against  independ- 

ire  Gazette,  December  22. 

84:  DIARY   OF   THE    EEVOLUTION.  [1778. 

ency.  Determined  to  adhere  to  the  good  old  constitution  under 
-which  he  and  his  fellow  subjects  enjoyed  so  much  happiness,  he 
persevered  calmly,  though  resolutely,  to  oppose  each  innova- 
tion, for  which  he  was  ignominiously  treated  from  time  to  time, 
and  suffered  every  wanton  indignity  that  malice  could  invent. 
When  desired  to  take  the  above  oath,  he  nobly  refused  it,  re- 
turning a  decent,  spirited  answer,  in  writing,  which  does  him 
great  honor;  whereupon  he  was  ordered  to  depart,  and  go 
within  the  British  lines.  On  Monday  last  he  arrived  at  K'ew 
York  in  a  flag  of  truce  sloop,  leaving  behind  him  his  wife,  and 
a  numerous  family  of  children,  to  the  insults,  and  a  large  estate 
to  the  depredations  of  a  blind,  infatiiated  people.' 

August  20. — A  GENTLmiAx  who  went  on  board  the  French 
fleet  at  Sandy  Hook,  gives  the  following  account  of  their  prin- 
cipal transactions  during  the  time  he  was  on  board : 

On  the  30th  of  July  the  fleet  arrived  ofl",  and  anchored  be- 
fore the  light-house,  at  the  entrance  of  the  harbor  of  Newport, 
Actions  nf  the  "^  Rhode  Islaud,  except  two  frigates,  that  Avere 
French  Fleet,  ordered  to  tlic  cast  end  of  the  island,  in  order  to 
prevent  any  vessels  from  getting  out  through  Seconnet  pas- 
sage. On  the  frigates'  arrival  there,  the  English  set  fire  to  one 
twenty-gun  ship  and  two  galleys,  wliich  lay  in  that  passage. 
The  next  morning  one  ship  of  fifty  guns  was  sent  i;p  the  west 
side  of  Conanicut  Island,  and  after  exchanging  a  few  shots  with 
the  battery,  the  English  thought  proper  to  evacuate  that  island, 
after  blowing  up  their  fortifications,  which  were  said  to  be 
guarded  by  about  fifteen  hundred  men ;  they  likewise  blew  \ip 
some  of  their  outworks  on  Ehode  Island,  and  burnt  some 
dwelling-houses.  Tlie  same  day  we  sent  xip  the  west  passage, 
one  ship  of  sixty-four  guns.  The  Aveather  for  the  several  fol- 
lowing days  was  very  foggy,  which  gave  our  fifty-gun  ship  an 
advantage  of  passing,  without  being  seen,  around  the  north  end 
of  Conanicut,  and  anchoring  between  a  small  bay  or  cove,  on 
the  west  side  of  Rhode  Island,  (in  which  lay  three  British  frig- 
ates,) and  the  harbor  of  Newport.      On  the   fog's   clearing 

'  New  York  Gazette,  August  11. 

1778.]  THE  FRENCH  FLEET.  85 

away,  the  people,  finding  tlie  frigates  could  not  return  to  j^ew- 
port,  immediately  left  them  after  setting  them  on  fire. 

On  the  8th  of  August,  a  signal  was  made  for  the  fleet  to 
weigh  anchor  and  get  in  a  line,  which  was  done,  and  about 
three  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  we  stood  in  for  the  harbor  of 
Newjjort,  under  topsails  lowered  down.  The  Admiral  being 
the  first  of  the  line,  as  soon  as  he  came  within  about  two  miles, 
the  battery  on  Brentou's  ISTeck  began  a  brisk  cannonade  on  the 
Languedoc,  which  was  not  retm'ned  till  she  came  within  about 
three-quarters  of  a  mile  of  the  battery,  when  she  began  such  a 
cannonade  as  I  could  not  have  conceived  to  have  been  possible 
from  on  board  one  ship,  the  consequence  of  which  was,  the 
battery  was  silenced  in  two  or  three  broadsides,  and  the  fleet 
passed  in  through  the  fire  of  the  cannon  from  Fort  Island,  and 
two  forts  on  the  north  end  of  the  town  of  Newport,  and  an- 
chored between  Gold  Island  and  Conanicut,  without  receiving 
any  damage.  On  the  ninth,  a  fleet  of  thirty-four  sail  of  ships 
appeared  ofl^  the  harbor,  which,  we  were  informed,  were  a  fleet 
from  New  York,  commanded  by  Lord  Howe ;  the  wind  being 
to  the  southward,  we  could  not  get  out  of  the  harbor.  On  the 
tenth,  in  the  morning,  the  wind  came  round  to  the  northward ; 
a  signal  was  made  for  the  fleet  to  cut  their  cables,  which  was 
immediately  done,  and  all  came  to  sail  except  the  frigates, 
which  were  all  in  Seconnet  passage.  On  om-  coming  to  sea, 
the  wind  became  very  small.  The  enemy  appeared  to  have 
been  much  alarmed  on  seeing  our  fleet  under  sail,  as  they  all 
either  cut  or  slipped  their  cables,  cut  many  of  their  boats  from 
then*  sterns,  and  hove  many  things  overboard,  in  order  to 
lighten  their  ships.  On  the  11th,  in  the  morning,  we  found 
them  at  a  much  greater  distance  than  they  were  the  night  be- 
fore, biit  the  wind  springing  up,  we  continued  the  chase.  The 
British  fleet  now  bearing  about  south-east  by  east,  the  wind  at 
north-east,  they  hauled  close  upon  a  wind,  but  finding  we  came 
up  with  them,  they  altered  their  course  from  east  south-east  to 
south-east  and  to  the  southward,  and  from  that  to  south-west, 
but  all  without  effect,  as  we  could  outsail  them  very  easily ; 
the  wind  still  contmuing  to  blow  a  very  fresh  gale,  and  con- 
stantly increasing.      At  about  five  o'clock  in  the  afternoon, 

86  DIAEY    OF   THE   KEVOLUTIOX.  [1778. 

both  fleets  drew  in  a  line.  Tlie  English  fleet  now  consisted  of 
only  twenty-four  sail,  and  ours  of  twelve.  Our  headmost  ship 
in  the  line  got  up  abreast  with  the  stermnost  of  the  English, 
biit  the  sea  running  so  high,  we  could  not  engage ;  we  intended 
to  have  continued  along  side  of  them  till  the  wind  abated, 
but  about  sunsetting,  a  very  heavy  gale  coming  on,  we  were 
obliged  to  bring  to,  which  we  did  with  our  heads  to  the  south- 
ward; the  English  then  hauled  to  the  north-west,  and  the 
night  coming  on,  we  lost  sight  of  them.  On  the  12th,  at  day- 
light, we  discovered  the  Languedoc  about  a  league  distant, 
without  a  mast  standing,  and  at  about  eight  o'clock  saw  the 
Marseilles  without  a  foremast  or  bowsprit.  The  gale  con- 
tinued extremely  hard  all  this  day  and  night  following,  and 
the  greater  part  of  the  tliirteenth,  in  the  afternoon  of  which 
it  abated.  We  then  made  sail  and  stood  in  about  north- 
west, under  what  sail  we  could  carry.  In  the  morning  of  the 
lilth,  at  daylight,  saw  the  Languedoc  at  about  two  leagues 
distance,  which,  when  we  came  up  with  her,  informed  us  she 
had  been  attacked  the  night  before,  by  a  ship  of  fifty  guns,  but 
had  obliged  her  to  sheer  ofl^,  although  she  had  neither  mast  nor 
rudder.  At  about  nine  o'clock  discovered  the  Marseilles,  who 
had  been  attacked  early  in  the  morning  by  a  sixty  gun  ship, 
and  one  other  coming  down  on  her,  but  our  fleet  coming  in 
sight,  they  qi:itted  her.  In  the  afternoon  we  took  the  Tliunder 
bomb ;  and  in  the  morning  of  the  fifteenth,  saw  the  Senegal 
sloop  of  war,  of  sixteen  guns,  commanded  by  Captain  Inglis, 
which  we  very  soon  came  up  with,  and  made  a  prize  of.  Tlie 
fleet  then  anchored  in  latitude  thirty-nine,  in  about  forty  fath- 
oms water,  where  we  lay  till  we  got  up  jury  masts  on  board 
the  Languedoc  and  Marseilles.  The  Cesar,  of  seventy-foiir 
guns,  had  not  joined  the  fleet  since  the  gale  on  the  seventeenth. 
In  the  evening  we  weighed  anchor  and  came  to  sail,  and  ar- 
rived off  Khode  Island  this  afternoon." 

August  22. — A  correspondent  in  Pliiladelpliia  offers  the 
following  hint,  with  the  hope  that  it  will  be  improved  upon : — 

'  New  York  Journal,  September  7. 

17T8.]  d'estaing  at  boston.  87 

"  I  have  labored  under  many  difficulties,  for  my  princix^les  are 
sucli,  that  I  would  not  willingly  purchase  any  article  (except 
in  absolute  necessity)  of  a  Tory.  To  be  asking  ^^^^^  ^^^.^^^ 
always  who  are  Whigs  who  have  to  sell,  is  troub-  ""^  '^°"'"- 
lesome,  and,  I  am  sorry  to  say,  uncertain.  I  wish  the  same 
mark  were  piit  upon  the  houses  of  our  well-known  enemies,  as 
the  Turks  use  to  designate  the  residences  of  liars,  that  is,  by 
painting  them  black.  This  might  be  done  with  a  very  small 
expense,  and  I  am  iirmly  convinced  that  every  well-wisher  to 
his  country  would  willingly  contribute  towards  paying  the  ex- 
pense.    The  lower  story  blackened  might  be  sufficient."  ' 

This  suggestion,  says  another  writer,  does  well  enough  as 
far  as  it  goes,  but  we  would  propose  a  still  more  prominent 
designation  of  a  Tory,  that  is,  let  the  right  side  of  the  face  and 
the  i-ight  hand  be  dyed  black,  and  if  that  don't  answer,  it  will 
not  be  any  great  loss  if  the  whole  body  be  set  to  dying.'' 

August  23. — ^The  French  fleet  returned  to  Khode  Island  on 
Thursday  last,  (20th,)  but  had  suftered  so  considerably  in  the 
late  stomi,  together  with  some  slicrht  eno-a^ement  „     ^  x-i  .     . 

'        ~  o  o    o  i?  rencQ  r  leet  go  to 

with  the  enemy,  that  they  judged  it  necessary  to  Boston, 
retire  in  order  to  refit ;  in  consequence  of  which  resolution,  the 
whole  fleet  sailed  for  Boston  yesterday.  General  Sullivan, 
with  the  other  general  officers,  were  of  opinion  that  they  had 
not  suftered  to  such  a  degree  but  that  they  were  capable  of 
sufficiently  co-operating  with  the  Americans  in  the  reduction  of 
Newport,  without  danger  to  the  fleet ;  consequently  the  gen- 
eral, in  the  name  of  all  the  general  officers  of  his  army,  protested 
against  the  count's  withdrawing  with  his  fleet  and  army  at  this 
critical  juncture,  as  this  expedition  would  not  have  been  under- 
taken at  this  time,  had  it  not  been  for  the  assurance  he  had  given 
of  assisting  the  American  army  to  the  utmost  of  his  power.'' 

August  29. — ^Testeedat,  the  fleet  of  his  Most  Christian 
Majesty,  commanded  by  Admii-al  Count  D'Estaing,  arrived 

Pennsylvania  Packet.  '  Clift's  Diary. 

New  York  Gazette,  September  21. 

88  DI.VKY    OF   THE   EEVOLUTIOK.  [1778. 

safe  in  Nantasket  Eoad,  and  this  morning  three  of  his  frigates 
anchored  oiF  Boston.  The  fleet  has  received  considerable  dam- 
D'Estain-  at  ^S^  ^^  *^^  ^^^^  storm ;  the  count's  ship  (the  Lan- 
Boston.  guedoc,  of  ninety  guns)  is  particularly  much  dam- 
aged, her  masts  and  bowsprits  being  carried  away,  and  her 
rudder  injured.  In  this  condition  she  was  attacked  by  a  Brit- 
ish ship  of  fifty  guns,  when,  to  her  mortification,  she  coiild 
bring  but  five  or  six  of  her  guns  to  boar  upon  the  enemy. 
After  firing  four  hours  upon  the  Languedoc,  the  British  man- 
of-war  left  her,  having  made  very  little  addition  to  the  damage 
she  sustained  in  the  storm,  and  killed  only  one  man  and  wound- 
ed two  or  three.  The  damaged  ships  are  repairing  with  the 
utmost  expedition,  and  in  all  probability  will  soon  be  in  a  con- 
dition to  give  the  dastardly  Britons  a  drubbing,  should  they 
have  the  eflVontery  to  attempt  to  stand  before  them. 

Tliis  afternoon  the  Count  D'Estaing,  with  his  suite,  came  np 
to  Boston  in  his  barge.  He  was  saluted  on  his  landing  by  the 
cannon  of  the  American  fortresses  and  ships  in  the  harbor,  and 
all  respects  were  paid  him  that  time  and  circumstances  would 
allow.  The  count  and  his  oificers.  General  Heath,  the  Mar- 
quis de  la  Fayette,  the  principal  officers  of  the  American  ma- 
rine, and  other  gentlemen,  dined  with  General  Hancock.' 

SmcE  the  departure  of  the  French  fleet  from  Rhode  Island, 
the  operations  of  the  Americans  against  the  enemy's  strong- 

\ction  on  holds  in  that  quarter  have  been  carried  on  Avith 
Ehodo  Island,  gj-gat  vigor ;  aud  last  night  it  was  unanimously  de- 
tennincd  by  the  general  ofiicers  in  council  to  change  the  posi- 
tion of  the  army  from  the  advanced  batteries  before  the  ene- 
my's lines,  and  to  take  post  on  Butt's  Hill,  at  the  north  end  of 
the  island,  till  the  return  of  the  fleet.  This  was  effected  before 
two  o'clock  this  morning,  with  the  gi-catest  order,  the  picket, 
commanded  by  Colonel  Wigglesworth,  remaining  on  Quaker 
Hill,  a  mile  in  front  of  the  main  body,  and  Livingston's  and 
Lauren's  corps  advanced  on  the  east  and  west  roads,  a  mile  be- 
yond the  picket.     At  seven  o'clock,  the  advanced  corps  were 

■  New  Hampshire  Gazette,  September  8. 

1778.]  ACTION    ON   KHODE   ISLAND.  89 

attacked  by  the  enemy,  and  after  returning  the  fire  briskly,  re- 
tired skirmisliing  to  the  picket  on  Quaker  Hill.  Here  the 
whole  made  a  stand,  and  were  reinforced  on  the  left  by  a  regi- 
ment from  Glover's  brigade,  commanded  by  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Sprout,  and  on  the  right  by  a  regiment  from  Yarnum's  bri- 
gade, commanded  by  Lieuteuant-Colouel  Livingston.  The  ac- 
tion now  became  severe ;  the  Americans  were  well  posted,  and 
twice  repulsed  the  enemy  on  their  left,  but  they  being  strongly 
reinforced,  and  a  general  action  not  intended  on  this  ground, 
the  advanced  corps  were  ordered  to  retire,  which  they  did  with 
the  greatest  order  and  regularity,  having  five  killed  and  sixteen 
wounded  on  the  left,  and  bringing  ofl:'  a  lieutenant  of  grena- 
diers and  seven  privates  prisoners.  Tlie  enemy,  about  nine  in 
the  morning,  began  a  cannonade,  which  was  returned  with 
great  spirit,  and  skirmishing  continued  between  the  advanced 
parties  until  near  ten,  when  their  two  ships  of  war  and  some 
small  armed  vessels,  having  got  up  the  river  on  the  right  flank 
of  the  Americans,  the  enemy  bent  most  of  their  force  that  way, 
and  endeavored  to  turn  their  right  under  cover  of  their  ships. 
Tliey  were  twice  driven  back  in  much  confusion,  when  a  third 
eSbrt  was  made  with  greater  numbers.  General  Sullivan  now 
ordered  the  right  to  be  reinforced,  and  a  sharp  conflict  of  near 
an  hour  succeeded,  in  which  the  artiller}^  of  both  armies  played 
briskly  from  the  hills.  The  enemy  were  at  length  routed,  and 
fled  in  great  confusion  to  a  hill  where  they  had  camion  and 
works  to  cover  them,  leaving  their  dead  and  wounded  on  the 
field.  We  took  about  sixty  prisoners.  Tlie  action  must  have 
ended  in  the  ruin  of  the  British  army,  had  not  the  redoubts  on 
the  hill  covered  them  from  a  close  pursuit.  Immediately  after 
the  repulse  of  the  enemy  on  the  right,  they  appeared  advanc- 
ing on  the  left,  in  consequence  of  which,  Glover's  brigade  and 
General  Tyler's  militia,  supported  by  Titcomb's  brigade,  were 
ordered  to  advance  and  form  in  a  cross  road  within  half  a  mile 
of  the  enemy.  They  accordingly  took  post,  and  a  cannonade, 
with  skirmishing,  ensued,  and  continued  till  dark.  It  was  not 
judged  advisable  to  attack  them  in  their  works,  as  the  Ameri- 
cans, inferior  in  number  to  the  enemy,  were  much  fatigued, 
and  had  been  without  provision  or  refreshment  of  any  kind  for 
thirty-six  hours. 

90  DIAEY   OF   THE   EEVOLUTION.  [1778. 

Too  much  praise  cannot  be  given  to  the  ofEcers  and  soldiers 
in  general  for  their  exemplary  bravery.  The  -^vhole  of  tlie 
troops  that  were  engaged  received  the  thanks  of  the  general  in 
orders.  The  Americans  killed,  wonnded,  and  missing,  are  two 
hundred  and  eleven ;  about  sixty  supposed  to  be  killed.  Tlie 
enemy's  loss  is  computed  at  three  hundred  killed  and  wounded, 
of  which  number  forty  or  fifty  of  the  latter  fell  into  our  hands, 
and  about  one  hundred  and  sixty  were  left  dead  on  the  field. 

Mr.  "Walker,  of  Massachusetts  Bay,  Avho  acted  as  brigade 
major,  is  among  our  slain.  Major  Sherburne,  of  the  same  State, 
unfortunately  lost  his  leg  by  a  cannon  ball.  Young  Mr.  Hen- 
ley, of  Boston,  is  M'ounded  in  his  wi-ist  and  through  the  body. 
Lieutenant-Colonel  William  Livingston  received  two  contusions 
on  his  breast,  from  balls  whose  force  was  too  far  spent  to  pene- 
trate his  body,  and  had  his  horse  killed  under  him  by  a  cannon 
shot.  There  are  three  or  four  more  ofiicers  of  Colonel  Jackson's 
regiment  slightly  wounded.  The  whole  of  his  corps  distin- 
guished themselves." 

'  New  York  Journal,  September  14.  A  ministerial  paper,  printed  in  Newport, 
of  tlie  3d  of  September,  gij-es  the  following  account  of  this  action :  Last  Satur- 
day morning  it  being  discovered  that  the  rebels  had  dismantled  their  redoubts  op- 
posite to  our  Unes,  Sir  Robert  Pigot  gave  orders  for  the  grenadiers  and  light  in- 
fantry, with  the  Ilessian  chasseurs,  to  advance,  which  they  did  with  their  usual 
alacrity,  being  supported  by  the  22d,  43d,  Brown's  and  Fanning's  regiments,  with 
the  regiment  De  Huyne  and  two  regiments  of  Anspach.  It  was  discovered  as 
they  advanced  that  the  rebels  had  been  for  several  days  removing  their  stores  and 
heavy  cannon  to  the  north  end  of  the  island.  The  troops  met  with  little  opposi- 
tion till  they  had  advanced  some  miles,  when  they  were  fired  upon  from  behind 
stone  walls  by  large  parties  of  the  rebels  posted  to  annoy  them.  But  these  ob- 
stacles were  soon  removed  by  the  ardor  of  the  troops,  who  rushed  on  with  such 
impetuosity,  that  the  rebels  were  soon  obliged  to  betake  themselves  to  their  last 
post,  which  was  upon  Windmill  Hill,  so  strongly  fortified  and  so  commanding  a 
spot,  that  Brigadier-General  Smith  thought  it  most  prudent  to  check  the  progress 
of  the  troops,  (who  had  been  already  fatigued  by  so  long  a  march,)  and  to  take 
post  on  Quaker  Hill.  The  troops  remained  in  this  situation  all  the  next  day,  in 
hopes  the  rebels  would  feel  hold  enough  to  renew  the  attack,  which  they,  how- 
ever, declined,  and  took  themselves  off  on  Sunday  night,  leaving  their  barracks 
in  good  order. 

The  loss  of  the  rebels  on  this  occasion  is  supposed  to  be  between  three  and 
four  hundred  killed  and  wounded. 

Thus  ended  the  third  expedition  to  Rhode  Island,  so  greatly  to  the  honor  of 


ArorsT  30. — ^This  morning  the  American  army  pitclied 
tlieii"  tents  on  the  front  of  Butt's  Hill,  on  Rhode  Island,  when 
a  heavy  cannonade  commenced,  and  has  continued  Americans 
through  the  whole  day.  At  seven  this  evening  a  island. 
picket  was  posted  in  advance  of  the  first  line,  and  a  chain  of 
sentinels  formed  from  the  east  to  the  west  river.  In  conse- 
quence of  authentic  intelligence  received,  that  Lord  Howe, 
with  his  fleet,  had  sailed  from  Sandy  Hook,  and  that  from  the 
best  information  one  hundred  and  fifty  sail  of  transports  Avere 
in  the  "Western  Sound,  with  five  thousand  troops,  bound  to 
Newjiort,  a  council  was  called,  who  were  unanimously  of  opin- 
ion, (considering  the  situation  of  the  army,  the  absence  of  the 
fleet,  and  the  momentary  expectation  of  the  enemy's  receiving 
a  strong  reinforcement  of  troops,  with  a  number  of  ships,)  that 
the  island  should  be  evacuated,  which  has  been  completed  in 
perfect  order  and  safety,  not  leaving  behind  the  smallest  article 
of  provision,  camp  equipage,  or  military  stores." 


From  Lewis,  Monsieur  Gerard  came 

To  Congress  in  this  town,  sir, 
They  bow'J  to  him,  and  he  to  them, 

And  then  they  all  sat  down,  sir. 

Begar,  said  Monsieur,  one  grand  coup, 

You  shall  bientot  behold,  sir ;  ■  • 

This  was  believ'd  as  gospel  true, 

And  Jonathan  felt  bold,  sir. 

So  Yankee  Doodle  did  forget 

The  sound  of  British  drum,  sir, 
How  oft  it  made  him  quake  and  sweat. 

In  spite  of  Yankee  rum,  sir. 

Mr.  Sullivan,  that  there  is  no  doubt  he  will  be  enrolled  among  the  heroes  of  New 

Such  was  the  bravery  of  the  troops  engaged,  British,  Hessians,  and  Anspach , 
that  they  appeared  to  vie  with  each  other  in  their  exertions  against  the  enemy. — 
RivingtorC s  Royal  Gazette,  September  16. 

'  This  evacuation  was  completed  the  same  evening,  and  the  next  morning  at 
seven  o'clock  the  British  fleet  appeared  off  Point  Judith. — New  Hampshire  Garxtte, 
September  15. 

92  DIAEY  OF   THE   EEVOLTJTION.  [1778. 

He  took  his  wallet  on  his  back, 

His  rifle  on  his  shoulder, 
And  veow'd  Rhode  Island  to  attack, 

Before  he  was  much  older. 

In  dread  array  their  tatter'd  crew, 

Advanc'd  with  colors  spread,  sir, 
Their  fifes  played  Yankee  doodle,  doo, 

King  Hancock  at  their  head,  sir. 

What  numbers  bravely  cross'd  the  seas, 

I  cannot  well  determine, 
A  Bwarm  of  rebels  and  of  fleas, 

And  every  other  vermin. 

Their  mighty  hearts  might  shrink  they  tho't, 

For  all  flesh  only  grass  is, 
A  plenteous  store  they  therefore  brought, 

Of  whiskey  and  molasses. 

They  swore  they'd  make  bold  Pigot  squeak,' 

So  did  their  good  ally,  sir, 
And  take  him  pris'ner  in  a  week. 

But  that  was  all  my  eye,  sir. 

As  Jonathan  so  much  desir'd 

To  shine  in  martial  story, 
D'Estaing  with  politesse  retir'd, 

To  leave  him  all  the  glory. 

He  left  him  what  was  better  yet 

At  least  it  was  more  use,  sir. 
He  left  him  for  a  quick  retreat, 

A  very  good  excuse,  sir. 

To  stay,  unless  he  rul'd  the  sea. 

He  thought  would  not  be  right,  sir, 
And  Continental  troops,  said  he. 

On  islands  should  not  fight,  sir. 

Another  cause  with  these  combined, 

To  throw  him  in  the  dumps,  sir, 
For  Clinton's  name  alarmed  his  mind. 

And  made  him  stir  his  stumps,  sir.^ 

'  Sir  Robert  Pigot  commanded  the  British  forces  on  Rhode  Island. 
'  Rivington's  Gazette,  October  3. 


September  1. — The  monsieiirs  and  the  rebels  are  likely  to 
come  to  blows  on  account  of  the  late  movements  in  Ehode 
Island.  When  the  Yankees  heard  of  the  intended  D.j;5tai„<,  ^^^ 
co-operation  of  the  French  fleet  with  Sullivan,  suiiivan. 
they  all  rushed  down  to  Rhode  Island,  with  King  Hancock, 
that  insuflferable  piece  of  bravery,  at  their  head.  It  was  given 
out  that  D'Estaing  would  make  his  preparations  to  swallow 
the  British  on  Sunday,  and  that  he  would  swallow  them  on  the 
following  day.  (A  precedent  for  such  a  destruction  was  found 
by  every  Presbyterian  parson  on  a  previous  Lord's  day,  and 
all  their  flocks  veowed  it  would  be  jest  so.)  But  it  so  happened 
the  gallant  Howe  called  the  Frenchman  out  to  battle,  and  he 
left  his  "  faithful  allies,"  (with  nothing  bi^t  faith  to  help  them,) 
to  return  as  soon  as  he  had  drubbed  the  British  fleet. 

He  returned  to  Rhode  Island,  dismantled  and  dismayed, 
having  in  his  excursion  not  only  had  the  British  fleet  agarast 
him,  but  the  wrath  of  Heaven,  and  soon  after,  against  the  "  ur- 
gent solicitations  of  the  rebel  commander  (Mr.  Sullivan)  and 
his  oflicers,  he  again  set  sail  for  Boston,  to  refit  his  scows,  and 
recover  his  equanimity.  This  last  act  is  the  cause  of  the  pres- 
ent diffici;lties.  The  rebels  say  the  fleet  did  not  need  repairs, 
and  the  monsieurs  say,  "  Be  gar  we  will  feet."  But  this  is  not 
all :  the  renowned  (La)  Fayette  has  challenged  Mr.  Sullivan  for 
something  he  said  in  general  orders,  and  we  are  hourly  expect- 
ing to  hear  of  death  among  the  rebels.' 

'  Letter  of  Joshua  Longstreet,  September  3.  Rivington,  under  the  head  of 
Intelligence  Extraordinary,  says  :— "Our  correspondent  at  Boston  informs  us  that 
the  renowned  Don  Quixotto,  Drawcansiro  de  I'ayetto,  being  highly  oifended  at 
General  Sullivan's  refusing  his  challenge,  rode  post,  in  six  hours,  to  Congress,  in 

94:  DIAEY   OF   THE   EETOLUTION'.  [1778. 

Septembee  16. — Eaelt  tliis  morning,  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Simcoe,  with  the  Queen's  Eangers,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Enime- 
British  Excursion  rick,-  with  the  chasseurs,  and  a  detachment  of  the 
New  York.  '  sccoud  battalion  of  General  Do  Laiicey's  brigade, 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Tarleton,  with  the  dragoons  of  the  legion, 
and  one  troop  of  Colonel  Emmerick's,  and  the  Hessian  Jagers, 
moved  from  their  resj)ective  encampments  near  King's  Bridge. 
Lieutenant-Colonels  Simcoe  and  Emmerick  marched  undis- 
covered between  two  rebel  pickets,  and  got  one  mile  and  a 
half  in  the  rear  of  a  body  of  two  hundred  and  thirty  select  Vir- 
ginia riflemen,  strongly  posted  in  front  on  Babeoek's  Heights, 
under  the  command  of  Colonel  Gist.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Tarle- 
ton marched  to  Colonel  Philip's  farm.  About  six  in  the 
morning,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Emmerick,  with  the  detachment 
of  De  Lancey's,  attacked  the  rebels,  and  though  discovered 
when  going  to  attack,  killed  three  on  the  spot,  wounded  sev- 

order  to  fight  every  indiTidual  of  that  august  assembly.  A  challenge  was  accord- 
ingly delivered  to  each  member,  but  as  none  of  these  gentlemen  had  ever  worn  a 
sword,  and  as  those  who  receive  a  challenge  have  the  right  to  choose  their  weapon, 
there  were  warm  debates  and  great  diversity  of  opinions  concerning  the  instru- 
ment of  death  most  proper  to  be  used  ;  some  declared  for  needles,  some  for  bod- 
kins, some  for  ploughshares,  some  for  gray  goose  quills,  and  some  for  clyster 
pipes;  after  many  solemn  debates,  it  was  at  length  resolved  to  submit  the  weapon 
to  the  determination  of  the  French  ambassador.  Three  members  of  Congress 
were  immediately  deputed  to  wait  on  Monsieur  Gerard ;  they  approached  his  Ex- 
cellency with  three  times  three  bows,  to  which  his  Excellency  returned  twelve ; 
the  deputies  determined  not  to  be  outdone  by  French  politeness,  bowed  thirteen 
times,  the  exact  number  of  the  United  States,  and  then  proceeded  to  business. 
Monsieur  Gerard  requested  a  moment  for  consideration ;  the  Marquis  meanwhile 
amused  himself  before  the  glass,  taking  snuif,  and  now  and  then  cutting  a  little 
caper ;  the  deputies  in  silent  expectation  continued  standing,  for  the  representative 
of  the  Grand  Monarque  thought  it  was  inconsistent  with  his  dignity  to  ofl'or  them 
chairs.  Monsieur  Gerard  at  last  broke  silence  by  declaring  that  as  the  persons 
challenged  had  an  undoubted  right  by  the  laws  of  chivalry  to  choose  their  weapon, 
the  Marquis  must  fight  the  Yankees  in  their  own  way. 

"Our  young  hero,  violently  oifended  with  such  indignity,  and  resolutely 
determined  to  support  the  honor  of  his  king  by  some  signal  exploit,  set  out 
instantly  for  Boston,  and  on  the  road,  in  imitation  of  the  Siianish  knight,  res- 
olutely encountered  a  flock  of  sheep  and  a  windmill.  What  hmbs  were  lost  in  this 
engagement,  our  correspondent  does  not  mention,  but  the  young  Quixote  swears, 
par  bleu,  that  Franklin,  the  Congress,  their  Gcncr.als,  &c.,  are  all  a  pack  of  jean 
f res."— JiU'inr/loti's  Royal  Oaxctle,  October  21. 


1778.]  DANIEL   HOKSMAXDEN.  95 

eral,  and  took  thirty -five  prisoners,  among  Avliich  arc  three  offi- 
cers. Tlie  rehels  were  so  briskly  charged,  that  many  of  them 
forgot  their  arms,  &c.,  and  fled  with  the  utmost  precipitation ; 
their  colonel  in  particular,  scampering  off  without  his  breeches 
or  boots,  and  'tis  thought  he  was  wounded  in  his  flight.  At 
the  same  time,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Tarleton,  with  the  dragoons, 
charged  a  body  of  rebels  posted  on  Yalentine's  Hill,  but  as  the 
enemy  were  near  a  very  thick  wood,  they  took  shelter  where 
the  horse  could  not  possibly  act,  which  prevented  their  sus- 
taining any  other  loss  than  the  capture  of  a  few  of  their  num- 
ber. Tlie  only  loss  sustained  by  his  Majesty's  troops  in  both 
attacks,  was  one  horse  of  Emmerich's  killed.' 

By  accounts  from  Fort  Clinton,  on  Hudson  Eiver,  we  learn 
that  the  magistracy  of  the  State  of  New  York  send  their  dis- 
affected iidiabitants  into  that  place,  from  whence 

,  .         1  .  1  ■,  n  n  William  Smith. 

they  are  transmitted  in  vessels,  under  a  nag  ot  truce, 
to  New  York  city.  These  persons  are  discriminated  by  theii* 
refusal  to  make  attestations  of  their  allegiance  to  the  State,  and 
to  renounce  the  tyrant  of  Britam.  It  appears  that  the  highest 
characters  are  not  winked  at.  Tlie  Honorable  "William  Smith, 
Esq.,  formerly  of  the  royal  council  under  the  former  govern- 
ment, and  author  of  the  History  of  New  York,  &c.,  forced  out 
of  his  inglorious  neutrality,  has  been  lately  brought  to  the  test, 
and  refusing  the  oatli,  was  about  four  or  five  weeks  since  de- 
livered to  the  enemy  through  this  channel.  His  Majesty  of 
Britain  will  be  difficulted  to  provide  for  his  faithful  a;dherents, 
and  may  think  in  earnest  of  selling  Hanover  and  his  other  Ger- 
man dominions  to  raise  a  fund  equal  to  their  expectations. 
Where,  then,  Avill  such  as  Mr.  Smith,  who  are  justly  despised 
both  by  royalists  and  Amrricans,  find  shelter  and  relief  P 

SEPTEinjEB  28. — Wednesday  last,  departed  this  life  at  Flat- 
bush,  on  Long  Island,  in  the  SStli  year  of  his  age,  the  Honor- 
able Daniel  Ilorsmanden,  Esq.,  President  of  his  Majesty's 
Council,  and  Chief  Justice  of  New  York.     His  remains  were 

'  Gaine's  Mercury,  September  21.         ^  Pennsylvania  Packet,  September  17. 

96  DIAKY    OF   THE   KEVOLUTION.  [1778. 

decently  interred  in  Trinity  cliurcli-yard  the  Friday  following. 
He  was  a  native  of  Great  Britain,  but  has  resided  in  America 
above  fifty  years.' 

The  British  commander  at  Kcw  York  having  information 

that  seven  hundred  rebel  militia  were  cantoned  in  the  neigh- 

skirmish  near    horhood  of  liackeusack,  New  Jersey,  a  little  after 

Tappan.  eleven  o'clock  last  night,  ordered  the  troops  to 
march.  Tlie  second  battalion  of  light  infantry  led  the  column, 
supported  by  the  2d  regiment  of  grenadiers,  with  the  33d 
and  64:th  regiments,  these  commanded  by  Major-General  Gray. 
Between  one  and  two  this  morning  they  arrived  at  the  rebel 
cantonments ;  Major  Straubenzee  had  been  detached  with  six 
companies  of  the  same  battalion  of  light  infantry  ;  the  other  six 
under  the  Honorable  Major  Maitland,  kept  the  road,  by  which 
manosuvres  the  enemy's  patrol,  consisting  of  a  sergeant  and 
about  a  dozen  men,  was  entirely  cut  oif.  Major  Straubenzee 
moved  on  with  the  71st  light  company,  and  in  a  small  village 
surprised  a  party  of  Virginia  cavalry,  styled  Mrs.  Washing- 
ton's Guards,  consisting  of  more  than  one  hundred,  commanded 
by  Lieutenant-Colonel  Baylor,  who,  with  Major  McLeod  and 
two  other  officers,  upon  forcing  the  door  of  a  house,  attempted 
to  get  up  a  large  Dutch  chimney ;  the  two  former  were  mor- 
tally wounded,  the  third  killed,  and  the  fourth  made  prisoner. 
Upon  entering  the  house,  one  of  the  rebel  officers,  demanding 
the  name  of  the  corps  which  had  attacked  them,  was  answered, 
"  The  British  light  infantry,"  on  which  he  exclaimed,  "  Then 
we  shall  all  be  cut  off." 

From  lience  a  part  of  Sir  James  Baird's  company  was  de- 
tached to  a  barn  where  sixteen  privates  were  lodged,  Mdio,  dis- 
charging ten  or  twelve  pistols,  and  striking  at  the  troops  sans 
effct  with  their  broadswords,  nine  of  them  were  instantly 
bayoneted,  and  seven  received  quarter.  Major  Maitland's 
force  coming  up  at  that  time,  attacked  the  remainder  of  the 
rebel  detachment,  lodged  in  several  other  barns,  with  such 
alertness  as  prevented  all  but  three  privates  from  making  their 

'  New  York  Gazette,  September  28. 


escape.  Tlie  troops  lay  on  theii-  arms  till  daybreak,  wlicn 
moving  forward,  the  light  infantry  fell  in  with  a  volunteer 
company  of  militia  in  a  very  thick  wood  and  swamp ;  these 
gave  one  fire,  which  the  40th  company,  commanded  by  Cap- 
tain Montgomery,  returned  and  drove  them  oif,  leaving  six 
dead,  but  afterwards  scampering  across  a  road  in  front  of  a 
company  of  our  grenadiers,  three  more  were  killed  by  them. 
The  light  infantry  in  pursuing  them  up  to  Tajjpan,  where  they 
were  entirely  dispersed,  took  five  prisoners,  all  of  them  wound- 
ed. The  whole  loss  of  the  British,  on  this  occasion,  was  one 
private  of  second  battalion  light  infantry  killed.' 

AsioifG  the  rebel  prisoners  lately  taken  in  jSTow  Jersey,  and 
brought  to  !Rew  York,  is  a  Major  Yan  Buren,  from  Albany,  who 
is  well  known  by  many  respectable  refugees  in  the 
city  for  his  activity  in  apprehending  and  impris-  "'"' 
oning  the  loyalists.  He  was  master  of  the  ceremony  at  the  dec- 
laration of  independence  in  Albany ;  at  the  close  of  that  day, 
he  conducted,  with  great  pomp,  the  burning  of  the  king's  arms, 
formerly  deposited  as  an  ornament  in  the  Coiirt  Ilall,  and  ex- 
pressed monstrous  indignity  on  that  occasion,  against  the  king 
and  his  friends ;  in  short,  he  has  been  instrumental  to  many 
acts  of  tyranny  and  oppression  to  the  king's  friends.  As  a  re- 
ward for  his  meritorious  deeds,  to  encourage  the  spirit  of  re- 
bellion, and  to  discourage  that  of  loyalty,  and  on  the  j^rinciple 
to  return  good  for  evil,  perhajDS  some  pretended  friend  to  gov- 
ernment may  intercede  for  his  release.'' 

October  3. — Tbh  contemptible  figure  which  the  British 
king  and  ministry  have  cut  in  the  present  war  cannot  be  bet- 
ter shown  than  in  the  valedictory  manifesto  and  ^,jg  commission- 
proclamation  which  has  been  published  to-day  at  ers-vakdictory. 
ISTew  York,  by  Carlisle,  Clinton,  and  Eden.  Those  gentlemen 
seem  to  consider  their  master's  commission  as  a  sort  of  a  pass 
to  go  a  begging  with ;  for  if  any  thing  can  justly  be  called 
begging,  this  last  performance  of  theirs  deserves  that  name. 

Eivington's  Royal  Gazette,  October  3.        '  New  York  Gazette,  October  i 
Vol.  II.— t 

98  DIAEY   OF   THE   EETOLUTIOX.  [1778. 

It  is  in  the  true  stylo  of  "  God  bless  your  honors,  bestow  your 
charity  for  the  Lord's  sake."  Poor  devils !  why  don't  they  get 
home  and  mind  their  hardware  and  broadcloth,  and  not  pester 
us  with  scribbling  letters  and  petitionary  proclamations. 

But  these  gentlemen  have  another  business  in  hand  besides 
begging,  and  that  is  lying.  Last  winter  their  newspapers  were 
stuffed  with  every  falsehood  they  could  invent  respecting  the 
friendly  and  pacific  disposition  of  France  towards  Britain;  and 
we  were  told  a  thousand  times  over  by  the  ministry  and  Gen- 
eral Howe  that  France  would  give  us  no  assistance.  But  as  the 
lie  of  that  day  is  over,  and  France  has  actually  joined  us,  those 
same  mean  and  pitiful  mortals  have  changed  their  note,  and 
are  now  as  busy  in  abusing  France  as  they  before  were  in  cry- 
ing her  up  and  abusing  us.  But  the  poor  devils  will  abuse 
anybody  now  their  hand  is  in,  and  it  is  hoped  the  good  people 
of  France  and  America  will  consider  them  as  men  out  of  then" 
senses,  and  treat  them  accordingly.' 

The  conduct  of  the  British  commissioners  since  their  ar- 
rival on  this  continent,  has  been  such  as  deserves  the  highest 
The  encomiums  from  every  friend  of  truth,  virtue,  and 

tuo  American's,  humanity,  and  the  contrast  that  appears  in  their 
conduct  compared  with  the  illiberal,  indecent,  and  absurd  re- 
solves and  acts  of  Congress,  must  convince  even  the  rebels  that 
their  rulers  are  a  set  of  men  as  destitute  of  huraauity  and  truth 
as  they  are  of  dignity  of  character;  and  that  the  low  sphere  of 
life  they  formerly  moved  in,  is  that  only  in  which  they  could 
be  of  use  to  society.  The  generous  terms  offered  to  the  re- 
volted colonies  upon  the  arrival  of  the  British  commissioners 
at  Philadelphia,  are   such,  they  observe,  as  need    only   be 

'  Pennsylvania  Packet,  October  15.  The  appeals  of  the  commissioners  prov- 
ing ineffectual,  they  changed  their  conduct  and  denounced  hostiUty  and  destruc- 
tion, in  their  most  terrific  forms,  to  tliose  who  had  rejected  conciliation  and 
friendship.  In  the  proclamation  of  October  Sd,  they  warned  the  people  of  the 
total  and  material  change  which  was  to  take  place  iu  the  future  conduct  of  hos- 
tilities, should  they  still  persevere  in  their  obstinacy  ;  and  more  especially  as  that 
was  said  to  be  founded  upon  the  pretended  alliance  with  France.  The  Americans 
were^irtually  threatened  with  all  the  extremes  of  war,  and  to  have  their  country 
desolated.— (7o)-(/oK,  ii.  393. 

1778.]  THE   BEITISn   COMinSSIONEES.  99 

Icnown  to  be  approved  of,  and  the  magnanimous  conduct  of 
Great  Britain  could  never  be  placed  in  a  clearer  point  of  view. 
Tlie  Congress  surely  cannot  be  serious  Tvhen  they  imagine  that 
a  union  with  Great  Britain  on  such  terms  could  not  be  advan- 
tageous to  them ;  for  were  they  in  full  possession  of  independ- 
ence, and  at  peace  with  all  the  world,  the  protection  and  as- 
sistance of  Great  Britain  would  be  of  more  consequence  to 
America  than  any  mercenary  alliance  with  a  foreign  court. 

The  Congress,  in  their  last  manifesto,  with  all  the  impu- 
dence peculiar  to  men  raised  to  stations  above  what  they  either 
deserved  or  could  expect,  liave  endeavored  to  asperse  the  char- 
acter of  the  British  army  with  charges  equally  illiberal  and 
false.  Had  the  British  troops  proceeded  in  the  manner  they 
describe,  and  carried  fire  and  sword  before  them,  it  is  prob- 
able that  Congress  would  not  at  this  time  dictate  to  the  conti- 
nent of  America ;  and  perhaps  the  subjugated  colonies  would 
have  considered  the  proceeding  as  just  and  useful ;  just  in  as 
far  as  it  was  necessary  to  put  a  stop  to  rebellion,  and  useful  in 
diminishing  a  contest  that  now  subsists.  The  offers  of  his  Maj- 
esty's commissioners  were  generous  without  lessening  the  dig- 
nity of  the  kingdom  they  represented,  condescending  without 
servihty,  and  were  mutually  advantageous  to  both  parties.  It 
was  not  the  prowess  of  the  Americans,  their  French  alliance, 
nor  their  resources,  that  extorted  such  offers  from  the  mother 
country'.  Xo  doubt  the  interest  of  the  nation  coincided  with 
the  magnanimity  of  Britons  in  holding  forth  such  terms.  But 
from  a  kingdom  arrived  at  that  pitch  of  glory,  riches,  and 
strength,  and  whose  resources  are  so  inexhaustible,  it  would 
be  absurd  to  suppose  it  proceeded  from  any  motive  of  fear  or 
distrust.  K"otwithstanding  that  luxury  is  the  natural  concomi- 
tant of  wealth  and  riches,  the  troops  of  Britain  are  not  ener- 
vated ;  her  soldiers  and  seamen  as  gallant  and  numerous  as 
a  nation  that  spreads  her  canvas  on  ten  thousand  ships,  and 
covers  the  ocean  with  fleets  fraught  with  her  riches,  can  scarce 
be  supposed  to  cringe  to  a  Pandemonium  that  would  bow 
their  heads  to  the  representatives  of  a  Machiavelian  court. 
The  commissioners  of  Great  Britain  have  now  left  the  sword 
to  determine  the  fate  of  America,  and  there  is  little  room  to 

100  DIAET   OF   THE   KEVOLUTION.  [1778. 

doubt  wliich  side  will  be  successful.  It  cannot  be  supposed 
that  tbe  war  will  be  conducted  on  the  mild  principles  that 
have  already  influenced  the  conduct  of  the  English.  Tlie  Con- 
gress alone  must  be  accountable  for  the  event.  Tlie  colonies 
are  British,  and  her  troops  must  keep  or  conquer  them.  If 
fire  and  sword  is  to  be  the  ultimate  means  used  to  recover  our 
colonies,  when  the  milder  medium  of  reconciliation  has  been  re- 
jected, it  will  at  last  convince  the  Americans  that  what  they  call 
tlie  natural  rights  of  mankind,  are  in  some  cases  detrimental  to 
their  political  rights ;  and,  in  a  civilized  state,  often  diametrical- 
ly opposite.  This  continent  does  not  belong  to  the  Americans ; 
it  is  a  part  of  the  British  empire,  and  cannot  bo  separated 
without  the  violation  of  the  most  just  and  dear  ties  of  society.' 

OcTOEEE  17. — ^The  British,  at  New  York,  have  embarked 

ten  full  regiments,  and  the  vessels  have  fell  down  with  them 

,>  .:       .,.      to  the  Hook.     "We  have  information  by  deserters 

Motions  of  tno  </ 

British  Army.  ^|^jg  ^^j  ^]^g^^  ^j^q  enemy  have  evacuated  Paulus 
Hook  and  Hoobuck;  if  so,  they  have  no  fort  left  in  Jersey. 
They  were  also  evacuating  Fort  "Washington  and  Fort  Inde- 
pendence ;  their  other  works  without  King's  Bridge  tliej^  had 
abandoned  some  days  ago.  "We  observed  them  moving  oil' 
from  their  encampment  nearest  us  on  Staten  Island  this  morn- 
ing, whether  with  intent  to  leave  the  island,  or  settle  down 
on  some  other  part  of  it,  is  yet  uncertain." 

The  tlieatre  being  open  last  evening,  the  Marquis  do  La 
Fayette  being  in  company  with  his  Excellency  the  President 
Anecdote  of  ^^  Cougrcss,  askcd  hiui  to  accompany  him  to  tlie 
LaFayetto  play.  The  President  politely  excusing  himself, 
the  marquis  pressed  him  to  go.  The  President  then  informed 
the  marquis  that  Congress  having  that  day  passed  a  resolution, 
recommending  to  the  several  States  to  enact  laws  for  the  sup- 
pression of  theatrical  amusements,  he  could  not  possibly  do 
himself  the  honor  of  waiting  upon  him  to  the  play.     "Ah  !  " 

'  "  Philarethcs,"  in  Eivington's  Koyal  Gazette,  December  P. 
'  Now  Jersey  Gazette,  October  21. 


replied  the  marquis,  "have  Congress  passed  such  a  resolution? 
then  I  -will  not  go  to  the  play." ' 

October  26. — This  day,  at  Boston,  a  largo  company  of 
gentlemen  and  ladies  dined  on  board  the  Languedoc,  at  the 
invitation  of  the  Count  D'Estaing.    The  eutertain- 

1.111  *•  n   r^  1    n'Estaing's  Ball. 

ment  was  highly  elegant.     A  picture  oi  Greueral 
"Washington,  at  full  length,  lately  presented  to  the  count  by 
General  Hancock,  was  placed  in  the  centre  of  the  upper  side 
of  the  room,  the  frame  of  which  was  covered  with  laurels.^ 

OcTOBEK  27. — By  letters  from  Philadelphia,  we  learn  that 
on  the  receipt  of  the  last  manifesto  from  the  English  commis- 
sioners, one  of  the  Congress  had  the  resolution  to  make  the 
following  short  speech : 

"I  have  listened  to  this  manifesto  with  great  attention,  and 
I  am  not  asluuned  to  acknowledge  that  it  breathes  a  spirit  of 
candor  and  resolution  by  which  I  am  considerably  Eivington's 
influenced.  JSTo  man  in  this  august  assembly  will  Extmoi'di'aar'y. 
dare  to  express  a  doubt  of  my  sincere  attachment  to  the  true 
interest  of  my  country.  I  am  convinced  that  the  interest  of 
America  is  inseparable  from  that  of  Biitain,  and  that  our 
alliance  with  France  is  unnatural,  unprofitable,  absurd.  I 
therefore  move,  that  this  phantom  of  independence  may  be 
given  up."  He  had  scarcely  uttered  the  words  before  the 
President  sent  a  message  to  fetch  the  Polish  count,  Pulaski, 
who  liappened  to  be  exercising  part  of  his  legion  in  the  court- 
yard below.  The  count  flew  to  the  chamber  where  the  Con- 
gress sat,  and  with  his  sabre,  in  an  instant  severed  from  his 
body  the  head  of  this  honest  delegate.     Tlie  head  was  ordered 

'  Ke\T  York  Journal,  Xorembcr  2.  On  the  ICth  of  October,  the  Congress 
passed  the  following  resolve: — AVhereas  frequenting  play-houses  and  theatrical 
entertainments  has  a  fatal  tendency  to  divert  the  minds  of  the  people  from  a 
due  attention  to  the  means  necessary  for  the  defence  of  their  country  and  pres- 
ervation of  their  liberties. 

Jicsolved, — That  any  person  holding  an  office  under  the  United  States,  who 
Bhall  act,  promote,  encourage  or  attend  such  play,  shall  be  deemed  unworthy  to 
hold  such  office,  and  shall  be  accordingly  dismissed. — Journals  of  Congress. 

^  New  York  Journal,  Xoveniber  Ui. 


by  tlie  Congress  to  be  fixed  on  the  top  of  the  liberty  pole  of 
Philadelphia,  as  a  perpetual  monument  of  the  freedom  of 
debate  in  the  Continental  Congress  of  the  United  States  of 

OcTOBEK  29. — ^This  evening  a  superb  ball  was  given  at  the 

Concert  Hall,  in  Boston,  by  General  Hancock,  at  which  were 

present,  his  Excellency  Count  D'Estaino;,  and  a 

Hancock's  Ball.    ^         ,  ^      ^  ■,     i  .  ,        -r^  ,     „ 

number  ot  otticers  belonging  to  the  Irench  fleet. 
There  were  upwards  of  a  hundred  of  the  principal  ladies  of  the 
town  present,  who,  being  richly  and  elegantly  dressed,  added  a 
most  enchanting  brilliancy  to  the  evening,  and,  in  the  eyes  of 
their  countrymen,  at  least,  gave  no  bad  specimen  of  American 
female  grace  and  beauty.^ 

November  2. — ^The  intelligence  to-day,  that  may  be  de- 
pended upon,  is,  that  tlie  British  have  made  a  very  consider- 
Eumorsfrom  ^^^'^  embarkation,  supposed  already  to  amount  to 
Now  York.  jieaY  ten  thousand,  onboard  one  hundred  and  fifty 
sail  of  transports,  which,  at  diflerent  times,  have  fallen  down 
from  New  York  to  Sandy  Hook  and  the  Avatering  place,  and 
were  every  moment  expected  to  sail.  There  are  different 
rumors  as  to  their  destination ;  some  say  to  Boston,  others  to 
South  Carolina.  But  it  is  generally  believed,  considering  all 
circumstances,  that  the  West  Indies  are  the  object.  The  em- 
barkation still  seems  to  be  going  on,  which  leads  to  a  conclu- 
sion that  a  total  evacuation  of  New  York  will  ensue ;  concern- 
ing this,  however,  opinions  are  much  divided.  There  is  a  i-e- 
port  in  New  York  that  Jamaica  is  taken,  and  it  is  said  that 
rum  and  molasses  have  had  a  very  extraordmary  rise  in  conse- 

Novembee  9. — ^The  family  of  the  Count  D'Estaing  is  very 
ancient,  and  the  only  one  in  France  allowed  to  bear  the  king's 
arms,  with  a  small  distinction  denoting  a  subject.     It  has  cn- 

Rivington's  Royal  Gazette,  October  28.        ^  New  York  Journal,  Nov.  16. 
New  York  Journ.-il,  November  9. 

1778.]  COUNT  d'estaing.  103 

joyed  this  extraordinary  lienor  for  near  eight  hundred  years.  Tlie 
occasion  of  its  being  conferred  was  this :  About  the  year  1000, 
Philip  Augustus,  King  of  France,  was  engaged  in  „ 

r  o  '  o  '  o   o         ^       Count  D'Estaing. 

a  war  with  the  Flemings.  In  a  bloody  battle,  in 
which  his  own  force  was  much  inferior,  being  only  30,000, 
while  that  of  the  enemy  was  80,000,  the  king  was  personally 
attacked  by  a  Flemish  officer,  who  was  on  the  point  of  slaying 
him  with  his  lance.  D'Estaing,  an  ancestor  of  the  present 
count,  and  an  officer  of  rank  in  the  king's  army,  perceiving 
the  imminent  hazard  to  which  his  master  was  exposed,  instantly 
rushed  between  the  lance  and  him,  and  receiving  it  in  his  own 
body,  fell  dead  at  the  king's  feet.  Philip  was  so  affected  with 
this  instance  of  generous  bravery,  that  he  ordained  that  the  de- 
scendants of  one  who  had  given  his  life  for  the  preservation  of 
his  own,  should  forever  wear  his  arms. 

A  number  of  Indian  chiefs  and  delegates  from  the  Penob- 
scot and  ]!^ova  Scotia  tribes  lately  Avaited  on  the  count  at  Bos- 
ton, and  were  received  on  board  the  Languedoc,  and  treated 
by  him  with  much  civility.  It  Avas  easy  to  discover  that  these 
savages  had  not  lost  their  former  strong  attachment  and  pre- 
dilection to  the  French.  They  inquired  much  after  the  king 
of  France,  whom  the  Indians  almost  universally  call  their 
father ;  whereas  the  appellation  commonly  given  by  their  sa- 
chems to  the  British  king  has  been  only  that  of  brother. 
Among  other  discourse  with  the  French  admiral,  they  told  him 
they  had  heard  a  new  thing  which  gave  them  pleasure,  that 
their  father,  the  king  of  France,  had  lately  entered  into  a  treaty 
of  friendship  with  the  States  of  America,  and  had  sent  a  num- 
ber of  his  great  ships  and  best  warriors  to  support  them  against 
the  ships  and  armies  of  _the  king  of  Britain  ;  but  that  this  re- 
port had  been  often  contradicted  by  the  friends  of  the  latter, 
who  affirmed  that  only  a  few  small  French  vessels  had  come 
to  trade  with  the  people  of  the  United  States,  for  the  sake  of 
the  very  high  price  they  could  now  obtain.  That  not  knowing 
what  to  rely  on,  they  had  come  to  see  with  their  own  eyes,  and 
make  report  to  their  brethren  on  their  return.  The  count  gave 
them  some  handsome  presents,  sent  by  them  some  tokens  of 
friendship  to  others,  and  gratified  them  with  a  particular  view 

101  DIAKY   OF   TUE   EEVOLUTIOX.  [1778. 

of  the  ships,  &c.,  at  wliich  they  expressed  the  greatest  admira- 
tion, and  went  oif  highly  satisfied.' 

JSTovEMEEE  11. — ^This  day,  a  party  of  Tories,  Indians,  and 
regulars,  under  the  command  of  Colonel  Butler,  made  a  descent 
on  the  fort  at  Cherry  Valley.  An  officer  -who  was  in  tlie  fort, 
gives  the  following  account  of  the  affair : 

On  Saturday  night,  7th  of  ISTovembcr,  an  express  arrived 
from  Fort  Stanwix,  informing  that  an  Oneida  Indian  had  ac- 
Massaorc  at  quaintcd  them  that  he  sat  in  council  in  the  Seneca 
Cherry  Yaiioy.  country  witli  the  Six  Nations,  and  other  tribes, 
and  that  they  had  concluded  to  attack  Fort  Alden,  in  Cherry 
Valley.  On  Sunday  morning  a  sergeant  and  twelve  men  were 
sent  on  the  road  by  Beaver  Dam,  towards  the  enemy,  to  con- 
tinue five  days ;  another  scout,  with  a  non-commissioned  officer, 
and  five  men,  were  sent  on  the  road  to  Springfield,  to  continue 
four  days ;  these  two  roads  being  the  only  avenues  from  the 
enemy's  country  to  this  place,  except  an  old  Indian  path  that 
liad  been  neglected  by  us.  At  the  same  time,  we  sent  by  the 
same  i-oads  scouts  in  the  morning,  which  returned  at  night. 
On  "Wednesday,  the  11th,  it  rained  very  hard ;  the  enemy 
came  by  tlie  above-mentioned  path,  past  by  two  liouses,  and 
lodged  themselves  in  a  swamp  a  small  distance  back  of  Mr. 
"Wells'  house,  head-quarters;  at  half-past  eleven,,  Mr. 
Hamlin  came  by  and  discovered  two  Indians,  who  fired  upon 
him,  and  shot  him  through  the  arm ;  he  rode  to  Mr.  Wells', 
and  acquainted  the  colonel,  the  lieutenant-colonel,  major,  and 
adjutant  being  present ;  the  two  last  (tlio  liousc  at  tliis  time  be- 
ing surrounded  by  Indians)  got  to  the  fort  through  their  fire ; 
the  colonel  was  shot  near  the  fort.  The  enemy,  eight  hundred 
in  number,  consisting  of  five  hundred  Indians,  commanded  by 
Brant,  fifty  regidai's  under  Captain  Colvill,  and  another  captain 
with  some  of  Johnson's  rangers,  and  above  two  hundred  Tories, 
the  whole  under  Colonel  Butler's  command,  immediately  sur- 
rounded tlie  fort,  excluding  several  officers  who  were  quartei-ed 
out  of  the  garrison,  and  had  gone  to  dinner;  they  commenced 

'  Xcw  Jersey  Gazette,  Xovciiibcr  25. 


a  very  heavy  fii'e  npou  the  fort,  ■«'hich  held  three  and  a  half 
hours,  and  M-as  as  briskly  returned ;  they  were  so  near  as  to 
call  to  the  fort  and  bid  the  "  damn'd  rebels "  to  surrender, 
whicli  was  answered  with  three  cheers,  and  a  discharge  of  can-, 
non  and  musketry.  At  four  p.m.,  the  enemy  withdrew.  Cap- 
tain Ballard  sallied  out  with  a  j)arty,  which  the  enemy  endeav- 
ored to  cut  oif,  but  were  prevented  by  a  reinforcement.  Tlie 
next  day  they  made  it  their  whole  business  to  collect  horses, 
cattle,  and  sheep,  which  they  effected,  and  at  sunset  left  the 
place.  The  enemy  killed,  scalped,  and  most  barbarously  mur- 
dered, thirty-two  inhabitants,  chiefly  women  and  children,  also 
Colonel  Aldcn,  and  the  following  soldiers  of  his  regiment,  viz. : 
Eobert  Henderson,  Gideon  Day,  Tliomas  Sherridan,  Pclletiah 
Adams,  Simeon  Hopkins,  Benjamin  Worcely,  Thomas  Holden, 
Daniel  Dudley,  Tliomas  Knowles,  and  Oliver  Deball.  The 
following  officers  were  taken  prisoners,  viz. :  Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel Stacey,  Lieutenant  Aaron  Holden,  Ensign  Garret,  Sur- 
geon's Mate  Francis  Soiiza  De  Bierve,  and  thirteen  privates ; 
burnt  twenty-four  houses  Avith  all  the  grain,  etc.,  took  above 
sixty  inhabitants  prisoners,  part  of  whom  they  released  on  go- 
ing off.  They  committed  the  most  inhuman  barbarities  on 
most  of  the  dead.  Eobert  Henderson's  head  was  cut  off,  his 
skull  bone  was  cut  out  with  the  scalp.  IMr.  Willis'  sister  was 
ripped  up,  a  child  of  Mr.  Willis',  two  months  old,  scalped,  and 
arm  cut  off;  the  clergyman's  Avife's  leg  and  arm  ciit  off,  and 
many  others  as  cruelly  treated.  Many  of  the  inhiibitants  and 
soldiers  shut  out  from  the  fort,  lay  all  night  in  the  rain  Avith 
the  children,  who  sufl:ered  A'ery  much.  The  cattle  that  were 
not  easy  to  drive,  they  shot.  "We  Avcrc  informed  by  the  pris- 
oners they  sent  back,  that  the  lieutenant-colonel,  all  the  officers 
and  continental  soldiers,  were  stripped  and  drove  naked  before 

The  fort  was  commanded  by  the  brave  Major  "Whiting,  of 
Dedham,  in  Massachusetts,  and  the  two  cannon  under  the  direc- 
tion of  the  brave  Captain  Hickling,  of  Boston,  who  was  chief 
engineer  in  building  the  fort,  and. whose  assistance  contributed 
ui  saA'ing  it.' 

'  Xew  Jersey  Gazette.  December  31. 

106  DIAEY   OF   THE   REVOLUTION.  [1778. 

E'ovEsrBER  23. — ^Tins  morning  Major-General  Con-n-ay  set 
out  from  Philadelphia  on  his  return  to  France.  The  history  of 
the  treatment  this  gentleman  has  received  is  so 
^'  singular,  that  it  must  make  a  figure  in  the  anec- 
dotes of  mankind.  lie  has  lost  his  commission,  and  he  has  been 
refused  the  common  certificate  which  every  officer  receives  at 
the  expiration  of  his  service,  unless  his  delinquencies  have  been 
very  substantial  indeed.  His  crime  was  being  accused  of  writ- 
ing a  letter  to  a  confidential  friend,  communicating  an  opinion 
that  the  commander-in-chief  (General  "Washington)  was  not 
equal  to  the  great  task  he  was  charged  with. 

The  above  is  extracted  from  a  late  Pennsylvania  paper, 
and  said  to  be  written  by  Major-General  Lee.' 

November  25.  —  A  correspondent  in  Charleston,  South 

Carolina,  says : — "  A  body  of  armed  men,  supposed  to  be  about 

Incursion  into   ^^®   hundred,   chiefly   on  horseback,  with   four 

Georgia.  pieces  of  artillery,  from  St.  Augustine,  in  Florida, 
have  made  a  very  sudden  and  rapid  incursion  overland,  by  way 
of  the  Alatamaha,  into  the  neighboring  State  of  Georgia,  burn- 
ing all  the  houses,  and  destroying  every  thing  in  their  way. 
It  does  not  appear  that  they  were  discovered  before  last  Fri- 
day, yet  by  Sunday  they  had  advanced  to  within  four  miles  of 
Sunbury,  and  burnt  every  house  on  the  other  side  of  Newport 
ferry,  but  not  without  receiving  some  check  from  a  body  of 
militia  collected  under  Colonel  Screven,  together  with  the  con- 
tinentals of  the  third  and  fourth  battalions,  who  had  retreated 
in  order  to  receive  reinforcements,  to  Midway  meeting-house, 
where  they  were  intrenching  to  make  a  stand,  but  having  dis- 
puted every  inch  of  ground  against  a  superior  enemy,  they  lost 
a  few  men,  and  had  some  of  their  most  valuable  officers  wound- 

'  Rivington's  Royal  Gazette,  December  19.  In  the  same  paper  is  the  follow- 
ing:— "A  junto  is  formed  at  Philadelphia,  and  said  to  consist  of  Generals  Jlidiin, 
Thompson,  Arnold,  and  Sinclair;  their  object  is  the  removal  of  GeneranVashing- 
ton  from  the  chief  command  of  the  rebel  army.  The  Generals  Lee  and  Gates, 
■with  all  tlie  Yankees  who  have  resolution  enough  to  declare  themselves  of  a  party,  well  to  this  enterprise.  About  twelve  months  ago  a  motion  for  superseding 
General  Washington  was  carried  by  only  one  voice." 

1778.]  BEITISn   ABANDON   GEOKGIA.  107 

ed."  "We  since  learn  that  the  militia  have  every  where  turned 
ont  with  the  greatest  alacrity,  and  that  such  vigorous  measiires 
are  pursuing  as,  Avith  the  co-oj^eration  of  South  Carolina,  will 
probably  not  only  disappoint  the  designs  of  the  enemy,  but 
also  cut  off  tlieir  retreat.  The  opinion  of  some  is,  that  this  ex- 
pedition has  been  contrived  by  Governor  Tonyn  on  purpose  to 
pacify  or  get  rid  of  the  clamorous  Tories  and  horse  thieves 
which  he  has,  by  intimidating  suggestions  and  lavish  promises, 
for  years  past,  drawn  from  South  Carolina,  and  other  States,  to 
strengthen  the  province  under  his  government." 

HovEinsEE  27. — ^The  British  have  as  suddenly  abandoned 
the  State  of  Georgia  as  they  invaded  it,  and  retired  into  East 
Florida.  Tlieir  hasty  retreat  was  occasioned  by  j,^,^,^^  ^j,^^^^^ 
an  express  sent  to  Colonel  Prevost,  advising  him  Georgia. 
of  a  naval  and  land  force  coming  against  him  from  South 
Carolina,  who  might  cut  off  his  retreat,  and  by  the  sudden  ap- 
pearance of  some  vessels  at  the  same  time  off"  Sunburj'',  which 
they  apprehended  to  be  the  American  fleet.  Previous  to  their 
going  oft',  they  sent  away  near  one  thousand  head  of  cattle, 
some  sheep,  about  three  hundred  horses,  two  hundred  negroes, 
and  other  plunder.  Although  the  enemy  have  destroyed  al- 
most every  thing  in  their  way,  within  a  mile  of  each  side  of  the 
road  south  of  Ogeechie,  yet  many  buildings  and  other  property, 
supposed  to  liave  been  burnt  and  destroyed,  are,  since  their 
departure,  found  untouched.  Colonel  Prevost,  in  many  in- 
stances, has  shown  that  Inimanity  and  generosity  for  which 
British  officers  were  formerly  distinguished.  The  land  force 
which  came  against  Georgia  consisted  of  eighty-six  regulars, 

'  Colonel  Screven,  who  in  the  first  skirmish  was  inhumanly  shot  on  the  ground, 
having  before  surrendered  and  sued  for  quarter,  has  since  died  of  the  wounds 
he  received  from  his  savage  murderers.  The  character  of  this  gentleman,  as  a 
firm  patriot,  a  gallant  officer,  a  truly  worthy  member  of  the  community  wherein 
he  Hved  ;  and  in  private  life  that  of  an  affectionate  husband,  a  kind  and  indulgent 
parent,  and  steadfast  friend,  must  render  his  loss  deservedly  and  imiversally  re- 
gretted. In  fine,  he  lived  the  worthy  citizen,  and  fought  and  died  the  brave 
and  gallant  champion  in  his  country's  cause. — Quis  desiderio  sit  modus  tarn  cari 
capitis. — Peiinsyhania  Packet^  January  28,  1*779. 

'  Eivington'a  Gazette,  January  20,  1779. 


and  about  five  hnudred  Scofelites  and  rangers  in  one  body,  ^vlio 
entered  the  country  at  Fort  Howe,  and  marched  on  by  land 
under  Colonel  Prevost ;  while  between  four  and  fire  hundred 
regulars,  in  another  body,  eonimanded  by  Colonel  Fuser,  landed 
upon  Colonel's  Island  near  Sunbury,  (fordable  at  low  water,) 
and  marched  into  that  town.  Their  naval  force  consisted  of 
no  more  than  the  ship  Lord  Germaine,  of  twenty  guns,  (two 
and  three-pounders,)  the  brig  Spitfire  of  sixteen,  the  sloop 
Musquito  of  ten,  the  sloop  Tonyn's  Revenge  of  eight,  a  large 
galley  with  two  twelve  or  eighteen-pounders  in  her  bow,  a 
large  fiat,  and  a  number  of  boats,  &c.,  most  of  them  mounting 
one  or  two  swivels,  and  generally  lay  at  St.  Simon's  inlet. 
After  Colonel  Fuser  withdrew  from  Sunburj'',  the  two  bodies 
joined  at  Newport  ferry,  where  they  intrenched,  to  cover  and 
give  time  to  their  hunters  to  get  oft'  with  the  cattle,  and  when 
that  was  accomplished  they  followed. 

A  great  variety  of  conjectures  having  been  formed  concern- 
ing this  expedition.  One  is,  that  they  came  only  to  forage- 
Another,  that  it  was  undertaken  merely  to  pacify  the  clamors 
of  the  discontented  Scofelites,  by  giving  them  an  opportunity 
to  j)lunder,  till  the  grand  scheme  in  which  it  was  intended  to 
employ  them  should  be  ripe.  Another,  that  they  had  some 
more  extensive  object  in  view,  and  a  part  of  their  plan  had 
failed  them  ;  perhaps  their  scaljjing  brethren  and  the  numer- 
ous bands  of  Tories  they  expected  to  co-operate  with  them,  did 
not  appear  at  the  time  appointed.  Another,  that  it  was  a 
project  to  stop  the  sale  of  estates  of  attainted  persons,  and  en- 
deavor to  get  ofl^  their  slaves.  Another,  that  the  enemy  Avere 
impelled  by  the  want  of  a  suflicient  supply  of  provisions,  and 
the  consequent  dread  of  a  famine,  to  risk  their  whole  strength 
to  procure  cattle.  But  the  opinion  that  seems  to  be  most  prob- 
able is,  that  the  late  expedition  is  only  part  of  one,  long  since 
projected  by  that  restless,  artful,  specious  and  aspiring  deserter 
and  betrayer  of  his  coimtry,  the  well-known  Moses  Kirkland, 
improved  by  Governor  Tonyn,  the  Indian  agent,  and  General 
Grant,  for  the  conquest  of  the  Southern  States,  with  a  view  to 
share  the  spoil  among  them,  and  with  the  Loyal  Eefugkes,  as 
they  style  themselves,  who  have  basely  deserted  their  country, 

1778.]  BEITISn   ABAXDOX    GEOEGIA.  109 

and  pnt  themselves  imder  tlie  protection  of  the  British  generals 
at  New  York.  That  General  Sir  Henry  Clinton,  wlien  con- 
vinced by  experience  that  it  wonld  not  be  possible  for  all  the 
force  of  Britain  to  subjugate  America,  finding  these  people  both 
troublesome  and  expensive,  ■willing  to  get  rid  of  them  as  decent- 
ly as  possible,  and  desirons  at  the  same  time  to  prevent  an  in- 
crease of  pensions  on  the  Britisli  government,  at  last  so  far 
adopted  Mr.  Kirklaiid's  plan,  as  to  form  them  into  regiments, 
fumisli  them  with  arms,  and  the  means  for  an  embarkation  and 
invasion  of  these  States,  Avith  full  liberty  to  spread  devastation 
and  ruin  to  the  extent  of  their  inclination  and  ability,  and  a 
promise,  if  they  can  conquer,  of  the  best  plantations  and  most 
valuable  gangs  of  slaves,  in  proportion  as  they  shall  distinguish 
themselves,  together  with  a  government  on  the  British  estab- 
lishment, and  siicli  officers  (from  among  themselves)  as  the  King 
shall  be  pleased  to  approve  of.  That  to  forward  these  pur- 
poses, orders  have  been  sent  to  the  troops  and  banditti  in  East 
Florida,  to  make  a  rapid  inCursion  into  Georgia  at  a  fixed  period, 
for  securing  the  most  advantageous  posts  to  favor  future  ope- 
rations ;  and  to  the  Indian  superintendent,  at  the  same  time,  to 
pour  the  savage  allies  of  Britain,  Avitli  all  the  horrors  of  their 
warfare,  into  the  heart  of  the  settlements,  imder  the  guidance 
of  Richard  Pearis,  &c.,  wliile  the  emissaries  of  Britain,  dis- 
persed througli  these  States  under  a  variety  of  disguises,  from 
the  eastern  shore  of  Maryland  quite  to  Florida,  should  prepare 
the  ignorant,  and  the  wicked  outcasts  of  eacli,  to  repair  to  their 
standard.  But,  that  the  East  Floridans,  too  eager  to  carry 
their  part  of  the  plan  into  execiition,  had  penetrated  into  the 
country  rather  precipitately  ;  being,  perhaps,  deceived  by  their 
reliance  on  the  Indians,  and  the  Tory  embarkation  providen- 
tally  delayed,  dispersed  by  a  storm,  or  prevented  by  the  unex- 
pected news  of  the  Marquis  de  Bouille's  operations  in  the  "West 
Indies.  Be  these  conjectures  well  founded  or  not,  it  certainly 
behooves  us  to  be  spiritedly  active,  and  thoroughly  guarded, 
against  every  possible  evil  that  may  be  brought  upon  us,  by 
our  declared,  or  infinitely  more  dangerous,  concealed  enemies." 

'  Fennsj-lvania  Packet,  January  30,  1779. 

110  DIARY   OF   THE   KKYOLUTION.  [1778. 

Most  of  the  American  parricides  have  righteously  been  dis- 
appointed of  the  honors  and  rewards  they  expected  for  turning 
their  hand  against  their  native  conntry,  and  have 
onng.  ^^^^  ^j^^.^_  ^^jj^  when  it  was  too  late.  Among  the 
few  wretches  who  with  the  heart,  have  also  had  the  opportuni- 
ty to  make  money  from  the  groans  and  famishing  of  their 
countrymen,  Joshua  Loring,  a  native  of  the  State,  and  commis- 
sary of  prisoners  at  New  York,  is  one.  Somebody,  we  are  well 
informed,  asked  old  General  Eobertson,  how  this  man  got  his 
wealth  ;  the  General  replied,  "  By  feeding  the  dead,  and  starv- 
ing the  living.''''  Alluding  to  his  charging  provisions  for  those 
that  had  been  long  dead,  and  at  the  same  time  pinching  out 
for  his  own  gain,  a  part  of  the  miserable  allowance  for  those 
that  were  alive.' 

DECEinjEE  12. — ^This  evening  a  most  splendid  ball  was  given 
by  a  society  of  French  gentlemen,  to  the  principal  ladies  and 

French  Ball  at    gentlemen  of  Philadelphia,  at  the  New  Tavern. 

Philadelphia,  jjjg  ExccUcncy  the  Governor  of  Pennsylvania, 
and  his  lady,  the  lady  of  His  Excellency  General  "Washington, 
and  His  Excellency  the  French  minister,  honored  it  with  their 
company.  Both  the  outside  and  inside  of  the  ball-room  were 
handsomely  decorated  with  a  number  of  ingenious  devices  and 
mottoes,  signifying  the  present  happy  alliance  between  the 
court  of  Versailles  and  the  United  States.  Too  much  praise 
cannot  be  given  to  the  French  gentlemen,  for  the  order,  polite- 
ness, and  benevolence  with  which  they  conducted  every  part  of 
this  entertainment.  The  evening  has  been  spent  in  the  most 
agreeable  manner,  joy  appears  in  every  countenance,  and  every 
heart  seems  to  exult  in  safety,  freedom,  and  independence, 
which  have  been  ensured  to  our  country  by  the  friendship  and 
magnanimity  of  the  Protector  of  the  Eights  of  Mankind." 

TnE  good  of  the  community,  the  safety  and  security  of  the 
individuals,  is  the  direct  and  ultimate  end  of  civil  government. 
Tlierefore,  that  is  politically  and  really  just,  which  is  necessary 

'  New  York  Journal,  December  7.  '  New  Hampshire  Gazette,  Feb.  2. 

1778.]  JUSTICE   AND   EEVENGE.  Ill 

to  this  end.  Goodness  and  benevolence  to  the  great  -n-liolc 
ought  always  to  be  the  end  ahned  at  in  punishing  particnlar 
ofienders.  The  depraved  state  of  human  nature,  justice  and 
which  causes  the  necessity  of  civil  government,  Eevcnge. 
not  only  justifies,  but  requii'cs  punishment,  as  the  necessary 
penalty  of  the  law.  This  punishment  is  sometimes  awfully 
severe  and  shocking,  as  when  a  criminal  is  brought  to  the  gal- 
lows. The  scene  is  so  truly  dreadful,  that  a  tender,  compas- 
sionate heart  can  scarcely  exclude  from  it  the  idea  of  cruelty. 
It  is,  therefore,  highly  necessary,  that  our  minds  shoiild  be 
taught  and  habituated  to  distinguish  between  cruelty  and 
justice.  Justice,  in  the  matter  of  punishment,  obliges  the 
judge,  the  executive  officer,  to  inflict  the  severest  penalty  of 
the  law,  even  death  itself,  purely  from  a  regard  to  right  or 
justice,  and  with  a  benevolent  design  to  the  public  good. 
Cruelty  is  either  undue  and  needless  punishment,  or  the  inflict- 
ing a  necessary  punishment  with  a  spirit  of  revenge  and  hatred 
against  the  unhappy  criminal.  If  a  jury  in  drawing  up  a  ver- 
dict, even  upon  the  fullest  evidence  against  a  murderer,  or  the 
judge  in  sentencing  him  to  death,  are  actuated  by  the  spirit 
of  personal  hatred  or  revenge,  they  themselves  are  really  mur- 
derers in  the  sight  of  Heaven,  even  while  they  are  employed  in 
the  execution  of  necessary  justice.  From  the  murderous  source 
of  private  pique  and  revenge,  frequently  arise  those  mobs  and 
riots  which  destroy  the  peace  of  society,  and  oppose  the  im- 
portant end  of  government.  These  outrageous  ebullitions  of 
heated,  misguided  malevolence,  are  eqiially  detestable  in  their 
principle  and  dreadful  in  their  consequences.  Every  tnie 
friend  to  government  and  good  order  must  seriously  lament,  and 
will  endeavor  to  suppress  these  whirlwind  bursts  of  violence, 
which  indiscriminately  tear  down  all  before  them,  and  equally 
involve  the  innocent  and  the  guilty  in  promiscuous  ruin.  At 
the  same  time  it  is  evidently  true  that  these  horrible  calamities 
and  disorders  are  frequently  occasioned  by  the  magistrate's 
neglecting  his  duty  in  not  preventing,  or  timely  removing  the 
unhappy  occasions  of  them.  It  is,  therefore,  the  wisdom  and 
incumbent  duty  of  civil  rulers  to  prevent  these  dreadful  crimes 
by  wise  laws  steadily  executed,  which  is  much  easier  in  itself, 

112  DIABY   OF   THE   EEVOLUTIOX.  [1778. 

and  safer  to  tlie  communitj,  than  Leing  reduced  to  the  hard 
necessity  of  j^iinishiug  tliem ;  and  one  or  the  other  of  these 
must  be  done,  or  else  government  is  at  an  end.  Let  us  give, 
for  iUustration,  an  instance,  which  nearly  affects  the  peace  and 
quiet  of  these  States.  Shoidd  those  who  have  gone  from  us, 
and  cruelly  taken  part  with  the  enemies  of  their  country,  be 
permitted  to  return  with  impunity,  and  run  at  large  among  us, 
the  certain  conseqnence  will  'bemois,  riots,  and  lloodshed ;  for 
a  people  who  have  had  the  spirit  to  go  out  and  fight  them, 
with  their  less  guilty  associates,  in  the  field  of  battle,  will  not 
patiently  endure  to  have  such  a  desperate  gang  patrolling  about 
among  them,  with  envenomed  hearts  prepared  for  secret  mis- 
chief and  miirder.  And,  therefore,  by  way  of  prevention,  it 
is  the  plainest  duty  of  our  rulers,  both  legislative  and  exec- 
utive, to  take  effectual  care  for  having  those  noxious  and  dan- 
gerous criminals  either  closely  confined,  or  banished  from  our 
land,  otherwise  their  neglect  of  duty  in  this  matter  may  bring 
upon  themselves  the  very  guilt  of  Mood. 

I  have  heard  some  Tories  still  remaming  among  ns,  and 
some,  indeed,  of  pretty  enormoiis  gigantic  size,  express  their 
uneasy  fears,  that  we  shall  not  be  able  to  keep  iip  and  main- 
tain any  regiilar  government  among  oni-selves.  This  I  have 
justly  considered  as  an  implicit  threatening,  that  they  should 
still  be  able,  as  they  have  ever  been  disposed,  to  create  great 
disturbances  and  confusions  in  the  State,  and  cut  out  more 
work  for  the  civil  authority  than  they  would  well  know  how  to 
despatch.  ISTow,  I  think  these  gentlemen  have  an  undoubted 
right  to  be  relieved  from  those  nneasy  fears  by  such  a  vigilant 
conduct,  and  resolute  exertions  of  authority,  as  may  at  once 
prevent  mobs,  and  convince  Tories  too,  that  a  people  who  have 
strength  and  courage  sufficient  to  withstand  the  combined  force 
of  all  their  enemies  without,  have  also  wisdom  and  spirit 
enough  to  maintain  government  among  themselves,  and  efi'ectu- 
ally  curb  every  disturber  of  the  peace. 

I  have  heard  it  queried  by  some,  whether  those  who  desert 
from  the  enemy,  and  voluntarily  come  back  again  to  us,  do 
not  thereby  merit  a  pardon  and  restoration  to  favor  ?  I  grant, 
that  if  they  had  done  this  a  year  or  two  ago,  when  they  were 



kindly  invited  to  it  by  repeated  proclamations  of  grace  and 
favor,  they  Tvonld  have  had  something  to  plead.  But  to  leave 
the  enemy  now,  and  quit  a  desperate  cause,  hath  not  the  least 
atom  of  merit ;  gives  not  the  least  rational  evidence  of  a  change 
of  heart,  or  betterness  of  disposition,  any  more  than  a  tomiented 
sinner^s  squirming  out  under  the  back  door  of  purgatory,  for 
the  sake  of  better  air,  is  full  proof  of  his  evangelical  repentance 
and  fitness  for  heaven. 

In  a  -word,  there  is  a  plain,  essential  dilTerence  between 
personal  revenge  and  public  justice ;  one  is  murder,  the  other 
is  saving  life.  Shoixld  a  wi-etch  murder  the  only  son  of  a 
judge  ;  the  judge  ought,  in  his  private  capacity,  to  forgive  him 
from  his  heart  this  very  great  injury,  pray  for  him,  and  sin- 
cerely desire  his  happiness,  while,  in  his  public  capacity,  he  is 
obliged  in  justice,  and  for  the  public  good,  to  pronounce  the 
sentence  of  death  upon  him. 

In  like  manner  we  are  bound,  by  the  laws  of  Christ  and 
humanity,  to  exercise  a  sincere  personal  forgiveness  towards 
the  most  guilty  and  injurious  enemies  of  our  country,  and  not 
be  actuated  in  the  least  by  an  unforgiving  spirit  of  revenge, 
while  the  public  are  obliged,  from  a  principle  of  justice  and 
self-preservation,  to  fulfil  all  those  seemingly  rigorous  measures 
which  are  necessary  for  putting  it  out  of  the  power  of  those 
enemies  to  do  still  greater  mischief  to  the  community.' 

Decembee  28. — This  day,  agreeable  to  the  constitution  of 
the  Most  Ancient  and  Worshipful  Society  of  Eree  and  ac- 
cepted Masons,  was  celebrated  at  Philadelphia,  Free  Mason 
the  Anniversary  of  St.  John  the  Evangelist.  At  Philadelphia. 
nine  o'clock  in  the  morning  near  three  hundred  of  the  brethren 
assembled  at  the  College,  and  at  eleven  o'clock  went  in  regular 
procession  from  thence  to  Christ  Church  to  attend  divine  service. 
Tlie  order  of  procession  was  as  follows,  viz. : — 1.  The  Sword 
Bearer.  2.  Two  Deacons,  with  blue  wands  tipped  with  gold. 
3.  The  three  orders,  Doric,  Ionic,  and  Corinthian,  borne  by 

"  From  the  Connecticut  Journal,  republished  in  the  New  York  Journal, 
cember  14. 

Vol.  II.— 8 

114:  DIAEY   OF   THE  EEVOLUTION.  [1T78. 

three  brethren.  4.  Tlie  Holy  Bible  and  Book  of  Constitutions, 
on  two  crimson  velvet  cushions,  borne  by  the  Grand  Treasurer 
and  Grand  Secretary.  5.  A  Eeverend  Brother.  6.  Four 
Deacons,  bearing  wands.  T.  His  Excellency  our  illustrious 
brother  George  "Washington,  Esquire,  supported  by  the  Grand 
Master  and  his  Deputy.  8.  Tlie  two  Grand  Wardens,  bearing 
the  proper  pillars.  9.  Tlie  past  Masters  of  the  different  Lodges. 
10.  The  present  Masters  of  Lodges.  11.  Tlie  Senior  Wardens. 
12.  The  Junior  Wardens.  13.  The  Secretaries.  14.  The  Ti-eas- 
urers.'  15.  Brother  Proctor's  Band  of  Music.  16.  Yisiting 
Brethren.  17.  The  Members  of  different  Lodges,  walking  two 
and  two,  according  to  seniority. 

Tlie  procession  entered  the  church  in  the  order  of  their 
march,  and  the  brethren  took  their  seats  in  the  j^ews  of  the 
middle  aisle,  which  were  kept  empty  for  their  reception.  Pray- 
ers were  then  read  by  the  Eeverend  Mr.  Wliite,  and  the  follow- 
ing anthem  was  sung  in  its  proper  place  by  sundry  of  the 
brethren,  accompanied  by  the  oi-gau  and  other  instrumental 
music,  viz : — 


Behold  how  good  and  joyful  a  thing  it  is, 
Brethren,  to  dwell  together  in  Unity. 
I  will  give  thanks  unto  Thee,  0  Lord !  with  my  whole  heart  secretly  among 
my  brethren,  and  in  the  congregation  will  I  praise  Thee.     I  will  speak  of  the  mar- 
vellous Works  of  Thy  Hands,  the  Sun,  the  Moon,  and  the  Stars,  which  thou  hast 

The  people  that  walked  in  darkness  hath  seen  a  great  light,  and  on  them  that 
dwelt  in  the  Land  of  the  shadow  of  Death,  doth  the  glorious  light  of  Jehotau 

Thou  hast  gathered  us  from  the  East  and  from  the  West,  from  the  North  and 
from  the  South ;  Thou  hast  made  us  companions  for  the  mighty  upon  Earth,  even 
for  Princes  of  great  Nations. 

0!    I  AM!    inspire  us  with  Wisdom  and  Strength  to  support  us  in  all  our 
troubles,  that  we  may  worship  Thee  in  the  Beautt  of  Holiness. 

'  Of  the  different  private  Lodges. 


After  'wliicli  a  most  excellent  and  well-adapted  sermon  was 
preached  by  our  reverend  and  worthy  brother,  William  Smith, 
D.  D.  The  text  was  taken  from  1st  Peter,  2d  chapter  and 
16th  verse.  The  brethren  have  since  requested  the  sermon  to 
be  published,  and  the  profits  to  be  applied  to  the  use  of  the 

After  divine  service  the  procession  returned  in  the  same 
order  to  the  college ;  the  musical  bells  belonging  to  the  church 
and  the  band  of  music  playing  proper  masonic  tunes.  The 
brethren  being  all  new  clothed,  and  officers  in  the  proper 
jeioels  of  their  respective  lodges,  and  their  other  badges  of  dig- 
nity, made  a  genteel  appearance. 

The  brethren  afterwards  departed  to  their  respective  lodges, 
where  they  dined  together  with  their  usual  harmony  and  so- 
ciability, the  sum  of  four  hundred  pounds  having  been  collect- 
ed in  clnirch  among  the  brethren  and  other  charitable  fellow- 
citizens  Avho  honored  them  with  their  company,  for  the  relief 
of  the  poor.' 

December  30. — Early  yesterday  morning  the  British,  un- 
der the  cover  of  several  armed  vessels,  landed  at  Brewton's 
plantation,  about  a  mile  from  Savannah.  The  British  Enter 
Continental  troops  were  drawn  up  on  an  eminence  savannah. 
aboi;t  half  a  mile  from  the  town,  near  Tatnal's  gate,  their  right 
extending  to  the  swamp  and  river,  their  left  across  the  road ; 
and  a  morass,  crossed  by  the  road,  in  their  front.  The  morass 
was  thoiight  impracticable  for  near  two  or  three  miles  up. 
Tlie  militia  were  near  the  barracks,  meant  to  cover  the  right 
of  the  regulars ;  their  whole  force  scarcely  amoimting  to  five 
hundred  men. 

The  British,  under  feint  of  attacking  us  by  the  main  road, 
filed  off  to  the  left,  and  found  means  to  cross  the  morass,  about 
a  quarter  of  a  mile  above  our  right ;  this,  as  soon  as  it  was 
known,  obliged  our  regulnrs  to  retreat,  which  was  effected  at 
the  same  time  that  the  militia  were  attacked,  and  obliged  to 
retire  through  the  town.     Our  troops  sustained  a  very  hot  fire 

'  Pennsylvania  Packet,  January  2,  1779. 

116  DIAET   OF   THE   EEVOLUTION.  [177S. 

on  tlieir  retreat  between  the  tovrn  and  barracks ;  but  by  that 
nieans  gained  the  road  which  leads  out  by  tlie  spring  house ; 
while  the  only  alternative  left  the  militia  was  to  surrender  or 
swim  McGihTay's  Creek.  Those  who  could  not  swim  were 
made  prisoners,  among  whom  Avere  Colonel  "Walton  of  the 
militia  (wounded  in  the  action)  and  Major  Habersham  of  the 
Georgia  regulars.  Colonels  Elbert  and  Harris  saved  them- 
selves by  swimming. 

At  present  our  loss  cannot  be  ascertained  ;  and  I  am  in- 
clined to  tliink  it  not  near  so  considerable  as  many  apprehend. 

Colonel  Koberts,  with  four  pieces  of  artillery,  was  posted 
near  the  Continental  ti'oops,  and  made  good  his  retreat,  with 
the  loss  of  one  of  his  pieces.  All  accounts  agree  that  the 
Georgians  are  the  most  considerable  sufferers. ' 

'  New  Jersey  Gazette,  February  10,  1779.  A  correspondent  in  Philadelphia, 
gives  the  following  account  of  this  affair: — "Scarcely  had  the  enemy  retired 
from  the  back  parts  of  Georgia,  when  a  fleet  and  armament  entered  Savannah 
River,  and  on  the  29th  of  December,  about  three  thousand  men  landed  within  two 
miles  of  the  town  of  Savannah.  A  proper  disposition  of  the  few  Continental 
troops  (about  six  hundred,  under  Colonel  Elbert)  we  had  there,  was  made  to  op- 
pose them,  but  the  same  day,  about  noon,  the  enemy  doubled  the  colonel's  right 
flank,  and  very  near  cut  off  his  retreat,  which,  however,  he  effected  through  a 
very  heavy  fire  of  the  enemy  for  near  a  mile,  but  with  the  loss  of  many  men  either 
killed  or  taken.  Colonel  Elbert  and  a  Colonel  Grimke  escaped  by  swimming  a 
creek.  The  enemy  soon  after  took  possession  of  Savannah.  The  last  accounts 
from  the  above  quarters  say,  that  our  troops  had  retired  to  a  place  called  Ebenezer, 
forty  miles  up  the  river  above  Savannah,  where  they  were  waiting  for  reinforce- 
ments, which  were  on  their  march  from  the  Carolinas  to  join  them.  It  is  impos- 
sible to  ascertain  the  design  of  the  enemy  in  this  expedition  so  late  in  the  season 
— whether  to  take  up  their  quarters  for  the  winter,  to  procure  provisions,  or  to  be 
joined  by  the  force  from  Florida.  But  certain  it  is,  that  the  inhabitants  of  the 
State  of  Georgia  will  be  greatly  distressed  by  thia  visit. — L.  W.  Elliot.\  " 


Januaey  1. — Me.  "Wasiiixgton  Last  winter  issued  a  procla- 
mation requiring  the  inliabitants  of  certain  districts  to  fatten 
their  cattle,  in  order  to  support  his  army  the  en-  Ecmarks  on 
suing  campaign.  The  British  light  infantry  hav-  Proclamation. 
ing  at  least  an  equal  interest  in  that  measure,  one  of  them,  in 
the  name  of  the  whole,  composed  the  following  exliortation  to 
accompany  and  strengthen  the  rebel  general's  requisition.  Tlie 
earnestness  with  which  he  repeatedly  returns  to  the  main  ob- 
ject of  the  poem,  shows  the  sincerity  with  which  he  seconded 
the  republican  views.  Unfortunately,  however,  the  beef  was 
fattened  in  vain.  Tlie  French  having  been  prevailed  upon  by 
the  rebel  emissaries  to  keep  their  treachery  in  countenance,  and 
to  surprise  the  world  by  a  breach  of  faith  even  beyond  all  for- 
mer examples  of  Gallic  infidelity,  the  British  force  required 
to  be  collected  for  a  time,  and  the  army  only  reaped  the  benefit 
of  the  proclamation  durmg  its  march  through  the  Jerseys.  At 
present,  however,  when  the  French  have  been  obliged  to  aban- 
don their  worthy  friends  and  steal  from  America  with  no  other 
advantage  than  what  they  may  derive  from  the  honor  of  their 
attempt,  and  when  there  is  little  chance  that  the  rebels  will 
ever  again  communicate  with  their  French  allies  unless  by  let- 
ter, it  may  not  be  improper  to  republish  the  light  infantry 
exhortation,  preparatory  to  the  operations  of  spring,  1779. 
And  as  the  British  are  willing  that  the  rebel  troops  should,  as 
heretofore,  make  use  of  all  the  beef  out  of  the  reach  of  the 
English  camps  and  march  routes,  it  is  hoped  that  the  Conti- 
nental general  will,  in  return,  second  this  their  exhortation,  by 
a  fresh  proclamation  ;  and  it  is  submitted  to  him  whether  it  may 

118  DIAET   OF   THE   EETOLTJTION.  [1779. 

not  tend  to  tlie  advantage  and  convenience  of  botli  armies  to 
have  this  measure  not  only  recommended  to  particidar  districts, 
but  tlii-oughout  the  thirteen  States,  as  the  British  troops  will 
have  occasion  for  the  bullocks  in  those  provinces  which  they 
invade,  and  the  Contiuentals  will  require  to  be  extremely  well 
nourished  during  the  long  marches  from  Geoi-gia  to  the  Bay  of 
Fundy,  in  which  probably  they  will  be  pretty  constantly  em- 


Great  Wasliington !  thou  miglity  son  of  Mars, 

Thou  thundering  hero  of  the  rebel  wars, 

Accept  our  thanks  for  all  thy  favors  past, 

Our  special  thanks  await  thee  for  the  last. 

Thy  proclamation,  timely  to  command 

The  cattle  to  be  fattened  round  the  land, 

Bespeaks  thy  generosity,  and  shows 

A  charity  that  reaches  to  thy  foes ! 

And  was  this  order  issued  for  our  sakes, 

To  treat  us  with  roast  beef  and  savory  stakes? 

Or  was  it  for  thy  rebel  train  intended, 

Give  'cm  the  hides — and  let  their  shoes  be  mended  ? 

Tho'  shoes  are  what  they  seldom  wear  of  late, 

'Twould  load  their  nimble  feet  too  much  with  weight! 

And  for  the  beef — there  needs  no  puff  about  it ; 

In  short,  they  must  content  themselves  without  it, 

Not  that  we  mean  to  have  them  starved — why,  marry, 

The  live  stock  in  abundance,  which  they  carry 

Upon  their  backs,  prevents  all  fear  of  that ! 

Then  honest  Whigs,  make  all  your  cattle  fat ; 

We  to  reward  you  for  your  care  and  pains, 

Will  visit  soon  your  crowded  stalls  and  plains, 

And  for  your  pampered  cattle  write  at  large, 

With  bloody  bayonets,  a  full  discharge. 

You  know  that  we  light  bobs  are  tough  and  hardy, 

And  at  a  push  you'll  never  find  us  tardy. 

We  have  a  stomach  both  for  beef  and  battle. 

So  honest  AVhigs,  once  more  feed  well  your  cattle, 

Obey  your  chief's  command,  and  then  'tis  plain 

We  cannot  want  for  beef  the  next  campaign ! 

And  if  we  want  for  fighting,  be  it  known. 

The  fault,  good  neighbors,  shall  be  all  your  own." 

'  Rivington'a  Royal  Gazette,  January  2. 


Jantjakt  6. — In  imitation  of  her  Majesty  our  truly  amiable 
queen,  of  the  noble  Marchioness  of  Granby,  and  of  those  six 
respectable  ladies  of  Westminster,  (the  owners  of  ,j.^^  ^^^  ^^^^ 
the  Amazon,)  who  have  respectively  equipped  pri-  Ladies, 
vate  ships  of  war,  lately,  at  their  own  expense,  to  assist  in 
humbling  the  pride  and  perfidy  of  France,  and  in  chastising 
the  rebels  of  America,  it  is  proposed  by  a  number  of  the  prin- 
cipal loyal  ladies  residing  in  ISTew  York,  to  subscribe  a  liberal 
sum  for  the  purj^ose  of  fitting  out  immediately  a  formidable  fast- 
sailing  privateer,  to  be  called  Tlie  Fair  American,  and  for  the 
honor  of  the  sex  as  well  as  for  the  sake  of  the  name,  it  is  not 
doubted  that  she  will  be  extremely  well  manned,  with  gallant 

This  instance,  while  it  reflects  great  credit  on  tlie  patriotism 
of  the  ladies,  ought  to  be  considered  by  the  rebels  as  a  proof 
of  the  flagrancy  of  their  own  insolence  and  obstinacy,  in  re- 
jecting such  generous  offers  of  reconciliation,  as  to  excite  the 
indignation  of  the  fair  sex,  whose  natural  characteristics  are 
gentleness  and  benevolence. 

While  rebel  sons  for  parricide  combine, 
Let  fame  record,  how  female  virtues  shine." 

The  following  lines  are  humbly  presented  as  a  JSTew  Year's 
gift  to  those  loyal  ladies  of  the  city  of  New  York,  who  are 
uniting  to  equip  a  formidable  privateer,  to  be^^^p^j^^^^^;^^^ 
called  The  Fair  American  ;  for  the  very  laudable  ^"™'"'-- 
purpose  of  cruising  against  the  detested  rebel  Corsairs,  and 
their  new  Popish  allies,  the  base,  perfidious  French,  by  their 
most  respectable  and  obedient  servant 

EXTTL  YiEGmiENsrs. 

When  female  hearts  beat  high  for  virtuous  fame, 
And  patriot  passions  glow  with  hallowed  flame, 
Their  good  designs,  who  can  refrain  to  paint? 
Tho'  weak  his  colors,  and  his  lines  tho'  faint. 
Hail !  lovely  fair !  who  grace  that  safe  retreat. 
Where  Britain's  friends  in  cordial  union  meet, 

'  Eivington's  Koyal  Gazette,  January  6. 


AVTiose  ■well-taught  minds,  in  just  connection  view, 

What's  to  your  God,  your  king,  and  country  due; 

Since  your  sweet  bosoms  loyal  ardors  feel, 

And  true  concern  disclose  for  public  weal ; 

Since  you  adopt  our  Royal  Charlotte's  plans, 

Who  to  her  sex  a  bright  example  stands ; 

Assured  be,  that  every  honest  man 

Will  idolize  the  fair  American ; 

Brave  loyal  tars,  and  hearts  of  oak,  will  vie 

For  you  to  fight  or  conquer,  live  or  die ; 

By  you  inspir'd,  they'll  plead  our  common  cause, 

With  vengeful  thunder,  'gainst  the  Congress'  laws ; 

Firm  to  sustain  and  resolute  to  dare, 

The  friends  of  George,  no  Gauls  or  Yankees  bear ; 

With  equal  heat  the  French  and  rebels  beat, 

And  if  they  rushed  your  lovely  lips  to  meet, 

Soon  as  full  armed,  you  bid  your  privateer. 

Go,  share  the  trophies  of  the  risiug  year, 

Her  martial  crew,  their  vent'rous  course  they  urge. 

Thro'  Neptune's  plains,  piratic  gangs  to  scourge. 

Our  ancient  foes,  in  naval  combats  foil, 

Still  in  your  laps  to  pour  the  golden  spoil ; 

Some  poet,  too,  will  teach  each  British  dame, 

That  New  York  ladies  emulate  their  fame  ; 

On  their  loved  Queen  still  fix  their  faithful  eyes. 

To  catch  her  manners  living  as  they  rise ; 

Your  loyal  compact  with  due  praise  rehearse, 

And  place  your  names  in  some  immortal  verse.' 

JAmjAEY  7. — At  Mr.  Dcane's,  in  JSTcw  York,  last  evening 
Captain  Andre°  read  an  extempore  on  Love  and  Fashion,  and 
a  characteristic  "  Dream  "  about  the  rebels,  for  wliicli  he  gained 
mnch  applause  from  the  "  fair  and  the  bold."    His  allusions  to 

Jachy  Jay,  Paddy  M'Kean,  and  other  rebellious  were 


The  following  is  the  production  referred  to  above  :  "  I  was 
lately  in  company  where  the  Metempsychosis  became  the  sub- 
ca  tain  Andre's  J®^*  °^  Conversation,  and  was  ably  explained  by  a 

Dream.  gentleman  of  erudition,  who  traced  it  from  the 
Brachmans  in  the  East,  to  Pythagoras  in  the  west,  and  very 

'  Rivjngton's  Gazette,  January  16.  ''  Afterwards  Major  John  Andre. 

'  Elliot  Manuscript. 

1779.]  CAPTAIN  aotjee's  deeam.  131 

learnedly  demonstrated  the  probability  and  justice  of  this  an- 
cient system.  How  it  was  possible  to  deny  that  when  man- 
kind degraded  themselves  from  the  character  of  rational  be- 
ings, it  became  proper  that  they  should  assume  the  figure  of 
those  beasts  to  whose  properties  they  were  already  assimilated. 
On  the  other,  how  pleasing  was  it  to  trace  the  soul  through 
its  several  stages,  and  to  behold  it  rewarded  or  pimished  accord- 
ing to  its  deserts  in  a  new  state  of  existence.  Many  fanciful 
observations  immediately  occurred  to  the  company.  Besides 
several  pair  of  turtle  doves,  some  cock  sparrows,  and  one  or 
two  butterflies  whom  we  found  among  our  acquaintances,  we 
were  led  to  take  a  survey  of  superior  characters.  We  enter- 
tained ourselves  with  viewing  the  soul  of  Louis  XIY.  trans- 
migrated into  a  half-starved  jackass,  loaded  with  heavy  pan- 
niers, and  jierpetually  goaded  by  a  meagre  Frenchman,  who, 
from  the  most  humble  of  his  slaves,  was  become  the  master 
and  tormentor  of  this  absolute  and  universal  monarch.  Alex- 
ander the  Great,  for  whose  ambitious  views  this  whole  orb  had 
been  too  confined,  was  changed  into  a  little  sorry  horse,  and 
doomed  to  spend  his  life  in  the  diurnal  drudgery  of  turning  a 
mill  to  which  he  was  constantly  fixed  with  blinds  over  his  eyes. 
Charles  of  Sweden  made  his  appearance  in  the  figure  of  a  Eus- 
sian  bear,  whilst  his  wiser  competitor  was  placed  at  the  head 
of  a  warlike  and  industrious  monarchy  of  bees.  Tlie  poetical 
soul  of  Sappho  continued  to  warble  in  the  character  of  the 
"  Love-born  nightingale,"  and  that  of  our  countryman  Pope 
(into  which  those  of  Homer,  Horace,  Juvenal,  and  Lucretius 
had  been  before  blended  and  transfused)  was  again  revived  and 
admu-ed  in  the  melodious  Swan  of  Twickenham. 

"Full  of  the  ideas  which  this  singular  conversation  Irad 
suggested,  I  retired  to  my  chamber,  and  had  not  long  pressed 
the  downy  pillow  before  the  following  vision  appeared  to  my 
imagination : 

"  I  fancied  myself  in  a  spacious  apartment,  which  I  soon  dis- 
covered to  be  the  hall  wherein  the  infernal  judges  administered 
justice  to  the  souls  which  had  animated  the  bodies  of  men  in 
the  superior  regions.  To  my  great  surprise,  instead  of  those 
grim  personages  which  I  had  been  taught  to  ex-pect,  I  fomid 

122  DIAKY   OF   TIFE   EEVOLUTIOX.  [1779. 

the  judges  (who  ^verc  then  sitting)  to  be  of  a  mild,  gentle,  and 
complacent  appearance,  imlike  many  dispensers  of  justice  in 
the  vital  air,  who  add  terror  to  severity,  and  by  their  very  as- 
pect not  only  awe  the  guilty,  but  discourage  the  umocent.  At 
one  end  of  the  hall,  after  a  short  interval,  appeared  a  numerous 
crowd  of  different  shades,  ushered  in  and  conducted  by  Mercury, 
whose  business  it  was  to  take  charge  of  the  criminals  and  see 
the  sentences  executed.  As  dreams  are  of  an  unaccountable 
nature,  it  will  not  (I  presume)  be  thought  strange  that  I 
should  behold  upon  this  occasion  the  shades  of  many  men, 
who,  for  aught  I  know,  may  be  still  living  and  acting  a  con- 
spicuous part  upon  the  worldly  theatre.  But  let  this  be  as  it 
will,  I  shall  go  on  to  relate  simply  what  appeared  to  mfe,  with- 
out troubling  myself  whether  it  may  meet  with  credit  from 

"  The  first  person  called  upon  was  the  famous  Chief-justice 
McKean,'  who  I  found  had  been  animated  by  the  same  spirit 
which  formerly  possessed  the  memorable  Jeffries.  I  could 
not  but  observe  a  flash  of  indignation  in  the  eyes  of  the  judges 
upon  the  approach  of  this  culprit.  His  more  than  savage  cru- 
elty, his  horrid  disregard  to  the  many  oaths  of  allegiance  he 
had  taken,  and  the  vile  sacrifices  he  had  made  of  jiistice  to  the 
interests  of  rebellion,  were  openly  rehearsed.  IS"otwithstand- 
ing  his  uncommon  impudence,  for  once  he  seemed  abashed, 
and  did  not  pretend  to  deny  the  charge.  lie  was  condemned  to 
assiime  the  shape  of  a  blood-hound,  and  the  souls  of  Roberts 
and  Carlisle'  were  ordered  to  scourge  him  through  the  infer- 
nal regions. 

"  Next  appeared  the  polite  and  travelled  Mr.  Deane,  who 
from  a  tricking,  hypocritical,  New  England  attorney,  was  met- 
amorphosed into  a  French  marquis,  with  all  the 
external  frippery  that  so  eminently  distinguishes 
the  most  trifling  characters  of  that  trifling  nation.     The  judges 

'  Thomas  McKean,  LL.  D.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Continental  Congress,  and 
TOted  for  Independence.  In  1799  he  succeeded  General  Mifflin  as  governor  of 
Pennsylvania,  and  remained  in  office  until  1808.    He  died  in  1817,  aged  eighty-four. 

'  Two  Quakers,  who  were  executed  in  Philadelphia  for  treason,  on  the  22d 
of  November,  1778. 

1779.]  CAPTAIN   ANDEE's   DEEA&r.  123 

deliberated  for  a  time  whether  they  should  form  theii-  sentence 
from  tlie  badness  of  his  heart,  or  the  vanity  of  his  manners ; 
but  in  consideration  of  the  many  mortifications  he  had  lately 
experienced,  they  at  length  determined  upon  the  latter,  and 
the  most  excellent  ambassador  to  his  most  Christian  majesty, 
skipped  off,  with  very  little  change  in  the  character  of  "  The 
monkey  who  had  seen  the  world." 

"  The  celebrated  Gen.  Lee,  whose  ingratitude  to  his  parent 
country  was  regarded  with  the  utmost  detestation,  assumed 
(by  direction  of  the  court)  the  figure  of  an  adder ;  ^^.n^rai  charics 
a  reptile  that  is  big  with  venom,  and  ready  to  ^'^'^• 

wound  the  hand  that  protects,  or  the  bosom  that  cherishes  it, 
but  whose  poison  frequently  turns  to  its  own  destruction. 

"  The  black  soul  of  Livingston,  which  was  '  fit  for  treason, 
sacrilege,  and  spoil,'  and  polluted  with  every  sjjecies  of  murder 
and  iniquity,  was  condemned  to  howl  in  the  body  TViHiam 
of  a  wolf;  and  I  beheld,  with  surprise,  that  he  Livingston. 
retained  the  same  gaunt,  hollow,  and  ferocious  appearance, 
and  that  his  tongue  still  continued  to  be  red  with  gore.  Just 
at  this  time,  Mercury  touched  me  with  his  wand,  and  thereby 
bestowed  an  insight  into  futurity,  when  I  saw  this  very  wolf 
hung  up  at  the  door  of  his  fold,  by  a  shepherd  whose  innocent 
flock  had  been  from  time  to  time  thinned  by  the  murdering 
jaws  of  this  savage  animal. 

"  Tlie  President  of  the  Congress,  Mr.  Jay,  next  appeared  be- 
fore the  tribunal,  and  his  trial  was  conducted  with  all  the  so- 
lemnity due  to  so  distinguished  a  character;  I 
heard,  with  emotions  of  astonishment  and  con- 
cern, that  in  various  human  forms  he  had  been  remarkable  for 
a  mixture  of  the  lowest  cunning  and  most  unfeeling  barbarity ; 
that  having,  in  his  last  shape,  received  from  nature  such  abili- 
ties as  might  have  rendered  him  useful  in  his  profession,  and 
even  serviceable  to  the  public,  he  had,  by  a  semblance  of  virtue, 
acquired  the  confidence  of  his  fellow-citizens,  which  he  after- 
wards abused  to  all  the  horrid  purposes  of  the  most  wanton 
rebellion,  and  that  being  indefatigable  in  the  pursuits  of  ambi- 
tion and  avarice,  by  all  the  ways  of  intrigue,  perfidy,  and  dis- 
simulation, he  had  acquired  the  station  of  a  chief  justice,  and. 

12i  DIAEY    OF   TUE   EETOLrTIOX.  [1779. 

in  imitation  of  the  infamous  Dudley,  had  framed  and  enforced 
statutes  that  destroyed  every  species  of  private  security  and  re- 
pose. In  fine,  that  by  his  whole  conduct  he  had  exemplified  his 
own  maxim  that  princes  were  not  the  worst  and  most  dreadful  of 
tyrants,'  and  had  given  a  fresh  demonstration  that  power  could 
never  be  well  used  when  lodged  in  mean  and  improper  hands. 

"  The  court  immediately  thought  fit  to  order  that  this  crimi- 
nal should  transmigrate  into  the  most  insidious  and  most  hate- 
ful of  animals,  a  snake ;  but  to  prevent  his  being  able  any 
longer  to  deceive,  and  thereby  destroy,  a  large  set  of  rattles 
was  affixed  to  his  tail,  that  it  might  warn  manldnd  to  shun  so 
poisonous  a  being. 

"  Tlie  whole  Continental  army  now  passed  in  revieW  before 
me.  Tliey  were  forced  to  put  on  the  shape  of  the  timid  hare, 
whose  disposition  they  already  possessed.  With  ears  erect, 
they  seemed  watching  the  first  approach  of  danger,  and  ready 
to  fly  even  at  the  appearance  of  it.  But  what  was  very  singu- 
lar, a  brass  collar  was  affixed  to  the  neck  of  one  of  their  lead- 
ers, on  which  I  saw  distinctly  the  following  lines : 

'  They  win  the  fight,  that  win  the  race.' 

Alltiding  to  the  maxim  he  had  always  pursued,  of  making  a 
good  and  timely  retreat. 

"  This  timorous  crew  having  hastily  retired,  1  beheld  a  great 
and  magnanimous  commander  of  antiquity,  transformed  into  a 
game  cock,  who  at  once  began  to  crow  and  stii;t  about  as  if  he 
was  meditating  a  combat,  but  upon  the  appearance  of  a  few 
cropple  crowned  hens,  he  dismissed  his  purjDose,  and  I  could 
see  him  at  some  distance  from  the  hall,  brushing  his  wing,  and 
ruifiing  his  feathers  at  every  Dame  Partlet  in  the  company. 
The  oddity  of  this  transformation,  and  of  the  circumstances  at- 
tending it,  excited  in  me  such  a  disposition  to  laugh,  that  I 
immediately  awakened,  and  was  forced  reluctantly  to  resign 
the  character  of  A  Dreamer." ' 

'  See  a  pamphlet  called  (I  think)  The  Nature  and  Extent  of  Parliamentary 
Power  considered. 

'  Rivington's  Koyal  Gazette,  January  23. 

1Y79.]  MOXMOUTH   COUNTY    TOKIES.  125 

Jjlntjabt  19. — The  Tory  freebooters,  who  have  their  haunts 
and  caves  in  the  pines,  and  have  been  for  some  time  past  a 
terror  to  the  inhabitants  of  Monmouth  coimty,  in  Monmouth  county 
the  Jerseys,  have,  during  the  course  of  the  present  '^''"'''• 
week,  met  with  a  very  eminent  disaster.  On  Tuesday  evening 
last.  Captain  Benjamm  Dennis,  who  lately  killed  the  infamous 
robber  Fagan,  with  a  party  of  his  militia,  went  in  pursuit  of 
three  of  the  most  noted  of  the  Piue  Banditti,  and  was  so  for- 
tunate as  to  fall  in  with  them  and  kill  them  on  the  spot.  Tlieir 
names  are  Stephen  Boiu-ke,  alias  Emmans,  Stephen  West,  and 
Ezekiel  'Williams.  Yesterday  they  were  brought  up  to  Mon- 
mouth Court  House,  and  two  of  them,  it  is  said,  will  be  hanged 
in  chaihs.  This  signal  piece  of  service  was  effected  through 
the  instrumentality  of  one  John  Yan  Kirk,  who  was  prevailed 
upon  to  associate  with  them  on  purpose  to  discover  their  prac- 
tices, and  to  lead  them  into  our  hands.  He  condiicted  himself 
with  so  much  address  that  the  robbers,  and  especially  the  three 
above  named,  who  were  the  leading  villains,  looked  upon  him 
as  one  of  their  body,  kept  him  constantly  with  them,  and  in- 
trusted him  with  all  their  designs. 

Van  Kirk,  at  proper  seasons,  gave  intelligence  of  their 
movements  to  Captain  Dennis,  who  conducted  himself  accord- 
ingly. Tliey  were  on  the  eve  of  setting  off  for  New  York,  to 
make  sale  of  their  plunder,  when  Van  Kirk  informed  Captain 
Dennis  of  the  time  of  their  intended  departure,  (wliich  was  to 
have  been  on  Tuesday  night  last,)  and  of  tlie  course  they  would 
take  to  their  boat ;  in  consequence  of  which,  and  agreeable  to 
the  directions  of  Van  Kirk,  the  captain  and  a  small  party  of 
his  militia  planted  themselves  at  Rock  Pond,  near  the  sea- 
shore, and  shot  Bourke,  West,  and  Williams.  We  were  in 
hopes  at  first  of  keeping  Van  Kirk  under  the  rose,  but  the 
secret  is  out,  and  of  course  he  must  fly  the  county,  for  the 
Tories  are  so  highly  exasperated  against  him,  that  death  will 
certainly  be  his  fate  if  he  does  not  speedily  leave  Monmoutli. 
The  Whigs  are  soliciting  contributions  in  his  favor,  and,  from 
present  appearances,  we  have  no  doubt  that  tliey  will  present 
him  with  a  very  handsome  sum.  The  destruction  of  the  Brit- 
ish fleet  could  not  diffuse  more  universal  joy  through  the  in- 

126  DIAET  OF  THE  KEVOLUTION.  [1779. 

habitants  of  Moumoutli,  than  has  the  death  of  the  above  egre- 
gious villains.  A  certain  John  Gilbertson,  of  the  same  group 
of  villains,  was  killed  about  three  ■weeks  ago,  by  a  party  of  the 
militia,  near  Tom's  Kiver.' 

Febeuaet  2. — ^Tnis  morning,  his  Excellency  General  "Wash- 
ington set  off  from  Philadelphia  to  join  the  army  in  'New  Jer- 
washiDgton  leaves  sey.     During  the  course  of  his  short  stay,  (the 

puiadeipwa,  ^jjy  relief  he  has  enj  oyed  from  service  since  he  first 
entered  into  it,)  he  has  been  honored  with  every  mark  of  esteem 
which  his  accomplished  fortitude  as  a  soldier,  and  his  exalted 
qualities  as  a  gentleman  and  a  citizen,  entitle  him  to.  Among 
other  instances,  lie  was  welcomed  at  his  first  coming  by  an  ad- 
dress from  the  Supreme  Executive  Council  and  the  magis- 
trates of  the  city,  and  politely  entertained  by  the  President  of 
Congi-ess,  the  President  of  the  State,  his  Excellency  the  Minis- 
ter of  France,  Don  Juan  Marrailles,  a  Spanish  gentleman  of 
distinction  and  amiable  character,  besides  the  numerous  testi- 
monials of  regard  shown  to  him  by  private  gentlemen.  The 
coimcil  of  this  State  being  desirous  of  having  his  picture  in  full 
length,  requested  his  sitting  for  that  pui-pose,  which  he  politely 
complied  with,  and  a  striking  likeness  was  taken  by  Mr.  Peale 
Peaie's  Portrait  of '^'^  ^^il^*^^^P^^^-     '^^^°  portrait  is  to  bc  placcd  in 

Washington.  ^]jg  Couucil  Chamber.  Don  Juan  Marrailles  has 
ordered  five  copies,  four  of  which,  we  hear,  are  to  be  sent 
abroad.  His  excellency's  stay  was  rendered  the  more  agree- 
able by  the  company  of  his  lady,  and  the  domestic  retirement 
which  he  enjoyed  at  the  house  of  the  Honorable  Henry  Lau- 
rens, Esquire,  with  whom  he  resided.* 

Febettaey  4. — It  is  painful  to  repeat  the  indubitable  ac- 
coimts  we  are  continually  receiving,  of  the  cruel  and  inhuman 
American  Prison-  treatment  of  the  subjects  of  these  States  from  the 
crsatNew  i'ork.  J^i-Jtous  in  Ncw  York  and  other  places.  They 
who  hear  our  coTmtrymen,  who  have  been  so  unfortunate  as  to 
fall  into  the  hands  of  those  unrelenting  tyrants,  relate  the  sad 

'  New  Jersey  Gazette,  February  3.        '  Pennsylvania  Packet,  February  4. 

17Y9.]  PEISON    SHIPS   AT   NEW   YORK.  127 

story  of  theii"  captivity,  the  insults  tliey  have  received,  and  the 
slow,  cool,  systematic  manner  in  which  great  nnmbers  of  those 
who  could  not  be  prevailed  on  to  enter  their  service,  have  been 
murdered,  must  have  hearts  of  stone  not  to  melt  with  pity  for 
the  sufferers,  and  burn  with  indignation  at  their  tormentors. 
As  we  have  daily  fresh  instances  to  prove  the  truth  of  such 
a  representation,  public  justice  requires  that  repeated  public 
mention  should  be  made  of  them.  A  cartel  vessel  lately  car- 
ried about  one  hundred  and  thirty  American  prisoners  from 
the  prison  ships  in  Isew  York  to  New  London,  in  Connecticut. 
Such  was  the  condition  in  which  these  poor  creatures  were  put 
on  board  the  cartel,  that  in  that  short  run,  sixteen  died  on  board ; 
upAvards  of  sixty,  when  they  were  landed,  were  scarcely  able 
to  move,  and  the  remainder  greatly  emaciated  and  enfeebled ; 
and  many  who  continue  alive,  are  never  likely  to  recover  their 
former  health.  The  greatest  inhumanity  was  experienced  by 
the  prisoners  in  a  ship  of  which  one  Nelson,  a  Scotchman,  had 
the  superintendence.  Upwards  of  three  hundred  American 
prisoners  were  confined  at  a  time  on  board  this  ship.  There 
was  but  one  small  fireplace  allowed  to  cook  the  food  of  such 
a  number.  Tlie  allowance  of  the  prisoners  was,  moreover,  fre- 
quently delayed,  insomuch  that  in  the  short  days  Neison-s 
of  November  and  December,  it  was  not  begun  to  ^"^"^  ^'''p- 
be  delivered  out  till  eleven  o'clock  in  the  forenoon,  so  that  the 
whole  coiild  not  be  served  till  three  o'clock.  At  sunset  the 
fire  was  ordered  to  be  quenched ;  no  plea  for  the  many  sick, 
from  their  absolute  necessity,  the  shortness  of  the  time,  and  the 
smallness  of  the  hearth,  was  allowed  to  avail.  The  known  eon- 
sequence  was,  some  had  not  their  food  dressed  at  all ;  many 
were  obliged  to  eat  it  half  raw.  On  board  this  ship,  no  flour, 
oatmeal,  and  things  of  like  nature,  siiited  to  the  condition  of 
infirm  people,  were  allowed  to  the  many  sick ;  nothing  but 
ship  bread,  beef  and  pork.  This  is  the  account  given  by  a 
number  of  prisoners,  who  are  credible  persons ;  and  this  is  but 
a  part  of  their  sufferings ;  so  that  the  excuse  made  by  the  ene- 
my, that  the  prisoners  were  emaciated,  and  died  by  a  conta- 
gious sickness,  which  no  one  could  prevent,  is  futile.  It  re- 
quires no  great  sagacity  to  know,  that  crowding  people  together 

128  DIAET    OF    THE   EEVOLTTTION.  [1779. 

without  fresli  air,  and  feeding,  or  rather  starving  them  in  sucli 
a  manner  as  the  prisoners  have  been,  must  unavoidably  pro- 
duce a  contagion.  Nor  is  it  want  of.  candor  to  suppose,  that 
many  of  our  enemies  saw  with  pleasure  this  contagion,  which 
might  have  been  so  easily  prevented,  among  the  prisoners  who 
could  not  be  persuaded  to  enter  their  service.  Some  of  them, 
no  doubt,  thought  they  acted  in  all  this  with  the  true  spirit  of 
the  British  Parliament,  who  began  hostilities  against  America 
by  shutting  up  the  port  of  Boston,  interdicting  the  fishery  and 
those  branches  of  trade  that  were  deemed  necessary  to  our  sub- 
sistence; and  when  some  members  objected  to  the  cruelty  of 
such  acts,  some  well-knoAvn  friends  to  the  ministry  had  the  face 
to  ring  in  the  ears  of  others,  Starvation,  starvation  to  the  rebels 
— starvation  is  the  only  thing  that  will  bring  them  to  their 
senses !  In  short,  the  inhumanity  of  the  Britons,  from  the  be- 
ginning of  this  war,  and  through  every  stage  of  it,  is  withoiat 
a  parallel  in  the  annals  of  any  civilized  nation.  These  things 
ought  never  to  be  forgotten,  though  some  would  fain  wink 
them  out  of  sight.  "We  are  not,  indeed,  to  resolve  never  to 
make  peace  with  our  enemies,  but  never  to  make  a  peace  that 
will  leave  it  in  their  power  to  act  over  again  their  intolerable 
oppressions  and  cn;elties.  We  can  never  secure  ourselves 
against  this,  but  by  maintaining,  at  all  adventures,  the  sover- 
eignty and  independence  of  these  States.  Nothing  but  this 
can  effectually  prevent  the  present  generation  from  enduring 
the  severest  punishment  for  their  noble  resistance  to  the  tyr- 
anny of  Britain,  nor  our  posterity  from  groaning  tliroughout 
all  generations  under  the  most  abject  and  cruel  bondage." 

Febefaey  7. — Yesteedat  being  the  anniversary  of  forming 
the  alliance  between  France  and  the  United  States,  the  honor- 
able the  Congress  at  Philadelphia  gave  a  public  entertainment 
to  his  Excellency  the  Minister  Plenipotentiary  of  his  Most 
Christian  Majesty,  at  which  the  following  toasts  were  drank, 
under  the  discharge  of  cannon : 

1.  May  the  alliance  between  France  and  the  United  States 

'  New  Hampshire  Gazette,  February  9. 


be  pei-petnal.  2.  Tlie  United  States.  3.  His  Most  Cliristian 
Majesty.  4.  Tlic  Queen  of  France.  5.  His  Most  Catholic  Maj- 
esty. 6.  Tlie  Princes  of  tlie  House  of  Bourbon.  Anniversary  of 
7.  Success  to  the  allied  arms.  8.  General  Wash-  ^"'^"^  Alliance, 
iugton  and  the  army.  9.  The  friends  of  liberty  in  every  part 
of  the  ^vorld.  10.  May  the  new  constellation  rise  to  the  ze- 
nith. 11.  May  the  American  stripes  bring  Great  Britain  to  rea- 
son. 12.  The  memory  of  the  patriots  Avho  have  nobly  fallen 
in  defence  of  the  liberty  and  independence  of  America.  13. 
A  safe  and  honorable  peace. 

Tlie  cheerfulness  which  existed  in  the  company  upon  the 
happy  occasion  of  their  being  assembled  was  not  to  be  exceed- 
ed, and  a  thousand  brilliancies,  alluding  to  the  alliance,  were 
uttered.  Tliere  can  be  no  doiibt  but  that  every  true  American 
and  every  true  Frenchman  will  contribute  his  eiibrts  to  pre- 
serve that  connection  which  is  formed  by  the  alliance,  and 
which  is  so  necessary  to  the  happiness  and  aggrandizement  of 
both  nations.  Tlieir  mutual  interests  dictate  such  a  conduct  in 
the  strongest  and  most  atfectionate  terms.  Tlie  principles  of 
the  alliance  are  founded  in  true  policy  and  equal  justice ;  and  it 
is  highly  probable  that  mankind  will  have  cause  to  rejoice  in 
this  union  which  has  taken  place  between  two  nations ;  the 
one  the  most  puissant  in  the  old,  and  the  other  the  most  poAV- 
erful  in  the  new  world.' 

Febeuauy  10. — Last  Tuesday,  about  three  o'clock  in  the 
morning,  a  party  of  the  new  levies  from  Staten  Island  went 
into  Woodbridge,  New  Jersey,  and  marched  up  British  Descent 
into  the  town,  imdiscovered,  to  the  house  of  '■>">  New  Jei-scy. 
Charles  Jackson,  in  which  there  happened  to  lay  that  night  a 
scout  of  Continental  troops  froni  Bonem  ToAvn,  consisting  of 
twelve  men.  The  sentinel  did  not  discover  them  till  they  had 
Avell-nigli  surroiinded  the  house,  it  being  A^ery  dark,  Avhen  he 
fired  and  ran  off,  making  his  escape ;  the  rest  being  unfortu- 
nately asleep,  Avere  taken  by  surprise  Avithout  making  any  resist- 
ance.    Their  principal  object  Avas  Captain  Nathaniel  Fitz  Kan- 

'  New  Jersey  Gazette,  February  17. 

130  UIAEY    OF   TUE   REVOLUTION.  [1779. 

dolph,  who  lived  at  tliis  house.  He  had  just  returned  from 
Staten  Island,  having  been  over  there  with  a  small  l^arty,  chief 
of  the  night,  and  was  hut  a  few  minutes  in  the  house  before 
he  was  alai-med  by  the  firing  of  the  sentinel,  when  they  in- 
stantly rushed  into  the  house  and  seized  him  and  Mr.  Jackson, 
with  the  scout.  The  party  had  gone  before  the  inhabitants 
had  time  to  collect,  without  doing  any  other  damage  except 
plundering  the  house  of  a  few  trifling  articles,  taking  the  shoe 
buckles  out  of  the  women's  shoes,  which  was  as  little,  or  more 
than  could  be  expected,  considering  the  usual  practice  of  the 
British  troops,  as  the  men  were  restramed  from  plundering  by 
their  officer,  said  to  be  a  Captain  Eyerson,  of  Buskirk's  regi- 
ment, who  seemed  actuated  by  principles  of  honor  and  human- 
ity ;  and  upon  this  occasion  imitated  the  laudable  example 
of  Captain  Eandolph,  who  has  not  only  distinguished  himself 
by  his  activity  and  bravery,  but  by  his  politeness  and  gener- 
osity towards  such  as  he  hath  taken  prisoners,  never  allowing 
his  men  to  plunder — a  practice  most  ignominious  and  base,  by 
which  Britons  have,  in  the  present  contest  with  America, 
gi-eatly  disgraced  themselves,  and  deserve  to  be  forever  de- 
spised, in  which  their  principal  ofiicers  have  joined,  and  so  simk 
themselves  to  a  level  with  the  meanest  pilfering  soldier." 

Febeuaey  is.- — -Tins  day,  the  anniversary  of  the  alliance 
with  France  was  celebrated  at  Fluckemin,  in  the  Jerseys,  at  a 
Celebration  at  ^"^^J  elegant  entertainment  and  display  of  fire- 
piQckemin.  -vyorks  givcu  by  General  Knox,  and  the  oflicers  of 
the  corps  of  artillery.  It  was  postponed  to  this  late  day  on 
account  of  his  Excellency  General  "Washington's  absence  from 

General  "Washington,  the  principal  ofiicers  of  the  army, 
Mrs.  "Washington,  Mrs.  Greene,  Mrs.  Knox,  the  gentlemen  and 
ladies  for  a  large  circuit  round  the  camja,  were  of  the  company. 
Besides  these,  there  was  a  vast  concourse  of  spectators  from 
every  part  of  the  Jerseys." 

A  correspondent  gives  the  following  account  of  the  rejoic- 

'  New  Jersey  Gazette,  February  17.  '  Same,  March  3. 

1779.]  CliLEBKATION    AT    I'LUCKEIIIN.  131 

ings : — "  On  Thursday,  the  18th,  I  rode  from  my  lodging,  near 
tliat  celebrated  spot  where  General  Dickinson,  in  1777,  took 
from  the  enemy  a  large  number  of  wagons,  horses,  &c.,  with 
but  a  handful  of  raw  militia,  to  a  place  about  eight  or  nine 
miles  distant,  called  Pluckemin,  where  the  artillery  have  their 
winter  quarters.  Tlie  huts  of  this  corps  are  situated  on  a  ris- 
ing ground,  at  a  small  distance  from  the  road,  and  unfold  them- 
selves in  a  very  pretty  manner  as  you  approach.  A  range  of 
field-pieces,  mortars,  howitzers,  and  heavy  cannon,  make  the 
front  line  of  a  parallelogram ;  the  other  sides  are  composed  of 
huts  for  the  officers  and  privates ;  there  is  also  an  academy 
where  lectures  are  read  on  tactics  and  gunnery,  and  work  huts 
for  those  employed  in  the  laboratory,  all  very  judiciously  ar- 
ranged. Tliis  military  village  is  superior,  in  some  respects,  to 
most  of  those  I  had  seen.  Its  regularity,  its  appearance,  and 
the  ground  on  which  it  stands,  throM's  over  it  a  look  of  en- 
chantment, although  it  is  no  more  than  the  work  of  a  few 

"  I  am  told  the  great  philosopher  and  warrior  of  Prussia 
thinks  it  no  dishonor  to  copy  General  "Washington  in  the  mode 
of  quartering  his  troops.  Indeed,  this  way  of  wintering  an 
army  has  every  thing  to  recommend  it,  and  more  especially  in 
America,  where  a  great  plenty  of  wood  naturally  points  to 
such  a  practice.  Little  aid  from  the  country  is  required ;  and 
the  hands  that  would  be  necessary  for  the  sawing  and  trans- 
porting timber  for  barracks  are,  by  this  means,  given  up  to 
the  culture  of  our  lands,  or  other  useful  employments. 

"His  excellency  the  commander-in-chief  arrived  from  his 
head-quarters  about  three  o'clock  in  the  afternoon.  Mrs.  "Wash- 
ington M-as  in  a  carriage,  accompanied  by  that  steady  friend  to 
the  rights  of  mankind,  Mr.  Laurens,  the  late  President  of  Con- 
gress. I  had  also  the  pleasure  of  seeing  Mr.  Duer,  late  a  mem- 
ber of  that  honorable  body  from  the  State  of  New  York. 

"  I  was  introduced  to  Mrs.  "Washington,  Mrs.  Greene,  Mrs. 

Knox,  and  a  circle  of  hrilliants,  the  least  of  which  seemed  more 

vahiable  than  that  stone  of  immense  price  which  the  King  of 

Portugal  received  from  his  Brazilian  possessions. 

.   "  About  four  o'clock  the  occasion  was  announced  by  a  dis- 

132  DIAET    OF   THE   EEYOLrTIOX.  [1779. 

charge  of  thirteen  round  of  cannon.  We  then  repaired  to  the 
academy  to  dinner.  The  company  was  composed  of  the  most 
respectable  gentlemen  and  ladies  for  a  considerable  circuit 
round  the  canij),  and  as  many  of  the  officers  of  the  army  as 
could  possibly  attend. 

"  I  had,  till  now,  only  seen  the  outside  of  the  academy.  It 
Avas  raised  several  feet  above  the  other  buildings,  and  capped 
Avitli  a  small  cupola,  which  had  a  very  good  effect.  The  great 
room  was  fifty  feet  by  thirty,  arched  in  an  agreeable  manner, 
and  neatly  plastered  within.  At  the  lower  end  of  the  room 
was  a  small  inclosure,  elevated  above  the  company,  where  the 
preceptor  to  the  park  gave  his  military  lessons.  This  was  con- 
verted into  an  orchestra,  where  the  music  of  the  army  enter- 
tained the  company.  The  style  of  the  dinner  was  of  that  happy 
kind,  between  the  extremes  of  parade  and  \mmeaning  profu- 
sion, and  a  too  great  sparingness  and  simplicity  of  dishes.  Its 
luxury  could  not  have  displeased  a  republican.  The  toasts 
were  descriptive  of  the  day,  while  the  joy  and  complacency  of 
the  company  could  have  given  umbrage  to  none,  except  our 
enemies  the  British. 

"  Just  as  night  came  on,  we  were  called  upon  to  the  exhibi- 
tion of  fireworks.  These  were  under  the  direction  of  Colonel 
Stevens,  of  the  artillery.  The  eye  was  very  agreeably  struck 
with  the  frontispiece  of  a  temple,  about  one  hundred  feet  in 
lengtli.  It  was  divided  into  thirteen  arches,  each  arch  embel- 
lished with  an  illuminated  painting,  allegoric  of  the  progress 
of  our  empire,  or  the  wise  policy  of  our  alliance ;  the  centre 
arch  was  ornamented  with  a  pediment,  and  proportionably 
larger  than  the  others ;  the  whole  supported  by  a  colonnade  of 
the  Corinthian  order.  The  diflcrent  works  in  pyroteclmy  were 
very  agreeably  disposed,  and  displayed  to  great  advantage. 

"  In  all  public  rejoicings  I  make  it  a  point  to  mix  with  the 
multitude ;  if  they  are  not  pleased,  the  demonstration  may  be 
considered  as  wrong.  In  the  present  instance  I  was  charmed 
to  find  that  every  man's  heart  went  along  with  the  occasion. 

"  When  the  fireworks  were  finished,  the  company  returned 
to  the  academy ;  the  same  room  that  had  served  to  dine  in 
served  to  dance  in ;  the  tables  were  removed,  and  had  left  a 

1779.]  CELEBKATION   AT   rLUCICIilllN.  133 

range  for  about  thirty  couple,  to  foot  it  to  no  indifferent  measure. 
As  it  was  a  festival  given  by  men  who  had  not  enriched  them- 
selves by  the  war,  the  lights  were  cheap,  and  of  their  own 
manufacture ;  the  seats  the  work  of  their  own  artisans ;  and 
for  hiightsof  dijferent  orders,  there  were  hardy  soldiers,  happy 
in  the  thought  of  having  some  hand  in  bringing  round  wliat 
they  were  celebrating. 

"  Tlie  ball  Avas  opened  by  his  excellency  the  general.  When 
this  man  unbends  from  his  station,  and  its  weighty  functions, 
he  is  even  then  like  a  philosopher,  Avho  mixes  with  tlie  amuse- 
ments of  the  world,  that  he  may  teach  it  what  is  riglit,  or  turn 
its  trifles  into  instruction. 

"  As  it  is  too  late  in  the  day  for  me  to  follow  the  windings 
of  a  iiddle,  I  contented  myself  with  the  conversation  of  some 
one  or  other  of  the  ladies  during  the  interval  of  dancing.  I 
was  particidarly  amused  Avith  the  lively  sallies  of  a  Miss  *  *  *, 
asking  her  if  the  roaring  of  the  British  lion  in  his  late  speech 
did  not  interrupt  the  spirit  of  the  dance  ?  '  iSTot  at  all,'  said 
she,  '  it  rather  enlivens ;  for  I  have  heard  that  such  animals 
always  increase  their  bowlings  when  most  frightened.  And 
do  you  not  think,'  added  she,  '  you,  who  should  know  more 
than  young  girls,  that  he  has  real  cause  of  apprehension  from 
the  large  armaments  and  honorable  purposes  of  the  Span- 
iards?' 'So,'  said  I,  'you  suppose  that  the  King  of  Spain 
acts  in  politics  as  the  ladies  do  in  aflairs  of  love,  smile  in  a 
man's  face,  while  they  are  spreading  out  the  net  which  is  to 
entangle  him  for  life.'  'At  what  season,'  replied  the  fair, 
with  a  glance  of  ineffable  archness,  '  do  men  lose  the  power  of 
paying  such  compliments  ? ' 

"  If  I  have  looked  on  the  whole  sex  with  an  equal  eye  of 
observance,  I  here  confess  the  atrocious  philosophy ;  and  were 
it  not  too  late,  I  shoidd  wish  to  lead  down  the  remainder  of  the 
dance  with  so  sweetly  vivacious  a  partner.  But,  alas!  my 
dear  friend,  you  will  soon  find  that  sixhj  is  a  better  security 
against  the  hot-spur  passions  of  man,  than  those  beaxitiful  icicles 
that  Shakspeare  tells  us  are  ciirled  of  purest  snow,  and  hung 
up  '  on  Diana's  temple,'  for  the  benefit,  we  may  suppose,  of 
her  chaste  attendants. 

134  DIAEY    OF   THE   EEVOLUTION.  [1779. 

"  I  do  not  recollect  that  I  have  ever  been  more  pleased  on 
any  occasion,  or  in  so  large  a  company.  There  could  not 
have  been  less  than  sixty  ladies.  I  had  no  eyes  to  encounter 
that  shot  forward  in  rays  of  studied  superiority,  nor  any  of 
those  conscious  interchanges,  too  often  the  result  of  gi-eat  ex- 
perience and  knowledge.  Tlirough  the  whole,  there  was  a  re- 
markable style  of  looks  and  behavior,  undebauched  by  British 
manners  or  British  entertainments.  Their  charms  were  of  that 
kind  which  give  a  proper  determination  to  the  spirits,  and  per- 
manency to  the  affections.  More  than  once  I  imagined  myself 
in  a  circle  of  Samnites,  where  beauty  and  fidelity  were  made 
subservient  to  the  interest  of  the  State,  and  reserved  for  such 
citizens  as  had  distinguished  themselves  in  battle. 

"  Is  it  that  the  women  of  Jersey,  by  holding  the  space  be- 
tween two  largo  cities,  have  continued  exempt  from  the  cor- 
ruptions of  either,  and  preserved  a  purity  of  manners  superior 
to  both  %  Or  have  I  paid  too  great  attention  to  their  charms, 
and  too  little  to  those  imperfections,  which  observers  tell  us, 
are  the  natural  growth  of  every  soil  f  " ' 

Februaet  22. — ^The  attention  of  all  ranks  of  people  is  fixed 
upon  the  expectation  of  hearing  the  important  intelligence, 
which,  it  is  said,  the  Congress  received  a  few  days 
"      '  ago  from  abroad,  and  the  contents  of  which,  it  is 
added,  they  are  in  honor  and  policy  bound  not  to  divulge  at 
present.     There  are  various  reports  about  it,  but  the  two  fol- 
lowing are  all  we  can  get  any  particialars  of  at  this  time :     One 
is,  that  the  Spaniards  have  acceded  to  the  independence  of 
America,  have  agreed  to  assist  France  with  thirty  sail  of  the 
line,  and  lend  the  United  States  of  America  thirty  millions  of 
dollars,  as  they  can  bettor  spare  money  than  their  troops  at  so 
great  a  distance.     The  other  is,  that  the  Dutch  have  agreed  to 
^^^  supply  the  Americans  with  a  considerable  loan, 

Dutch  Loan.     y,,]x\ch.  is  to  bc  guaranteed  by  France.     Whatever 
be  the  intelligence,  it  is  certain  that  the  price  of  goods  and 

'  Pennsylvania  Packet,  March  G. 


hard  money  has  fallen  greatly  since  an  express  boat  ariived 
last  week ;  but  what  part  she  comes  from  is  also  a  secret. 

Febeuaey  26. — Yesteedat  morning  a  body  of  the  British, 
consisting  of  the  42d  and  33d  regiments,  and  the  light  infantry 
of  the  guards,  in  number  about  a  thousand,  com-  British  Descent  on 

'^  '  Elizabetlitown, 

manded  by  Lieutenant-Colonel  Stirling,  attempted  New  Jersey. 
to  surprise  the  troops  and  inhabitants  of  Elizabethtown. 
Tliey  embarked  at  Long  Island  the  e^-ening  before,  about  seven 
o'clock,  and  landed  on  the  Salt  Meadows,  better  than  a  mile 
to  the  left  of  Crane's  ferry,  between  two  and  three  in  the 
morning.  From  thence  they  were  conducted  through  a  very 
difficult  marsh  to  "Woodruff's  farms,  which  lies  directly  to  the 
left  of  the  town. 

Tlie  guard  at  Crane's  ferry  having  discovered  their  land- 
ing, immediately  despatched  the  intelligence  to  town,  Avhere 
the  alarm  being  sounded,  the  troops  were  afforded  an  oppor- 
tunity to  collect.  The  number  and  movements  of  the  encu;y 
remaining  doubtful  by  reason  of  the  darkness,  the  troops  were 
marched  to  the  rear  of  the  town,  where  the  Whig  inhabitants 
likewise  retired. 

A  detachment  of  the  enemy  was  despatched  to  the  govern- 
or's house,"  while  the  main  body  advanced  to  the  skirts  of  the 
town,  and  from  thence  proceeded  along  the  rear  until  they  fell 
into  the  Brunswick  road  on  the  right.  The  governor  happened 
to  be  absent  from  home  that  night,  but  if  he  had  not,  they 
would  have  been  imsuccessful  in  this  instance  likewise,  as  the 
family  received  timely  notice  of  their  approach." 

'  New  Hampshire  Gazette,  March  16.  '  Governor  William  Livingston. 

"  The  only  part  of  the  governor's  family  in  the  house,  -were  two  young  ladies, 
his  daughters,  who  had  been  alarmed  before  the  enemy  made  their  appearance, 
just  long  enough  to  dress  themselves.  On  demanding  his  papers,  after  having 
made  a  fruitless  search  for  his  person,  his  eldest  daughter,  with  great  composure, 
carried  the  officers  to  a  drawer  filled  with  intercepted  letters  from  London,  taken 
in  a  British  vessel,  which  they  pocketed  with  the  greatest  avidity,  and  after  hav- 
ing loaded  themselves  with  part  of  the  precious  intellir/ence,  carried  off  the  re- 
mainder in  the  drawer  itself.  The  officers  in  general  behaved  with  great  polite- 
ness, and  exerted  themselves  in  preventing  the  soldiers  from  phmderinj. — Xcio 
Jersey  Journal,  March  2. 

136  DIAKV    OF    THE    KEVOLUTIOX.  [1770. 

Finding  tlieniselves  completely  disapjoointcd  in  every  ex- 
pectation, they  made  tlieir  visit  in  town  very  sliort ;  however, 
during  their  small  halt,  they  set  fire  to  the  barracks,  the  school- 
house,"  (in  which  were  stored  some  few  articles  of  provision,) 
and  a  blacksmith's  shop.  So  soon  as  they  began  their  retreat 
to  their  boats.  General  Maxwell  marched  such  of  his  troops  as 
were  yet  in  reserve  against  their  rear ;  the  mnnber  of  these, 
however,  was  small,  several  parties  having  been  detached  at 
different  times  to  hang  upon  them. 

About  half  way  between  the  town  and  ferry,  the  enemy 
perceiving  their  rear  in  danger,  from  the  sudden  advance  of 
our  troops,  and  the  assembling  of  the  militia,  faced  about  and 
paraded,  as  if  for  action.  A  few  well-directed  shot  from  our 
artillery  induced  them  to  renew  their  retreat,  leaving  two  dead 
on  the  field.  Perceiving  an  embarkation  at  the  ferry  would 
be  attended  with  considerable  hazard,  their  boats  were  moved 
better  than  a  mile  up  Newark  Bay,  while  the  troops  marched 
along  the  meadow's  edge,  in  many  places  up  to  their  middles 
in  mud  and  mire.  A  galley  and  two  or  three  gun  boats  cov- 
ered their  retreat  at  this  place. 

The  American  loss,  exclusive  of  a  few  aged  inhabitants 
whom  the  British  took  with  them,  but  have  since  sent  back, 
are,  one  private  killed,  two  officers,  to  wit.  Brigade  Major  Og- 
den  and  Lieutenant  Eencastle,  with  four  privates  wounded, 
and  seven  privates  missing.  Major  Ogden,  who  was  reconnoi- 
tering  the  enemy  shortly  after  their  landing,  very  narrowly 
escaped  being  made  prisoner ;  he  was  wounded  in  his  right 
side  by  a  bayonet,  but  we  hope  not  dangerously. 

The  Kev.  Mr.  Hunter,  chaplain  to  the  brigade,  on  return- 
ing from  the  governor's  house,  where  he  had  been  to  give  the 
alarm,  was  made  prisoner  by  them  in  the  night,  but  he  had 
the  address  very  soon  after  to  make  his  escape. 

The  enemy's  loss  we  cannot  ascertain,  except  the  two  killed, 
whom  they  left  behind,  two  made  prisoners,  and  one  boat 

'  To  the  honor  of  the  sex,  it  is  to  be  remembered,  that  while  the  school-house, 
which  had  been  made  a  repository  for  provisions,  was  on  fire,  tlie  women,  aban- 
doning their  own  houses  and  effects,  rescued  the  public  stores  from  the  flames  with 
indefatigable  alacrity. — iVew  Jerseii  Joitrnal,  Mareli  2. 

1779.]  DESCENT  ON  HOKSE  NECK.  137 

taken.  Cornelius  Hetfield,  Smith  Iletfield,  and  Captain  Luce, 
late  of  Elizabetlito\vm,  were  their  principal  guides.  They  had 
collected  a  considerable  member  of  horned  cattle  and  horses, 
but  their  retreat  was  so  precipitate,  that  they  -n-ere  obliged  to 
leave  them  behind.' 

FEBnrAET  27. — XionT  before  last,  at  eleven  o'clock,  the 
17tli,  44th,  and  57th  British  regiments,  the  Hessian  regiment 
du  corps.  Colonel  Emmerich's  chasseurs  and  dra-  x,.vnn-s  Descent 
goons.  Colonel  Robinson's  provincial  battalion,  f"  Horsp  Neck. 
and  a  detachment  of  the  royal  artillery,  nnder  the  command 
of  Major-General  Tryon,  marched  from  King's  Bridge,  and 
proceeded  to  Horse  Neck,  in  Connecticut,  Avhere  they  arrived 
at  ten  o'clock  yesterday  morning. 

At  their  first  entering  the  town,  a  body  of  rebel  troops  sta- 
tioned there,  under  the  command  of  General  Putnam,  fired  a 
few  random  shot,  but  soon  retreated  in  great  confusion,  leaving 
their  three  field-pieces  (six-pounders)  behind  them,  Avhich  his 
excellency '  ordered  to  be  spiked  up,  and  the  trunnions  knocked 
oft',  also  a  lai'ge  quantity  of  ammunition  and  stores  found  there 
to  be  destroyed.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Johnson,  of  the  17tli, 
M'ith  that  regiment,  and  part  of  the  44th,  was  immediately  de- 
tached to  Greenwich,  where  he  destroyed  twenty-six  salt  pans, 
a  great  quantity  of  salt,  a  large  new  schooner,  and  two  small 
vessels;  after  which  he  joined  the  detachment  at  Horse  Neck, 
when  the  general,  being  informed  tliat  the  rebels  in  that  vicin- 
ity would  be  able  to  collect  one  thousand  Continental  and 
militia  troops,  early  the  next  morning,  determined  to  march  at 
four  o'clock.  The  troops  passed  many  defiles,  and  got  over 
Byram  Eiver  before  dusk,  tlie  rebels  annoying  the  rear  with  a 
considerable  fire,  but  soon  after  quitted  the  pursuit.  The  troops 
continued  their  march,  and  arrived  at  King's  Bridge  this  after- 
noon at  about  four  o'clock.  Tliis  service  was  performed  with 
a  trifling  loss,  and  the  men  who  are  missing,  through  excessive 
fatigue,  are  hourly  expected  in.' 

'  Xew  Jersey  Gazette,  March  3.  '  General  Tryon. 

'  Rivington's  Gazette,  March  3.  General  Putnam,  in  an  official  letter  from  the 
camp  at  Keading,  gives  the  following  account  of  this  expedition : — "  A  detach- 

138  DIARY  OF  THE  EEVOLUTION.  [1779. 

March  4. — Testeedat,  the  British  forces,  under  the  com- 
mand of  Colonel  Prevost,  defeated  a  party  of  General  Lincoln's 
army,  under  General  Ashe,  near  the  junction  of  Briar  Creek 

ment  from  the  enemy  at  King's  Bridge,  consisting  of  the  17th,  44th,  and  SVth 
British  regiments,  one  of  the  Hessians,  and  two  of  new  levies,  niai-ched  from  their 
lines  for  Horse  Neelc,  on  the  evening  of  tlie  25th  ultimo,  with  an  intention  of  sur- 
prising the  troops  at  that  place,  and  destroying  the  salt  works. 

"A  captain  and  thirty  men  were  sent  from  our  advanced  lines  from  Horse 
Neck,  who  discovered  the  enemy  at  New  Rochelle,  in  advance.  They  retired  be- 
fore them  undiscovered,  as  far  as  Rye  Neck,  wliere  it  growing  light,  the  enemy 
observed  and  attacked  them.  They  defended  themselves  as  well  as  possible,  and 
made  their  way  good  to  Sawpitts,  where  they  took  advantage  of  a  commanding 
piece  of  ground  and  made  some  little  stand ;  but  the  superior  force  of  the  enemy 
obliged  them  to  retire  over  Byram  Bridge,  which  they  took  up,  and  by  that  means 
had  an  opportunity  of  reaching  Horse  Neck  in  safety. 

"  As  I  was  there  myself  to  see  the  situation  of  the  guards,  I  had  the  troops 
formed  on  a  hill  by  the  meeting-house,  ready  to  receive  the  enemy  as  they  ad- 
vanced. They  came  on  briskly,  and  I  soon  discovered  that  their  design  was  to 
turn  our  flanks  and  possess  themselves  of  a  defile  in  our  rear,  which  would  effect- 
ually prevent  our  retreat.  I  therefore  ordered  parties  out  on  both  flanks,  with 
directions  to  give  me  information  of  their  approach,  that  we  might  retire  in  sea- 
son. In  the  mean  time  a  column  advanced  up  the  main  road,  where  the  remainder 
of  the  troops  (amounting  only  to  about  sixty)  were  posted.  We  discharged  some 
old  field-pieces  which  were  there  a  few  times,  and  gave  them  a  small  fire  of  mus- 
ketry, but  without  any  considerable  effect ;  the  superior  force  of  the  enemy  soon 
obliged  our  small  detachment  to  abandon  the  place. 

"I  therefore  directed  the  troops  to  retire  and  form  on  a  hill  a  little  distance 
from  Horse  Neck,  while  I  proceeded  to  Stamford  and  collected  a  body  of  militia 
and  a  few  Continental  troops  which  were  there,  with  which  I  returned  immediately, 
and  found  that  the  enemy  (after  plundering  the  inhabitants  of  the  principal  part 
of  their  effects,  and  destroying  a  few  salt  works,  a  small  sloop,  and  store)  were 
on  their  return.  The  officer  commanding  the  Continental  troops  stationed  at 
Horse  Neck,  mistook  my  orders,  and  went  much  farther  than  I  intended,  so  that 
he  could  not  come  up  with  them  to  any  advantage.  I  however  ordered  the  few 
troops  that  came  from  Stamford  to  pursue  them,  thinking  they  might  have  an 
opportunity  to  pick  up  some  stragglers.  In  this  I  was  not  mistaken,  as  your 
Excellency  will  see  by  the  list  of  prisoners.  Besides  these,  eight  or  nine  more 
were  taken  and  sent  off",  so  that  I  cannot  tell  to  which  particular  regiments  they 
belonged;  one  ammunition  and  one  baggage  wagon  were  taken.  In  the  former 
there  were  about  two  hundred  rounds  of  canister,  grape,  and  round  shot,  suited  to 
three-pounders,  some  slow  matches,  and  about  two  hundred  tubes ;  the  latter  was 
filled  with  plunder,  which  I  had  the  satisfaction  of  restoring  to  the  inhabitants 
from  whom  it  was  taken.  As  I  have  not  yet  got  a  return,  I  cannot  tell  exactly 
the  number  we  lost,  though  I  don't  think  more  than  ten  soldiers,  and  about  that 
number  of  inhabitants,  but  a  few  of  w  hich  were  in  arms." — Barber's  Connecticut, 
p.  381. 

1Y79.]  ACTION   AT   BEIAE   CEEEK.  139 

and  the  Savannah  Eiver.  The  following  is  the  British  acconnt 
of  the  aifair : — "The  rebel  army  having  penetrated,  Avith  near 
two  thonsand  men,  partly  Continentals  and  part-  q^„^„i  ^^^^  ^j 
ly  militia,  as  far  as  Miller's  burnt  bridge,  on  Brf"-- C'eek. 
Briar  Creek,  Colonel  Prevost  thought  prudent  to  allow  them 
to  repair  it,  and  to  draw  them  on  the  south  side  of  the  creek 
before  they  were  attacked;  but  information  being  received 
that  they  had  sent  off  all  their  carts  and  wagons  to  Burton's 
ferry,  over  Savannah  River,  and  proceeding  but  slowly  in  the 
repairs  of  the  bridge,  the  colonel  concluded  that  they  had  no 
further  object  in  view,  and  that  they  meant  to  return  shortly, 
in  consequence  of  which,  he  ordered  the  first  battalion  of  the 
71st  regiment,  with  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  of  the  Caro- 
lina volunteers,  to  proceed  to  Buck  Creek,  three  miles  south 
of  the  burnt  bridge,  in  order  to  mask  the  advance  corps,  with 
which  he  took  a  circuit  of  fifty  miles  in  order  to  come  on  their 
rear,  and  attack  them  with  five  field-pieces,  about  eight  hun- 
dred and  fifty  regidars,  and  about  one  hundred  and  eighty  or 
two  hundred  of  the  Carolina  volunteers  and  rangers.  The 
march  was  begun  privately  on  the  first  day  of  March,  in  the 
evening.  Tlie  troops  marched  all  night,  and  arrived  about  ten 
o'clock  the  next  day,  at  a  place  Avhere  the  rebels  had  lately  de- 
stroj'cd  a  bridge.  A  temporary  one  was  constructed,  but  for 
want  of  grapnels  and  cables,  could  not  stand  the  strength  of 
the  current,  the  creek  being  both  wide  and  rapid.  A  pontoon 
was  then  substituted,  and  though  it  occasioned  considerable 
delay,  the  troops  and  artillery  were  carried  over  before  day- 
break on  the  third  instant.  The  light  infantry  and  the  horse 
had  been  sent  forward  the  preceding  evening,  to  prevent  the 
retreat  of  the  enemy,  and  to  conceal  the  intended  movement. 
The  scouts  gave  advice  that  they  had  discovered  some  parties 
of  the  enemy,  when  they  were  reinforced  with  a  view  to  attack 
them,  and  to  prevent  their  retreat  to  the  main  body  of  their 
army,  and  at  the  same  time  to  conceal  the  march  of  the  regu- 
lar troops.  In  the  attack,  part  of  them  escaped  over  the  river, 
having  a  ferry  there,  a  few  of  them  were  taken,  and  some  saved 
themselves  by  the  great  speed  of  their  horses ;  but  as  they  had 
not  discovered  the  troops,  it  gave  no  kind  of  apprcliension  that 

140  DIAKT  OF  THE  EEVOLUTION.  [1779. 

it  M-ould  alarm  tliem,  otherwise  than  to  iiicliice  them  to  send  a 
party  in  qnest  of  the  scout  we  had  sliown  in  the  rear. 

"  The  prisoners  wo  had  taken  concurred  in  their  declaration, 
that  the  rebels  were  unapprised  of  the  vicinity  of  any  enemies, 
and  trusting  much  to  their  superiority  in  numbers,  were  in  the 
most  perfect  security.  They  also  said  that  Major  Eoss,  with 
three  hundred  light  horse,  had  joined  their  army  the  preceding 

"  The  troops  continued  their  march,  and  by  half  after  four 
iu  the  afternoon,  the  flying  parties  of  horse  drove  in  the  eiie- 
my's  picket,  and  took  some  prisoners,  who  informed  us  that 
they  knew  not  of  any  number  of  troops  but  only  a  few  scouters 
coming.  The  troops  were  rapidly  formed,  with  the  light  in- 
fantry on  the  right ,  and  two  field-pieces  were  ordered  to  pene- 
trate by  a  road  leading  towards  the  left  of  the  rebel  army. 
The  centre  was  composed  of  the  2d  battalion  71st,  with  some 
rangers,  and  Carolina  foot  on  their  left,  and  one  howitzer  and 
two  six-pounders  in  their  front.  About  one  hundred  and  fifty 
horse  Avero  ordered  to  take  the  left  of  the  whole,  to  turn  the 
right  flank  of  the  enemy.  A  reserve  was  formed  about  four 
hundred  yards  to  the  rear,  and  consisted  of  three  companies  of 
grenadiers  from  Florida,  and  a  troop  of  dragoons.  About  forty 
or  fifty  riflemen  were  posted  to  ambuscade  a  place  through 
which  the  rebels  might  attempt,  under  cover  of  a  SAvamp  and 
thicket,  to  attack  our  left  and  rear. 

"  The  enemy  began  a  scattering  fire  of  musketry,  and  fired 
some  cannon,  but  were  put  to  flight  in  an  instant.  Tliey  could 
not  stand  the  spirited  attack  of  Sir  James  Baird's  light  infantry 
on  our  right,  and  frour  that  instant  the  success  of  the  day  was 
decided.  Tliey  were  pursued  to  the  creek,  into  which,  after 
throwing  away  their  arms,  the  most  active  plunged  and  escaped 
by  swimming ;  their  right  had  no  means  of  escaping,  but  over 
a  lagoon  very  deep  and  broad,  and  then  to  cross  the  river  Sa- 
vannah. In  that  place,  numbers  have  been  drowned  and  per- 
ished, many  were  killed  in  the  pursuit,  and  about  one  hundred 
taken  prisoners.  General  Ashe,  the  commanding  ofiicer  of  their 
army,  with  some  other  officers  of  note,  were  mistaken  by  the 
2d  battalion  71st  for  some  of  our  own  people,  as  they  passed 


1Y79.]  &ENEEAL  ASHE  AT  BEIAE  CREEK.  141 

by  tlicm  and  took  off  their  liats.  Brigadier-General  Elbert, 
Colonel  M'lntosh,  two  other  colonels,  and  twenty-three  more 
officers  have  been  taken,  seven  pieces  of  cannon,  several  stand 
of  colors,  their  baggage,  arms,  ammimition,  and  every  thing, 
in  short,  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  brave,  victorious  troops. 
K"ot  a  whole  platoon  of  the  rebel  army  escaped  together,  on 
our  right  or  left.  Tlie  panic  occasioned  by  the  terror  of  the 
bayonet,  left  them  no  alternative  but  that  of  plunging  into  the 
water,  many  of  which,  we  are  since  informed,  have  been  met 
without  any  other  clothes  but  a  shirt  and  breeches,  and  with- 
out arms,  numbers  of  them  badly  wounded ;  few  would  have 
escaped  if  night  had  not  come  on  so  soon. 

"  Tlie  loss  on  our  side  was  one  officer  wounded,  five  pri- 
vates killed,  and  ten  wounded ;  that  of  the  enemy,  about  one 
hundred  and  fifty  killed  in  the  pursuit,  vast  numbers  were 
drowned,  and  the  rest  rendered  useless,  having  lost  their  arms 
and  clothes. 

"The  coolness  and  intrepidity  of  the  troops  was  conspicu- 
ous ;  not  a  word  was  heard  but  what  Avas  expressive  of  a  wish 
to  come  up  with  the  enemy ;  a  cheerful,  smiling  countenance 
appeared  on  every  side ;  the  confidence  of  the  troops  was,  to 
a  degree,  a  sure  and  certain  sign  of  the  success  they  met  with. 
K^otwithstanding  every  fatigue,  and  even  want  of  provisions 
for  the  whole  day  of  the  engagement,  the  troops  formed,  ad- 
vanced rapidly,  changed  their  disposition,  and  manoeuvred 
with  as  much  ease  as  they  could  have  done  on  the  same  ground 
had  no  enemy  been  in  sight."  ' 

'  New  York  Gazette,  March  29.  "  The  British  account  of  this  action,"  says 
Cllft  in  his  Diary,  "is  much  more  satisfactory  than  the  rumors  we  get  from  our 
own  people,  (the  Americans.)  There  is  great  reason  to  believe  that  some  one  is 
to  blame  for  the  defeat,  as  I  hear  the  position  was  good  and  the  men  were  willing  " 
Gordon  says  :  "  Upon  the  appearance  of  the  British  light  infantry,  Ashe  said  to 
Elbert,  who  commanded  the  Continentals,  '  Sir,  you  had  better  advance  and  en- 
gage them.'  The  Continentals  did  not  exceed  one  hundred  rank  and  file ;  but 
upon  Elbert's  ordering  them,  they  formed,  advanced  thirty  yards  in  front  of  tlie 
enemy,  and  commenced  a  very  sharp  fire  upon  them,  and  continued  it  about  fif- 
teen minutes.  Ashe  and  the  North  Carolina  miUtia  remained  about  one  hundred 
yards  in  the  rear,  entirely  inactive.  Instead  of  advancing  to  support  the  Conti- 
nentals they  were  struck  with  such  a  panic  at  being  so  completely  surprised  that 
they  went  to  the  right  about,  and  fled  in  confusion  without  discharging  a  single 
musket." — History  of  the  American  Revolution. 

142  DIAET   OF   THE   EEVOLUTION.  [1779. 

Sir  "William  Howe,  when  in  America,  says  a  correspond- 
ent in  London,  was  tlie  worst  general  that  ever  a  British  army- 
was  cnrsed  witli.  The  flower  of  our  troops,  which 
'  should  have  blossomed  in  the  full  bloom  of  vic- 
tory, and  have  extended  conquest  through  all  the  continent  of 
America,  was  permitted  to  wither  among  the  weeds  of  dissipa- 
tion, and  all  its  former  glory  to  fade  in  the  eyes  of  the  sur- 
rounding enemy.  Hundreds  of  young  men  were  ruined  at  the 
gaming  tables  in  Philadelphia  and  New  York — ^places  of  cer- 
tain destruction,  protected  and  countenanced  by  the  com- 
mander-in-chief. Our  officers  were  practising  at  the  dice-box, 
or  studying  the  chances  of  picquet,  when  they  should  have  been 
storming  towns,  and  crushing  the  spirit  of  rebellion ;  and  the 
harlot's  eye  glistened  with  wanton  pleasure  at  the  general's 
table  when  the  brightness  of  his  sword  should  have  reflected 
terror  on  the  face  of  the  rebels.  Cleopatra's  banquet  was  in 
continual  representation,  and  the  American  Antony  at  the 
head  of  each  feast. 

An  army  so  commanded,  or  rather  so  indulged,  might,  in- 
deed, to  the  general,  gain  the  applause  of  giddy  subalterns,  and 
the  thanks  of  gambling  veterans ;  no  wonder,  then,  that  a  tri- 
umphant arch  was  raised  to  the  hero's  fame :  but  to  a  soldier 
it  intimated  disgrace,  for  it  was  not  adorned  with  one  laurel 
of  victory.' 

Every  step  that  General  Howe  took  through  the  course  of 
his  most  lucrative  appointment,  is  now  known  to  the  people 
of  England.  The  general  of  middle  fortune,  and  yet  humble 
abilities,  has  returned  enriched  by  his  command,  and  dignified 
by  his  sovereign.  But  when  we  investigate  the  source  from 
whence  this  honor  and  these  riches  arose,  we  find  that  the  lat- 
ter was  owing  to  an  inaction  which  delayed  conquest  and  pro- 
longed the  war,  whilst  the  former  is  but  a  type  of  the  crimson 
stream  which  wantonly  flowed  at  Bunker's  Hill." 

MAiicii  17. — It  may  not  be  amiss  to  observe,  by  way  of  rc- 

'  Alluding  to  the  Mischianza ;  Bce  page  52,  ante. 
^  "  Veutidius,"  Upcott,  v.  371. 

1779.]  PAETIES   IN    AMERICA.  143 

freshing  some  people's  memories,  tliat  the  continent  of  North 
America  extends  from  the  frozen  regions  of  the  north,  where 
the  snn  scarce  deigns  to  cast  a  look,  to  the  sonth-  jj^^^^^g  rpspect- 
ern  climes  that  burn  beneath  his  vertical  rays,  and  ^"^  America, 
includes  all  the  variety  of  soil  and  climate — that  its  coast  is 
washed  by  the  Atlantic  for  fifteen  hundred  miles — that  it  is  in- 
tersected by  rivers  that  may  vie  with  the  Thames  and  the  IS'ilc 
— that  it  extends  westward  as  far  as  the  imagination  can  trav- 
el, and  is  in  itself  an  inexhaustible  source  of  national  wealth 
and  strength. 

A  copper-colored  species  of  human  beings  occu^^y  the 
immense  tract  of  wilderness  in  common  with  wolves  and 
bears ;  an  edging  or  border  of  this  boundless  country  is  settled 
by  European  colonics,  all  of  which,  to  the  northward  of  the 
Mississippi,  appertain  to  the  British  empire.  Twelve  of  these 
colonies  are  at  present  in  rebellion,  but  if  fame  says  true, 
must,  ere  long,  return,  like  the  prodigal  son,  to  the  arms  of 
an  affectionate  though  offended  parent. 

The  inhabitants  of  the  revolted  provinces  may  be  classed 
as  follows :  First,  avowed  loyalists,  who  not  only  refuse  to 
take  an  active  part  in  the  rebellion,  but  improve  every  oppor- 
tunity to  assist  the  King's  troops,  by  supplying  them  with  pro- 
visions, giving  intelligence,  bearing  arms,  &c.  Many  of  these 
are  languishing  in  prisons,  and  several  have  been  executed  by 
the  rebels  in  solemn  mockery  of  justice. 

A  second  class  consists  of  people  who,  though  well  wishers 
to  Great  Bi'itain  and  her  ca\ise,  are  resolved  to  keep  in  terms 
with  the  powers  that  be.  Tliese  pay  taxes,  subscribe  tests,  and 
take  oaths,  whenever  they  are  called  on ;  but  notwithstanding 
their  complying  with  the  reqiiisitions  of  the  rebels,  they  are 
looked  upon  with  a  jealous  eye,  all  their  motions  are  watched, 
and  frequently,  especially  when  affairs  put  on  a  threatening 
aspect,  they  are  obliged  to  renew  their  oaths  of  allegiance  to 
the  States. 

A  third  sort  consider  themselves  as  independent  of  Great 
Britain,  and  wish  to  establish  some  permanent  system  of  gov- 
ernment amongst  themselves,  but  are  always  opposed  by 

A  fourth  sort,  who  consider  all  government  as  dissolved, 

144  DIAET  OF  THE  EEVOLUTION.  [1779. 

and  tliemsclves  m  a  state  of  absolute  liberty,  M'liere  tbcy  wisli 
always  to  remain.  Tliis  class  is  so  far  from  being  inconsider- 
able, tbat  in  several  counties  they  have  been  able  hitherto  to 
prevent  any  courts  being  opened,  and  to  render  every  attempt 
to  administer  justice  abortive. 

An  effort  was  made  in  Massachusetts  to  establish  a  form 
of  government,  but  a  doubt  Avas  started,  whether  it  was  the 
proper  business  of  the  few  or  the  many,  or  in  other  words, 
whether  such  a  measure  ought  to  originate  with  the  assembly 
or  the  people.  Tlie  politicians  took  different  sides,  and  a  paper 
war  was  commenced.  Tlie  assembly,  however,  undertook  to 
draw  the  outlines  of  a  model,  which  was  rejected  by  a  major- 
ity of  the  town,  so  that  at  present,  what  civil  government  they 
have,  is  the  remains  of  their  charter  institution,  and  consists  of 
a  council  and  house  of  representatives,  without  a  governor. 

Tlie  dismission  of  John  Adams  from  the  rebel  embassy  at 
the  court  of  Versailles,  indicates  a  decline  of  the  influence  of 
the  northern  faction,  and  bodes  no  good  to  American  independ- 
ence. Jolnr  Adams  is  the  Idnsman  and  creature  of  Samuel 
Adams,  the  Cromwell  of  New  England,  to  whose  intriguing 
arts  the  declaration  of  independence  is  in  a  great  mcasiire  to 
be  attributed,  the  history  of  which  will  not  be  uncntertaining. 

Wlien  the  northern  delegates  broached  their  political  tenets 
in  Congress,  they  were  interrogated  by  some  of  the  southern 
ones,  whether  they  did  or  did  not  aim  at  independence,  to 
which  mark  their  violent  principles  seemed  to  tend  ?  Samuel 
Adams,  with  as  grave  a  face  as  hypocrisy  ever  wore,  aifirmed 
they  did  not,  but  in  the  evening  of  the  same  day,  in  a  circle  of 
confidential  friends,  (as  he  took  tliem  to  be,)  confessed  that  the 
independence  of  the  colonies  had  been  tlie  great  object  of  his 
life;  that  whenever  he  had  met  with  a  youth  of  parts,  he  had 
endeavored  to  instil  such  notions  into  liis  mind,  and  had  neg- 
lected no  opportunity,  either  in  public  or  in  private,  of  pre- 
paring tlie  way  for  tliat  event,  Avlilch  now,  thank  God,  was  at 

He  watched  the  favorable  moment  when,  by  pleading  the 
necessity  of  a  foreign  alliance,  and  urgmg  the  impracticability 
of  obtaining  it  without   a  declaration   of  independence,  lie 

1779.]  THE   FUTUKE   OF   TIIE   VNITED    STATES.  145 

finally  succeeded  in  the  accomplislinient  of  his  •wishes ;  Lnt  now, 
at  the  first  attempt,  the  voices  in  Congress  are  collected  by 
colonies,  and  that  of  each  colony  is  determined  by  a  majority 
of  the  delegates  of  snch  colony.  Wlien  a  majority  is  thiis  ob- 
tained, no  protest  or  dissent  is  entered,  and  the  vote,  by  a  regu- 
lation coeval  with  the  Congress,  passes  for  unanimous.  On 
the  first  trial  there  Avere  but  six  votes  in  Congress  for  independ- 
ence, the  other  seven  being  against  it.  Tlie  delegates  for  Penn- 
sylvania were  known  to  be  divided.  Adams  wrought  upon 
the  versatility  of  one  of  them,  a  Mr.  Dickinson,  and  so  carried 
his  point.  Thus  a  matter  of  such  moment  to  both  countries, 
and  which,  the  rebels  would  make  us  believe,  was  the  imani- 
mous  voice  of  the  thirteen  colonies,  was  finally  determined  by 
the  single  suflrage  of  Mr.  Dickinson ! ' 

The  dependence  of  these  colonies  on  the  mother  country 
was,  a  few  years  ago,  esteemed  so  essential  to  their  happiness, 
that  the  man  who  could  suppose  them  to  have  ^.^^^  Yutim  ot 
formed  the  design  of  a  separation,  would  have  been  "^^  umted  states. 
accused  of  madness,  and  treated  as  their  greatest  enemy.  How 
could  it  be  imagined  that  the  ties  of  religion,  laws,  manners, 
and  commerce,  not  to  mention  those  of  duty  and  allegiance, 
would  have  been  imiversally  forgot,  and  that,  too,  at  the  very 
time  when  the  colonists  were  professing  the  deepest  sense  of 
them  ?  It  is  certain  that  the  British  nation  could  not,  for  a 
long  time,  be  induced  to  believe  that  the  colonies  seriously  en- 
tertained such  a  design ;  and  those  who,  from  the  inordinate 
ambition  of  individuals,  and  the  blind  fury  of  a  misguided  joop- 
ulace,  foretold  the  event,  were  doomed,  like  Cassandra,  not  to 
1)0  credited,  although  they  spoke  the  truth. 

But  remote  from  the  probability  as  this  design  would  some 
time  ago  have  been  imagined,  it  is  by  no  means  so  strange  as 
the  conjunction  which  the  colonies  have  formed  Avith  the 
French  nation — a  conjunction  so  nnnatural,  that  we  might  as 
well  have  expected  to  see  the  tiger  and  the  ox  feed  at  one 
stall,  or  the  lion  and  the  lamb  lie  down  together. 

'  "Deciu?,"  in  the  London  Morning  Post;  Upcott, 
Vol.  II.— 10 

146  DIAEY    OF   THE   EETOLUTION.  [1779. 

Tlie  seeming  indifference  with  wliieh  many  of  the  colonists 
regard  this  baneful  alliance,  may  serve  to  remind  ns  of  an  ob- 
servation, founded  in  experience,  that  those  tilings  Avhich  would 
have  struck  us  with  amazement  if  related  of  former  ages,  pass 
without  causing  any  such  impression  when  they  liappen  in  our 
own  times.  A  celebrated  writer  and  great  politician  carries 
this  matter  so  far  as  to  declare,  tliat  he  is  well  convinced  the 
appointment  of  Caligula's  horse  to  be  consul  was  not  thouglit 
very  extraordinary  when  it  actually  took  place,  notwithstand- 
ing the  gross  absurdity  of  the  fact,  and  the  manner  Ave  arc  af- 
fected by  it  as  it  appears  in  the  page  of  history. 

When  posterity  shall  observe  the  colonies  disdainfully  re- 
jecting every  advance  to  an  accommodation  made  by  the  parent 
country,  with  the  most  liberal  offers  of  freedom  and  security, 
and  shall  behold  them,  on  the  other  hand,  crouching,  in  the 
most  humiliating  manner,  to  a  petty  servant  of  the  French  des- 
pot, from  whom  they  can  expect  neither  liberty  nor  safety, 
they  Avill  doubtless  be  struck  with  indignation  and  surprise, 
though  too  many  Americans  at  this  day  seem  insensible  to  such 

In  politics,  as  well  as  in  optics,  it  is  necessary  for  clear  and 
distinct  vision,  that  the  object  should  be  placed  at  a  cei-tain 
distance,  because  otherwise,  in  the  one  case,  we  may  indeed 
scan  a  part,  but  cannot  comprehend  the  whole ;  and  in  the 
other,  we  are  prevented  from  seeing  clearly  by  that  cloud  of 
interest  and  prejudice  which  never  fails  to  arise  during  the 
existence  of  the  transaction. 

For  tliis  reason,  it  may  not  lie  amiss  in  some  cases  to  sup- 
ply by  ar,t  the  distance  that  would  otherwise  be  Avanting,  and 
Ave  may  procure  that  effect  either  by  producing  from  liistory 
similar  transactions,  Avhich  cannot  fail  of  seizing  and  affecting 
the  mind  of  the  reader,  or  by  throwing  into  one  striking  picture 
the  consecpiences  of  a  measure  before  passion  has  prepared  tlie 
people  to  embrace  them. 

Thus  a  lively  representation  of  the  distress  to  which  Great 
Britain  Avas  reduced  in  the  reign  of  King  Cliarles,  Avhcn  design- 
ing men,  under  pretence  of  oj^pression,  and  Avith  affected  re- 
gard for  liljcrty  and  property,  overthrcAV  tlie  barriers  Avliich 

1779.]  TirE   FUTUEE   OF   THE   UNITED    STATES.  147 

the  constitution  liad  raised  for  the  security  of  both ;  when  a 
military  force,  for  the  purpose  of  a  civil  war,  was  intrusted  to 
the  direction  of  butchers,  pettifoggers,  draymen,  and  cobblers, 
and  almost  every  character  of  -worth  and  distinction  in  the  na- 
tion M-as  sooner  or  later  exposed  to  ruin,  Avitli  the  unbounded 
despotism  in  one  man  which  then  ensued,  and  always  will  en- 
sue, in  similar  circumstances,  might  have  afforded  excellent 
and  obvious  lessons  to  the  colonies  at  the  time  that  they  en- 
gaged in  this  unnatural  rebellion. 

In  like  manner,  the  calamities  which  the  Britons  under- 
went, when  attending  only  "  to  the  suggestions  of  jpresent  fearsr 
they  invited  the  Saxons  into  the  kingdom,  would,  if  properly 
depictured,  have  been  sufficient  to  deter  any  prudent  people 
from  pledging  their  country  to  foreigners,  or  giving  them  any 
considerable  footing  in  it  on  account  of  domestic  quarrels. 

It  is  sufficient  for  the  present  purpose  to  have  just  hinted  at 
these  matters.  Tlie  history  of  every  age  and  every  nation  may, 
in  like  manner,  afford  excellent  cautions  to  all  persons  of  judg- 
ment and  reflection.  But  it  may  not  be  improper  to  suggest  a 
few  particulars  to  the  Americans  respecting  the  probable  con- 
sequences of  their  alliance  and  connection  with  France. 

The  event  of  war  is  always  uncertain ;  but  if  we  may  judge 
from  the  wealth  and  resources  of  Britain — the  spirit  of  the  na- 
tion— the  magnanimity  of  the  king — the  abilities,  bravery,  and 
experience  of  the  commanders  both  by  sea  and  land,  joined  to 
the  approved  discipline  and  valor  of  her  troops,  and  the  expert- 
ness  and  courage  of  her  seamen,  there  is  all  imaginable  reason 
to  suppose  that  the  Grand  Monarcpie  will  ere  long  be  glad  to 
renounce  his  perfidious  alliance,  and  the  Americans  be  forced 
to  sue  with  disgrace  for  those  terms  which  they  might  before 
have  accepted  with  honor.  On  the  other  hand,  even  if  Amer- 
ica, by  the  power  of  France  and  French  troops,  should  oblige 
Britain  to  relinqiiish  her  just  claim  to  an  equitable  union  of 
force  and  interests,  what  advantage  would  the  colonies  reap 
from  the  event  ?  Beligion,  with  tattered  garments  and  mourn- 
ful eye,  would  lament  the  success  which  exposed  her  to  the 
shackles  of  Popish  sxiperstition,  and  the  lash  of  unfeeling  per- 
secutors ;  whilst  indignant  freedom  would  fly  with  disgust  from 

148  DIAET   OF   THE   EEVOLUTIOX.  [17Y9. 

a  land  devoted  to  tlie  arbitrary  domination  of  a  French  ty- 

Let  ns  for  a  moment  si;ppose  tlie  American  triumph  com- 
plete, and  that  some  of  those  events  -n-hicli  mnst  inevitably  fol- 
low it,  had  already  taken  place;  and  let  ns  imagine  onrselvcs 
reading  a  few  passages  of  an  American  newspaper,  containing 
an  account  of  some  other  particulars,  which  we  may  reason- 
ably judge  to  be  of  the  following  nature : 

Boston,  Novemhcr  10, 1Y89. — His  Excellency  Count  TjTan, 
has  this  day  published,  by  authority  from  his  Majesty,  a  proc- 
lamation for  the  supression  of  heresy  and  establishment  of  the 
inquisition  in  this  town,  which  has  already  began  its  functions 
in  many  other  places  of  the  continent  iinder  his  Majesty's  do- 

Tlie  use  of  the  Bible  in  tlie  vulgar  tongue  is  strictly  pro- 
hibited, on  pain  of  being  punished  by  discretion  of  the  inqui- 

N'ovem'ber  11. — ^The  Catholic  religion  is  not  onlj'  outward- 
ly professed,  but  has  made  the  utmost  progress  among  all  ranks 
of  people  here,  owing,  in  a  great  measure,  to  the  unwearied 
labors  of  the  Dominican  and  Franciscan  friars,  who  omit  no 
opportunity  of  scattering  the  seeds  of  religion,  and  converting 
the  wives  and  daughters  of  heretics.  We  hear  that  the  build- 
ing formerly  called  the  Old  South  Meeting,  is  fitting  np  for  a 
cathedral,  and  that  several  otlier  old  meeting-houses  are  soon 
to  be  repaired  for  convents. 

Noveriiber  12. — -Tliis  day  being  Sunday,  tlie  famous  Samuel 
Adams  read  his  recantation  of  heresy,  after  which  he  was  pres- 
ent at  mass,  and  we  hear  he  will  soon  receive  priest's  orders 
to  qualify  him  for  a  member  of  the  American  Sorbonne. 

Nommler  13. — A  vessel  is  just  arrived  from  ]!^antes,  which 
brings  advice  tliat  the  king  has  conferred  tlie  sole  and  exclu- 
sive right  of  fishing  in  the  American  seas  upon  a  company  of 
merchants  in  Havre  de  Grace,  and  that  any  of  his  American 
subjects  who  infringe  that  right  will  be  punished  in  the  sever- 
est manner. 

Tlie  king  has  been  pleased  to  order  that  five  thousand  of 
the  inliabitants  of  Massachusetts  Eay  shall  lie  drai'ted  to  supply 

1779.]  THE   rUTUKE   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES.  14:9 

liis  garrisons  in  the  "West  Indies ;  the  officers  for  them  are  al- 
ready arrived  from  France. 

Ilartford,  Noveniber  14. — Ilis  Excellency  the  Marqnis 
D'Imperieuse  has,  by  command  of  his  ]\Iajesty,  prohibited  the 
making  or  vending  of  rnm  within  his  government,  it  having 
been  found  by  experience  to  interfere  with  the  sale  of  French 

Kcio  Yorli!,  I^ovemhcr  15. — ^Tlie  edict  for  prohibiting  the 
nse.of  the  English  language,  and  establishing  that  of  the  French 
in  all  law  proceedings,  will  take  place  on  the  20tli  instant. 
At  the  same  time,  the  ordinance  for  abolisliing  trials  by  juries, 
and  introducing  the  imj^erial  law,  will  begin  to  take  effect. 

PhiladelpJila,  JVovemhei'  16. — On  Tuesday  last  arrived  here 
the  St.  Esprit,  from  Bordeaux,  with  a  most  valuable  cargo  of 
rosaries,  mass  books,  and  indulgences,  which  have  been  long 
expected.  It  is  said  she  has  twenty  thousand  pair  of  wooden 
shoes  on  board.  IST.  B.  Tliey  are  found  to  be  much  lighter  than 
any  made  of  English  leather. 

On  Monday  next  Te  Denm  will  be  celebrated  in  the  Grand 
Cathedral,  on  account  of  a  great  victory  obtained  over  the 
Dutch  in  Flanders.  It  is  hoped  that  the  Protestant  heresy  will 
soon  be  extirpated  in  all  parts  of  Europe.  A  grand  Auto  de 
Fe  is  to  be  performed  on  Wednesday  next.  Father  Le  Cruel, 
president  of  the  inquisition  in  this  city,  out  of  a  tender  regard 
for  the  salvation  of  mankind,  has  thought  proper  that  an  ex- 
ample should  be  made  of  an  old  fellow  of  the  age  of  ninety, 
convicted  of  Quakerism,  and  of  reading  the  Bible,  a  copy  of 
which,  in  the  English  language,  was  found  in  his  possession. 
He  was  hardened  and  obstinate  beyond  measure,  and  could 
not  be  prevailed  on  to  retract  his  errors. 

JVovemicr  17. — A  criminal  of  importance,  who  has  been 
long  imprisoned  in  the  JSTew  Bastile,  was  this  day  privately 
beheaded.  He  commanded  the  American  forces  against  Great 
Britain  for  a  considerable  time,  but  was  confined  by  order  of 
government  on  suspicion  of  possessing  a  dangerous  influence 
in  a  country  newly  conquered,  and  not  thoroughly  settled. 

November  19. — Mr.  Duer  was,  by  order  of  the  viceroy,  and 
at  the  request  of  the  holy  tribunal,  sentenced  to  the  galleys  for 

150  DIA.EY  OF  THE   REVOLUTION.  [1779. 

profane  and  obscene  language.  He  -wonld  have  been  broke 
on  the  ■whSel,  had  he  not  pleaded  his  former  services  in  reduc- 
ing the  country  to  his  Majesty's  obedience. 

Tlie  king  has  been  pleased  to  parcel  out  a  great  part  of  the 
lands  in  America  to  noblemen  of  distinction,  who  will  grant 
them  again  to  the  peasantry  upon  leases  at  will,  with  the  res- 
ervation of  proper  rents  and  services. 

His  Majesty  has  been  graciously  pleased  to  order  that  none 
of  the  natives  of  America  shall  keep  any  firearms  in  their  j)os- 
session,  upon  pain  of  being  sentenced  to  the  galleys. 

November  20. — It  is  expected  that  the  gabelle  upon  salt 
will  produce  a  considerable  revenue  to  the  crown.  After 
paying  the  customary  duties  in  France,  it  is  chargeable  only 
with  thirty  livres  per  bushel  additional  duty  in  America.  No 
salt  can  be  imported  except  from  the  French  territories  in 

WoveirAer  21. — Obadiah  Standfast,  the  Quaker,  was  this 
day  burnt,  pursuant  to  his  sentence. 

Noveinbcr  23.— "We  hear  from  Williamsburg,  in  Virginia, 
that  some  commotions  took  place  there  when  the  new  capita- 
tion tax  was  first  executed.  But  the  regiment  of  Bretagne, 
being  stationed  in  that  neighborhood,  speedily  suppressed  them 
by  firing  upon  the  populace,  and  killing  fifty  on  the  spot.  It 
is  hoped  that  this  example  Avill  prevent  any  future  insurrection 
in  that  part  of  the  country. 

Novemher^Z. — Ilis  Majesty  has  directed  his  viceroy  to  send 
five  hundred  sons  of  the  principal  inhabitants  of  America,  to 
be  educated  in  France,  where  the  utmost  care  will  bo  taken  to 
imbue  them  with  a  just  regard  for  the  Catholic  faith,  and  a  due 
sense  of  subordination  to  government. 

It  is  ordered  that  all  the  trade  of  America  shall  be  carried 
on  in  French  "  bottoms,  navigated  by  French  seamen." 

Such  is  the  glorious  specimen  of  happiness  to  bo  enjoyed 
by  America,  in  case  the  interposition  of  France  shall  enable 
her  to  shake  off  her  dependence  on  Great  Britain — Di  talem 
avertite  casvm.' 

'  Rivington's  Royal  Gazette,  March  17. 

1779.]  BRITISH   PEIVATEEES.  151 

Maech  is. — Yesterday,  the  anniversary  of  Saint  Patricli, 
the  tutelar  saint  of  Ireland,  was  celebrated  in  New  York  by 
the  natives  of  that  kingdom,  with  their  acciis-  ^.^^  j^.^^^ 
tomed  hilarity.  The  volunteers  of  Ireland,  pre-  Batuiiun. 
ceded  by  their  band  of  music,  marched  into  the  city,  and 
formed  before  the  house  of  their  colonel,  Lord  Eawdon,  who 
put  himself  at  their  head,  and,  after  paying  his  compliments  to 
his  Excellency  General  Knyphausen,  and  to  General  Jones,  ac- 
companied them  to  the  Bowery,  where  a  dinner  was  provided, 
consisting  of  five  hundred  covers.  After  the  men  were  seated, 
and  had  proceeded  to  the  enjoyment  of  a  noble  banquet,  the 
officers  returned  to  town,  and  dined  with  his  lordship.  Tlie 
soldierly  appearance  of  the  men,  their  order  of  march,  hand 
in  hand,  being  all  natives  of  Ireland,  had  a  striking  effect. 

This  single  battalion,  though  only  formed  a  few  months 
ago,  marched  four  hundred  strappimj  fellows^  neither  influenced 
by  Yankee  or  Ague ;  a  number,  perhaps,  equal  to  all  the  re- 
cruits forced  into  the  rebel  army  in  the  same  space  of  time, 
which  shows  how  easily  troops  may  be  formed  on  this  conti- 
nent, from  the  people  who  have  been  seduced  into  America,  and 
spurn  at  the  treason  and  tyranny  of  the  Congress,  providing 
proper  measures  are  followed,  and  they  are  headed  by  men  of 
their  choice.  And,  also,  that  such  men,  however  long  they 
may  have  remained  in  the  haunts  of  hypocrisy,  cunning,  and 
disaffection,  being  naturally  gallant  and  loyal,  crowd  with  ar- 
dor to  stand  forth  in  the  cause  of  their  king,  of  their  country, 
and  of  real,  honest,  general  liberty,  whenever  an  opportunity 

March  80. — ^The  predatory  plan  of  the  Tories  that  have 
lately  infested  the  southern  coasts  of  Massachusetts,  is  more 
extensive  than  was  at  first  imagined.     Tlae  infa- 

-r>'T-r*  1  •"  (*    -%r  British  Privateera. 

mous  Urigadier  l\uggles,  a  native  oi   Massachu- 
setts, flourishes  with  his  royal  commission  at  the  head  of  this 
band  of  robbers.     The  direction  of  their  motions  is  committed 
to  this  parricide.     The  noted  Gilbert  is  his  second.     It  seems 

'  New  York  Gazette,  March  22. 

152  DLVET    OF   THE   EEYOLUTIOX.  [1779. 

tlie  governmental  folks  at  New  York,  heartily  fatigued  with 
having  so  many  importunate  hungry  Tories  hanging  npon 
them,  have  come  to  a  kind  of  compromise  with  these  Avretches. 
They  are  now  to  prowl  for  their  own  living.  Tlie  British 
king  allows  them  small  armed  vessels,  and  salt  provisions ;  re- 
specting other  things  they  are  to  find  themselves.  Equipped 
upon  so  honorable  a  footing,  they  are  to  seek  their  pay,  and 
maintain  their  families,  by  plunder  and  robbery.  Their  leader 
at  Sandwich  and  Falmouth,  Edward  "Winslow,  of  Plymouth, 
is  a  specimen  of  the  future  fate  of  many  of  them.  lie  is  gone 
back  to  Rhode  Island  with  the  gout  in  his  stomach,  occasioned 
by  a  musket  ball,  and  probably  will  rob  no  more.' 

Apkil  17. — By  a  person  who  was,  like  many  others,  forced 
into  the  rebel  army  against  his  consent,  and  yesterday  escaped 
Condition  of  the  ^^'o™  Newark,  we  are  assured  that  the  rebel  troops, 
Eebci  Arniy.  i^ging  sejwed  witli  Salt  beef,  (which  is  exceedingly 
putrid  from  bad  salt  and  ill  curing,)  and  being  only  allowed 
a  small  proportion  of  wretched  whiskey  every  other  day,  arc 
uncommonly  sickly  and  discontented ;  that  two  regiments  in 
the  neighborhood  of  "Washington's  quarters  had  mutinied,  and 
that  the  most  part  of  the  men  only  wanted  an  opportunity 
either  of  deserting  to  the  British,  or  of  turning  their  arms 
against  those  who  have  inveigled  them  into  a  service  which 
they  despise  and  detest,  and  who,  after  having  long  crammed 
them  with  promises  and  lies,  arc  now  carrying  the  experi- 
ment beyond  sufferance  by  refusing  them  wholesome  food.' 

ArKiL  22. — It  may  be  relied  on,  that  the  recruiting  service 
for  the  Continental  army  has  lately  gone  on  witli  more  rapidity 
,j,i,jj  and  success  than  for  a  long  time  past.     A  single 

Eecruitingscrvico.Qfl^ggj.^  wlio  lias  uot  becu  loug  iipou  that  service, 
will  soon  send  forward  from  the  neighborhood  of  Boston,  in 
Massachusetts,;!!©  less  than  two  hundred  recruits.  Others  have 
met  Avith  like  success.  At  the  same  time,  we  are  well  inform- 
ed, that  by  far  the  greater  part  of  the  brave  Americans,  under 

'  New  Ilanipsliire  Gazette,  April  21.  ■  Rivington's  Gazette,  April  11. 

1779.]  JONATHAN  HOPPER.  153 

General  "Wasliington,  have  re-enlisted  during  tlie  war.  ISTine- 
tentlis  of  the  Southern  forces  have  done  it.  The  men  are  highly 
pleased  with  their  excellent  clothing,  -which  is  now  acknowl- 
edged to  be  equal,  if  not  superior,  to  that  of  any  soldiery  in 
the  world.  They  are  equally  pleased  with  the  plenty  and  qual- 
ity of  their  provisions,  and  the  attention  that  has  been  paid 
by  the  several  States,  as  well  as  by  Congress,  to  their  families. 
Many  of  these  noble-spirited  men,  upon  their  re-enlistment, 
have  laughingly  said,  "Tlie  term  is  too  short;  the  war,  we 
know,  can  last  biTt  a  little  while ;  bring  us  an  indenture  for 
ninety-nine  years." ' 

Yesteedat  evening,  Captain  Jonathan  Hopper,  a  brave 
and  Bjiirited  officer  of  the  militia  of  Bergen  County,  in  New 
Jersey,  was  basely  murdered  by  a  party  of  ruffians 

/»  TVT  -KT      t  -TT       T  Til  1.  Jonatliati  Hopper. 

from  JN  ew  Y  ork.  lie  discovered  them  breaking 
open  his  stable,  and  hailed  them,  upon  which  they  fired,  and 
wounded  him ;  he  returned  to  his  hoiise,  they  followed,  burst 
ojDen  the  door,  and  bayoneted  him  in  upwards  of  twenty 
places.  One  of  them,  named  Stephen  Eider,  was  formei-ly  one 
of  his  neighbors.'' 

April  24. — ^Tnis  afternoon,  the  detachment  sent  out  last 
Monday  on  an  expedition  against  the  Indians  at  Onondaga,' 
returned  to  Fort  Schuyler.  Tlie  following  ac- j.^.  ,iy„„  „„^j„gf 
count  of  it  is  given  by  a  writer  in  the  Is'ew  York  ^^^  onondaias. 
Packet : — "  An  entei-prise  against  the  Onondaga  settlements  of 
the  Indians  having  been  projected  and  approved  of  by  his  Ex- 
cellency General  AYashingtoU;,  and  the  direction  of  it  commit- 
ted to  Brigadier-General  James  Clinton,  commanding  in  the 
northern  department,  he,  on  the  seventh  of  April,  issued  his 
orders,  and  gave  the  execution  of  them  to  Colonel  Yan  Schaack, 
commander  of  the  1st  battalion  of  l^ew  York  Continental 
troops,  appointing  as  second  and  third  in  command  Lieuten- 

'  New  Hampshire  Gazette,  April  27.  '  New  Jersey  Gazette,  May  12. 

'  Onondaga  is  about  two  hundred  miles  west  of  Albany,  in  New  York,  and 
about  eighty  miles  from  Fort  Stanwix.— ffajnc's  Mercury,  May  17. 

154:  DIAKT   OF   TUE   EEVOLUTION.  [1779. 

ant-Colonel  Willet  and  Major  Cochran,  of  the  Sd  New  York 
battalion,  all  officers  of  approved  courage  and  abilities.  The 
detachment  for  the  service  consisted  of  six  companies  of  New 
York,  one  of  Pennsylvania,  one  of  Massachusetts  troops,  and 
one  of  riflemen,  amounting,  in  the  whole,  to  five  hundred  and 
four  rank  and  file,  and  fifty-one  officers. 

"  Fort  Schuyler  being  appointed  the  place  of  rendezvous, 
from  thence,  early  on  Monday  morning,  the  nineteenth  of  April, 
the  whole  party  began  their  march,  provision  for  eight  days 
having  been  previously  sent  off  in  twenty-nine  batteaux  into 
Wood  Creek. 

"After  a  march  of  twenty-two  miles,  the  troops  arrived 
about  three  o'clock  in  the  evening  at  the  old  Scow  Place,  but 
the  boats  having  much  farther  to  come,  did  not  arrive  till  ten 
o'clock.  As  soon  as  the  boats  arrived,  the  whole  of  the  troops 
embarked,  and,  upon  entering  the  lake,  were  much  impeded 
by  a  cold  head  wind. 

"At  eight  o'clock  in  the  morning  of  the  twentieth,  the 
troops  halted  at  Pisser's  Bay  till  all  the  boats  came  up,  and 
then  proceeded  to  the  Onondaga  landing,  opposite  to  old  Fort 
BreAverton,  which  they  reached  at  three  o'clock  in  the  after- 
noon. From  thence,  after  leaving  all  their  boats  with  a  proper 
guard,  they  marched  eight  or  nine  miles  on  their  way  to  the 
Onondaga  settlement,  and,  not  being  able  to  continue  their 
march  in  the  dark,  lay  on  their  arms  all  night,  without  fire. 

"  "Very  early  on  the  twenty -first  they  proceeded  to  the  Salt 
Lake,  an  arm  of  which  (two  hundred  yards  over,  and  four  feet 
deep)  they  forded,  with  their  pouches  hung  to  their  fixed  bay- 
onets, and  advanced  to  the  Onondaga  Creek,  where  Captain 
Graham  took  prisoner  an  Onondaga  Avarrior.  The  creek  not 
being  fordable,  the  troops  crossed  it  on  a  log,  and  as  soon  as 
they  were  over,  the  utmost  endeavors  were  used  to  surround 
the  settlements,  but  as  they  extended  eight  miles,  besides  some 
scattered  halntations  lying  back  of  the  castles,  it  was  impos- 
sible ;  and  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  creek,  though  our  troops 
entered  their  first  settlement  wholly  undiscovered  by  them, 
they  soon  discovered  some  of  our  advanced  parties,  and  took 
the  alarm  in  all  their  settlements.     The  colonel,  however,  or- 


dercd  difTerent  routes  to  be  taken  by  different  parties,  in  order 
to  surround  as  many  of  their  settlements  as  possible  at  the 
same  time ;  but  the  Indians  fled  precipitately  to  the  -woods, 
not  taking  any  thing  with  them.  Our  troops  took  thirty- 
three  Indians  and  one  white  man  prisoners,  and  killed  twelve 
Indians.  Tlie  whole  of  their  settlements,  consisting  of  about 
fifty  houses,  with  a  largo  quantity  of  corn  and  beans,  were 
burnt,  a  number  of  fine  horses,  and  every  other  kind  of  stock 
were  killed.  About  one  liundred  guns,  some  of  whicli  were 
rifles,  were  among  the  plunder,  the  whole  of  which,  after  the 
men  were  loaded  with  as  much  as  they  could  carry,  was  de- 
stroyed, with  a  considerable  quantity  of  ammunition ;  one 
swivel,  taken  at  the  council  house,  had  the  trunnions  broken 
off,  and  was  otherwise  much  damaged,  and,  in  fine,  the  destruc- 
tion of  all  their  settlements  was  complete. 

"  After  this,  the  troops  began  to  march  on  their  return,  re- 
crossed  the  creek,  and  forded  the  arm  of  the  lake,  on  the  side 
of  wliich  they  encamped  on  a  good  ground.  They  had  only 
been  once  interrupted  by  a  small  party  of  Indians,  who  firfed 
upon  them  from  the  opposite  side  of  the  creek,  but  were  soon 
beaten  back  by  Lieutenant  Evans'  riflemen,  who  killed  one  of 

"  On  the  twenty-second  the  troops  marclied  to  the  landing, 
embarked  in  good  order,  and  rowed  to  Seven  Mile  Island ;  on 
the  twenty-third  crossed  the  lake,  and  landed  two  miles  up 
"VYood  Creek.  On  Saturdaj^,  the  twenty-fourth,  at  twelve 
o'clock,  the  whole  detachment  returned  in  safety  to  Fort  Schuy- 
ler, having  been  out  five  days  and  a  half."  ' 

April  27. — Yesteedat,  tlie  British,  in  two  divisions,  landed 
in  the  county  of  Monmouth,  in  New  Jersey ;  one  party  at 
Shoal  Harbor,  which  marclied  to  Middletown,  ^„,„nj,,  ^  ne's 
and  entered  the  village  at  daybreak;  the  other  visit  to  Jersey. 
went  in  flat-bottomed  boats,  into  Shrewsbury  River,  landed  at 
Eed  Bank,  and  then  proceeded  to  Trenton  Falls.  Colonel 
Ford,   M'itli   the   Continental  troops,   retired   to   Colt's   Neck. 

'  Kew  Jersey  Gazette,  May  12. 

156  DIAEY   OF  THE   EEVOLUTIOIT.  [1779. 

ISTear  the  middle  of  the  day  the  party  which  had  handed  at 
Shrewsbury  Eiver,  crossed  the  river  and  went  to  Middletown, 
where  both  the  divisions  formed  a  junction.  They  sent  their 
boats  round  to  the  bay  shore,  near  one  Ilarber's  plantation, 
where  they  had  thirteen  sloops  ready  to  take  them  off.  At 
eight  o'clock.  Captain  Burrows,  who  had  mustered  twelve  men, 
gave  them  to  understand  that  they  were  surrounded  by  the 
militia.  They  continued  in  the  village  till  three  o'clock, 
when  they  began  their  retreat.  Captain  Buitows  was  then 
joined  by  three  other  men,  and  kept  a  constant  fire  upon  them 
for  two  miles,  when  Colonel  Holmes,  of  the  militia,  with  about 
sixty  of  his  men,  reinforced  Captain  Burrows,  and  then  the 
enemy's  retreat  was  precipitate ;  they  were  drove  on  board  at 
sunset,  and  immediately  set  sail  for  Kew  York.  Tlieir  num- 
bers were  about  eight  hundred,  commanded  by  Colonel  Hyde. 
"We  had  but  two  men  slightly  wounded.  The  enemy  left  three 
dead  behind  them,  their  wounded  they  carried  off,  as  their  rear 
made  a  stand  at  every  hill,  house,  and  barn  in  their  route.  One 
of  the  inhabitants  says  fifteen  wounded  were  carried  on  board 
their  boats.  Li  their  progress,  or  rather  flight,  they  plundered 
the  inhabitants,  and  burnt  several  houses  and  barns.  Had 
they  landed  in  the  day,  or  stayed  till  the  militia  could  be  col- 
lected to  half  their  number,  (which- we  always  reckon  sufficient 
to  drub  them,)  they  would  doiibtless  have  repented  their  inva- 
sion. But  ever  choosing,  like  their  brother  thieves,  the  hours 
of  darkness  to  perpetrate  the  works  of  darkness,  they  generally 
land  in  the  night,  and  before  the  militia  can  be  collected,  flee 
to  their  vessels  with  precipitation,  snatching  iip  in  their  flight 
what  plunder  they  can,  and  then  magnify  in  their  lying  Ga- 
zettes, one  of  those  sheep-stealing  nocturnal  robberies,  into  one 
of  the  Duke  of  Marlborough's  victories  in  Flanders.' 

'  Now  Hampshire  G.izette,  May  25.  The  following  is  another  account  of  this 
affair : — "  On  Monday  last,  the  2Gth  of  April,  about  break  of  clay,  a  detachment 
of  British,  consisting  of  seven  hundred  men,  were  discovered  by  a  scouting  party 
of  Colonel  Ford's,  coming  up  the  North  River,  about  half  a  mile  below  Red  Bank, 
who  immediately  gave  the  alarm.  The  enemy  directly  landed  four  hundred  men 
at  Painter's  Point,  and  about  forty  of  them  marched  up  to  Shrewsbury ;  the  re- 
mainder went  about  half  a  mile  to  the  westward  and  came  out  about  William 
Warden's  place,  with  a  view  to  cut  off  the  retreat  of  near  three  hundred  of  our 

17T9.]  OPEEATIONS   IN   TEIE   SOUTH.  157 

May  10. — Mk.  Zedwitz,  late  a  lieutenant-colonel  belonging 
to  the  State  of  'New  York,  iu  the  service  of  the  United  States, 
was,  a  few  days  aa-o,  taken  xip  near  Morris  Town, 

'  ■'°  ,11  .,  1        Colonel  Zodwitz. 

in  JerscA',  dressed  m  women  s  clothes.  About  the 
time  the  British  army  took  possession  of  New  York,  he  was 
tried  by  a  court-martial  and  found  guilty  of  attempting  to  give 
information  to  the  enemy,  for  which  he  was  sentenced  to  im- 
prisonment during  the  war.'  He  lately  made  his  escape  from 
Lancaster,  Pennsylvania,  and  was  thus  disguised  endeavoring 
to  get  to  K"ew  York.  He  will  probably  meet  the  pimishment 
his  treachery  justly  merits." 

May  29. — A  coeeespoxdent  iu  Charleston,  South  Carolina, 
gives  the  following  account  of  the  late  movements  of  the  two 
armies  at  the  southward : — "  On  the  twenty-eighth  op„„„„„s  ;„  t^^ 
of  -April,  a  party  of  the  British  army,  under  the  ''''""^• 
command  of  Major  Fraser,  landed  nine  miles  below  Purysburg, 
and  on  the  next  morning,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Maitland,  with 
the  light  infantry  of  the  line  and  a  battalion  of  the  1st,  landed 
four  miles  higher  up  Savannah  Piver.    Colonel  Mcintosh,  who 

people  posted  on  that  station.  Colonel  Ford's  party  (uncertain  of  the  enemy's 
force)  retreated,  and  got  about  four  hundred  yards  ahead  of  them;  the  enemy 
pursued  them  to  the  Falls,  firing  all  the  way,  but  could  not  overtake  them.  They 
then  set  fire  to  High  Sheriff  Van  Brenck's  house,  and  a  small  house,  the  property 
of  and  adjoining  to  Colonel  Hendriekson's  dwelling-house,  which  were  burnt  to 
the  ground.  They  also  fired  the  houses  of  Captain  Richard  M'Knight  and  John 
Little,  Esq. ;  but  they  were  extinguished  by  the  activity  of  the  inhabitants  before 
they  had  suffered  much  damage.  The  enemy  then  returned  to  Shrewsbury,  plun- 
dering all  the  way  to  Colonel  Breeze's,  whom  they  robbed  of  all  his  money  and 
most  of  his  plate  ;  and  at  Justice  Holmes',  where  they  plundered  and  destroyed 
every  thing  they  could  lay  their  hands  upon,  and  then  retreated  to  their  boats,  a 
few  militia  firing  on  them.  They  then  went  to  Middleton,  and  joined  three  hun- 
dred who  had  crossed  over  there,  when  the  four  hundred  marched  to  Shrewsbury, 
and  stayed  till  evening,  burning  a  house  and  barn  and  plundering  some  of  the  in- 
habitants. Colonel  Holmes  had  by  this  time  assembled  one  hundred  and  forty  of 
the  militia,  who  drove  them  to  their  boats  near  the  gut  dividing  the  Highlands 
from  Sandy  Hook.  One  of  the  enemy  was  killed  and  another  taken  prisoner. 
The  enemy  carried  off  with  them  Justice  Covenhovcn  and  son,  likewise  several 
others.  They  got  off  by  sunset,  and  returned  to  Xew  York,  taking  away  some 
cattle  and  horses." — Pennsylvania  Packet,  May  1. 

'  See  page  299,  vol.  i.  ^  New  Jersey  Gazette,  May  19. 

158  DIARY   OF   TUE   EEVOLUTION.  [1779. 

commanded  at  Puiysbnrg,  having  only  two  liundred  men,  the 
major  part  of  whom  were  militia,  (after  calling  in  all  his  out- 
posts,) was  obliged  to  retire  as  the  enemy  advanced  towards 
the  town,  of  which  they  took  possession  that  afternoon. 

"  General  Moultrie  was  at  this  time  posted  at  Black  Swamp, 
with  ahont  eight  himdred  men.  The  enemy's  drawing  more 
of  their  forces  on  this  side  the  river,  and  advancing  higher  np, 
evidently  indicated  an  intention  of  attacking  the  general  before 
he  could  be  joined  by  Colonel  Mcintosh.  General  Lincoln, 
with  the  main  body  of  the  army,  being  then  eighty  miles  fur- 
tlier  up  the  country,  should  the  enemy  have  succeeded  in  tlic 
attempt,  there  Avould  be  no  obstacle  in  tlicir  march  to  Charles- 
ton, and  as  their  force  was  treble  General  Moultrie's,  the 
worst  was  to  be  apprehended.  These  considerations  induced 
the  general  to  retire  on  the  thirtieth,  and  that  night  lie  met 
Colonel  Mcintosh  on  his  march  to  join  him  at  Black  Swamp. 
The  event  proved  the  propriety  of  the  movement,  as  next 
morning  the  Bi'itish  were  in  possession  of  the  ground  tlic  Amer- 
icans had  evacuated. 

"  Tlie  general  halted  at  Coosawhatchie  that  night,  and  having 
marched  over  the  bridge,  before  daylight  next  morning  pro- 
ceeded to  Tulifinny,  and  took  post  there.  A  field-ofRcer's  guard 
was  left  at  the  bridge. 

"  Early  in  the  morning  of  the  second  of  Jlay,  advice  was 
received  that  the  enemy  were  in  motion,  and  about  two  o'clock 
in  the  afternoon  an  attack  was  commenced  by  their  advanced 
party  of  light  infantry  at  the  bridge,  where  the  guard  had  been 
reinforced  by  one  hundred  and  fifty  riflemen.  Their  superior 
numbers  rendered  it  impossible  to  stop  their  progress.  Little 
other  loss  was  sustained  in  this  skirmish  than  Colonel  John 
Laurens  being  wounded  in  the  riglit  arm,  which  deprived  the 
army  of  that  gallant  officer's  services. 

"The  general's  army  being  chiefly  composed  of  militia, 
whose  families  and  effects  lay  in  the  way  of  the  enemy,  was 
every  moment  diminishing,  and  laid  him  under  the  necessity 
of  retiring,  which  he  did  by  the  Saltketcher  road,  having  de- 
stroyed the  bridges  of  Tiilifinny  and  Pocotaligo  in  his  way. 
The  army  halted  for  a  few  hours  at  the  meeting-house,  and 

1779.]  OPEEATIONS    IN   THE    SOUTH.  159 

then  marched  to  Asliepoo.  They  passed  the  bridge  in  the 
forenoon  of  the  fourth,  and  took  post  for  the  rest  of  the  day  on 
the  high  grounds  near  Mr.  Pinckney's  houses.  Intelligence 
was  this  night  received  that  the  enemy's  advanced  party  had 
reached  Godfrey's,  near  Savannah,  and  that  their  main  body 
had  found  means  to  cross  Saltketcher  Itiver,  notwithstanding 
the  Americans  had  taken  the  precaution  to  destroy  the  bridge; 
this,  joined  to  the  inferior  number  of  our  army,  which  was 
considerably  less  than  when  it  left  Black  Swamp,  and  tlic  na- 
ture of  the  country,  which  rendered  it  impossible  to  make  a 
stand  without  being  exposed,  obliged  the  general  to  quit  Ashe- 
poo  between  three  and  four  o'clock  in  the  morning  of  the  fifth. 

"  At  night  the  enemy  halted  at  Mr.  Ferguson's  plantation, 
called  Spring  Grove,  having  destroyed  Jacksonborough  Bridge 
on  their  way,  and  reached  Bacon's  Bridge  next  night,  when 
General  Moultrie  left  the  army,  and  proceeded  to  Charleston. 

"Major  Butler,  who  joined  the  army  at  Jacksonborough, 
with  a  party  of  horse,  on  the  sixth,  fell  in  with  a  foraging 
party  of  the  enemy,  sixteen  miles  to  the  southward  of  Parker's 
ferry.  Three  of  them,  belonging  to  the  71st  light  infantry, 
were  taken  prisoners,  and  a  few  horse  killed  and  wounded. 

"Part  of  Count  Pulaski's  legion  arrived  on  the  eighth;  on 
tlie  ninth.  Colonel  Mcintosh,  with  tlie  troops  left  at  Bacon's 
Bridge,  and  a  detachment  from  Orangeburgh,  arrived  in  town. 
And  next  day.  Colonel  Harris,  who  had  been  detached  by 
General  Lincoln,  with  two  hundred  Continental  troops,  to  re- 
inforce General  Moultrie,  and  Colonel  Neal,  with  three  hun- 
dred men  from  Orangeburgh,  also  arrived. 

"In  the  evening  of  the  tenth,  intelligence  was  received  of 
tlic  royal  army  being  encamped  on  the  south  side  of  Ashley 
ferry,  where  they  appeared  so  suddenly  as  to  prevent  the  ferry 
boats  being  destroyed.  The  troops  stationed  in  town,  regulars 
and  militia,  were  under  arms  the  whole  night. 

"  Tlie  enemy  began  to  cross  Ashley  ferry  at  ten  in  tlie  fore- 
Tioon  of  the  eleventh.  Tlieir  advanced  party,  composed  of 
light  infantry,  cavalry,  and  savages,  took  post  half  a  mile  from 
tlie  feiTy.  General  Pulaski,  after  reconnoitring  them,  left  a 
detachment  to  watch  their  motions,  and  repaired  to  town  in 


order  to  confer  witli  tlie  council.  During  tliis  interval,  tlie 
enemy  had  completed  their  passage  of  the  river,  and  were  ad- 
vancuig  in  three  columns  towards  the  town.  Their  advanced 
guard  consisted  of  two  hundred  horse,  foiir  hundred  Highland- 
ers, and  some  Indians ;  their  rear  guard  of  cavalry. 

"At  the  distance  of  five  miles  from  town,  some  of  the 
count's  party  Avere  ordered  to  fire,  principally  with  a  view  of 
announcing  the  enemy's  approach.  The  enemy  made  frequent 
halts  in  order  to  explore  the  ground  over  which  they  were  to 

"  Tlie  count,  who  had  ordered  the  infantry  of  his  coi^js  to 
form  an  ambuscade,  and  directed  a  detachment  of  volunteer 
horse  which  he  fell  in  with  to  second  his  infantry,  advanced 
and  made  his  disposition  for  inducing  the  enemy  to  detach 
their  cavalry  from  the  head  of  their  column.  A  close  fire  be- 
gan, when  both  our  cavalry  and  infantry  charged  ;  but  the  latter 
were  exceedingly  embarrassed  and  confined  in  their  movements 
by  the  volunteer  horse,  owing  to  a  misajiprehension  of  orders. 
Xotwithstanding  these  difficulties,  and  the  superiority  of  the 
enemy's  numbers,  the  ground  was  obstinately  disputed.  But 
at  length  the  order  for  retreat  became  necessary,  and  the  ene- 
my, by  their  prudence  in  not  advancing,  escaped  the  fire  of 
the  artillery  tVom  our  works.  Tlie  British  loss  was  forty-five 
soldiers  and  oflicers,  and  ours  thirty  in  all. 

"  About  ten  o'clock  at  night,  an  alarm  being  given  by  one 
of  our  sentinels,  occasioned  a  general  fire  of  cannon  and  mus- 
ketry from  the  lines  and  armed  vessels  stationed  on  the  flanks. 
Major  Benjamin  linger,  who  has  been  sent  out  with  a  .party 
to  fill  up  a  gap  in  the  abbatis,  and  three  privates,  were  unfor- 
tunately killed.  lie  was  a  gentleman  whose  memory  will  be 
ever  dear  to  all  those  who  had  the  happiness  of  knowing  him ; 
and  whether  considered  as  a  citizen,  as  a  soldier,  as  the  father 
of  a  family,  or  as  a  friend,  is  universally  regretted.  The  ene- 
my had  several  men  killed,  they  say  chiefly  from  the  sliipping. 

"  On  the  morning  of  the  twelfth,  Major  Gavdiier,  of  tlic  OOtli 
regiment,  was  met  with  at  some  distance  from  the  lines,  bear- 
ing a  flag  from  General  Prevost.  Several  others  passed  and 
repassed,  but  in  the  afternoon  all  further  intercourse  of  that 

1779.]  AiTATRS   AT  THE   SOUTH.  161 

kind  was  diseontinned,  and  every  preparation  made  for  vigor- 
ously repelling  a  general  assault,  expected  at  niglit,  which, 
however,  was  never  attempted. 

"  Early  in  the  morning  of  the  thirteenth,  Count  Pulaski 
went  out  with  a  small  party  of  horse  to  reconnoitre ;  and  the 
surprise  was  scarcely  to  be  conceived  which  was  occasioned  by 
his  sending  intelligence  of  the  enemy  having  decamped  and 
recrossed  Ashley  Eiver.  Eleven  deserters,  and  about  as  many 
prisoners,  were  brought  into  town  during  the  course  of  the  day. 
The  sudden  departure  of  the  enemy  gave  rise  to  a  variety  of 
conjectures.  Tlie  most  probable  appeared  to  be  their  being 
misinformed  respecting  the  strength  of  the  garrison  and  works, 
and  their  having  some  intimation  of  General  Lincoln's  ap- 
proach. Tliey  were,  for  several  days  after  their  retreat,  en- 
camped in  different  places  in  the  neighborhood  of  Ashley  fer- 
ry, and  on  James'  Island.  On  General  Lincoln's  coming  to 
Ashley  ferry,  they  drew  in  force  towards  "Wappoo,  and  it  was 
imagined  meant  to  hazard  an  action ;  hut  they  suddenly  de- 
camped on  the  night  of  the  twenty-seventh,  and  passed  over 
to  John's  Island,  where,  by  the  last  accounts,  they  are  at  pres- 
ent. Some  are  of  the  opinion  that  they  intend  proceeding 
through  the  islands  to  Port  Poyal. 

"  As  some  movements  of  the  enemy  gave  reason  to  imagine 
they  intended  attacking  Fort  Johnson,  and  the  greater  part  of 
the  forces  then  in  this  neighborhood  being  req\iired  for  the  de- 
fence of  the  works  in  town,  that  fortification  was  blown  iip  on 
the  twelfth.  Great  part  of  the  ball,  &c.,  have  been  suace 
brought  off.  Thirty  of  Captain  Matthew's  company  of  the 
Charleston  militia  being  sent  down  to  cover  a  party  employ- 
ed in  bringing  off  some  more  of  the  iron  work,  were  attacked 
on  Saturday  by  Major  Gardner,  with  a  superior  number  of 
men,  but  were  fortunate  enough  to  escape  with  the  loss  of  seven 
wounded  and  one  taken  prisoner." ' 

An  officer  of  distinction  in  the  British  army  gives  the  fol- 
lowing "  authentic  accoimt "  of  the  foregoing  operations  in 
South  Carolina: — "The  success  which  his  Majesty's  ai-my  has 

Copied  from  a  "Rebel  Paper"  into  Gaine'a  Mercury,  July  26. 
Vol.  ir.— 11 

162  DIAET   OF   THE   KEVOLUTION.  [17Y9. 

met  witli  in  Soutla  Carolina,  by  penetrating,  witliout  any  loss 
of  men,  to  tlie  very  gates  of  Charleston,  and  obliging  the 
British  Account  of  encmv  to  bum  its  beautiful  suburbs,  will  hardly 

the  Operations     ,  ■,.       ■,         rm  -,    -yn^       i    •  n     i 

at  tiie  South,  be  credited.  1  he  natural  dimculties  of  the  coun- 
try were  thought  a  sufficient  barrier,  with  General  Moultrie's 
army,  to  stop  us  from  penetrating  any  distance  into  the  prov- 
ince, but  the  spirit  shown  by  the  troops,  their  patience  and 
perseverance  imder  the  severest  fatigues,  were  such  as  would 
have  surmounted  greater  obstacles  than  the  resistance  of  the 

"  We  arrived  before  Charleston  on  the  eleventh,  in  the  even- 
ing, after  almost  totally  destroying  or  taking  that  famous  le- 
gion of  Pulaski's,  by  forty-five  of  our  gallant  dragoons,  under 
the  command  of  the  brave  Captain  Tawes.  Amongst  the  killed 
of  the  enemy,  was  Count  Pulaski's  colonel,  and  several  pri- 
vates, besides  a  great  number  of  prisoners  taken.  The  enemy 
sent  next  morning  to  know  what  terms  we  would  grant.  Four 
hours  were  allowed  them  to  surrender  prisoners  of  war,  or  take 
the  oaths  of  allegiance  to  his  Majesty,  and  be  protected  in  their 
persons  and  j^roperty,  and  return  to  the  class  of  peaceful  citi- 
zens. But  an  express  having  arrived  in  the  mean  time  from 
General  Lincoln,  with  an  account  of  his  approach,  and  that  a 
reinforcement  would  be  in  town  that  day,  the  enemy  grew 
more  confident,  and  began  to  talk  in  higher  terms ;  however, 
they  proposed  a  neutrality  for  the  province  until  the  war  be- 
tween Great  Britain  and  America  was  determined ;  but  it  be- 
ing a  proposition  '  which  the  general  could  not  agree  to,  they 

'  The  following  is  the  proposition  made  by  Colonels  Smith  and  Mcintosh  to 
Colonel  Provost  and  Captain  Monciief,  at  a  conference  at  Charleston,  May  12, 
1119 : — "  Tliat  Carolina  should  remain  in  a  stale  of  neutrality  during  the  war,  and 
the  question  whether  Carolina  should  remain  an  independent  State,  or  be  subject  to 
Cheat  Britain,  be  determined  by  the  fate  of  the  war.'' 

This  proposition  shows  in  a  clear  point  of  view,  with  what  ease  the  people  of 
Carolina  can  throw  off  and  break  their  most  solemn  engagement  with  the  Conti- 
nental Congress  and  France,  on  the  approach  of  real  danger,  or  whenever  they 
think  it  will  stiit  their  private  views.  Such  J3  the  much  boasted  virtue  and  honor 
of  the  inhabitants  of  South  Carolina. 

Some  time  ago  the  State  of  South  Carolina  made  a  requisition  to  the  Conti- 
nental Congress  for  a  supply  of  troops  in  South  Carolina ;  the  Congress  sent 

1779.]  FOKT  LATATETTE  TAEEN.  163 

were  iuformed  tliat  nothing  conld  bo  granted  but  the  most  fa- 
vorable terms,  as  to  security  of  persons  and  property  if  the 
pLace  was  surrendered ;  this  they  declined  on  the  encourage- 
ment received  from  General  Lincohi,  the  arrival  of  their  armed 
vessels  to  flank  their  works,  and  the  number  of  guns  mounted 
on  them.  Tlie  storming  of  the  place  was  the  next  point  to  be 
considered,  but  though  it  was  not  doubted  but  it  might  be  carried 
in  that  way,  yet,  as  it  would  probably  have  been  attended 
with  the  loss  of  a  considerable  number  of  men,  which  may  be 
avoided  by  proceeding  on  another  plan,  (where  the  success  will 
be  at  least  equally  certain,  and  the  risk  less,)  it  was  therefore 
determined  to  keep  the  field,  as  we  were  so  situated  as  to  in- 
sure a  communication  with  our  shippmg,  receive  the  necessary 
supplies,  and  from  thence  act  as  circumstances  should  require. 
Tliis  measure  is  now  pursued,  and  the  army  are  in  possession 
of  James'  and  John's  Islands,  the  enemy  having  precipitately 
abandoned  the  very  strong  fort  situated  on  the  former  island, 
called  Fort  Jolmson." ' 

Mat  31. — Day  before  yesterday,  fifteen  lumdred  men,  con- 
sisting of  British  and  Hessian  grenadiers,  light  infantry,  volun- 
teers of  Ireland  and  Yagers,  landed  on  Teller's  port  Lafayette 
Point,  eight  miles  below  Peekskill,  on  the  North  Taten. 
River,'  and  the  following  day  another  party  landed  on  the  west 
side  of  the  river,  where  they  burnt  some  houses,  and  opened 
two  small  batteries,  from  which  they  threw  shells,  and  can- 
nonaded Fort  de  la  Fayette  across  the  river,  all  day ;  at  the 
same  time  two  galleys  kept  up  a  severe  fire  on  the  fort.  Tliey 
have  continued  their  firing  till  eleven  o'clock  to-day.  Mean- 
while their  army  marched  from  Teller  s  to  Verplanck's  Point, 
on  which  the  fort  stands.  By  a  fiag  they  demanded  a  surren- 
der ;  the  parley  continued  two  hours,  when  Captain  Armstrong 

young  Mr.  Laurens  to  recommend  it  to  tbem  to  arm  their  domestics,  and  at  the 
same  time  recommending  Mr.  Laurens  as  a  proper  person  to  head  them.  This  is 
said  to  be  the  cause  of  Carolinians  being  willing  to  remain  in  a  state  of  neutrality. 
— Gainers  Mercttry,  July  12. 

■  Georgia  Gazette,  June  10,  and  Gaine'a  Mercury,  July  12. 

'  In  the  State  of  New  York. 

164  DIABY   OF   THE   EEVOLCTION.  [1779. 

thought  fit  to  surrender.  General  McDougall  has  not  yet 
received  a  justifiable  reason  why  the  fort  was  given  up. 

This  little  fort  was  built  on  purpose  to  secure  lung's  ferry 
from  the  insults  of  the  enemy's  vessels,  which  frequently  inter- 
rupted the  American  boats  in  crossing.  It  was  small,  and  would 
contain,  with  conveniency,  about  a  company  of  men.  The  re- 
doubt was  strong,  and  covered  a  barbette  battery,  mounting 
three  pieces  of  cannon.  We  had  in  the  barbette  a  company  of 
artillery ;  they  were  all  drawn  off  but  a  sergeant,  a  corporal,  and 
twelve  privates.  In  the  redoubt  were  a  captain,  two  subal- 
terns, three  sergeants,  and  forty-four  rank  and  file.  Tliey  had 
provisions  and  water  sufiicient  to  serve  them  thirty  days.' 

A  British  ofiicer  gives  the  following  account  of  this  affair : — 
"  On  Monday  morning,  the  thirty-first  of  May,  part  of  the  army, 
British  Account  i^iidcr  the  commaud  of  Major-General  Vaughan, 
of  Fort  Lafayette,  landed  ou  thc  cast  sido  of  Hudson  Eiver,  about 
eight  miles  below  Verplanck's  Point.  The  corps  intended  to  land 
on  the  west  side,  under  his  excellency  the  commander-in-chief, 
with  Major-General  Pattison,  proceeded  up  within  three  miles 
of  Stony  Point,  where  they  landed,  about  which  time  the  rebels, 
who  had  a  block-house  and  some  unfinished  works  on  a  height 
of  that  point,  commanding  the  ferry,  as  well  as  Fort  la  Fayette 
on  the  east  side  of  the  river,  set  fire  to  the  block-house,  and 
ran  off  to  the  mountains.  That  corps,  about  four  o'clock  in  the 
afternoon,  continued  their  march  round,  and  took  possession 
of  the  heights ;  during  this  time  the  galleys  fired  some  shot 
at  Fort  la  Fayette,  on  the  east  side  of  Verplanck's  Point ;  these 
were  returned  from  the  fort,  which  was  a  small  but  complete 
work.  Artillery  was  now  necessary  in  order  to  expedite  the 
business ;  his  excellency  the  general  ordered  Major-General 
Pattison  to  command  the  troops  and  carry  on  the  attack.  In 
the  night,  the  artillery  for  that  service,  notwithstanding  great 
difliculties  from  a  bad  landing  place  and  a  very  steep  preci- 
pice, were  got  iip,  and  batteries  completed  by  five  o'clock  in 
the  morning,  when  orders  were  given  for  firing  upon  the  ene- 
my's works ;  which,  notwithstanding  the  great  distance,  was 

'  New  Jersey  Gazette,  June  9. 

1779.]  FOET   LATAYETTE   TAKEN.  165 

soon  perceived  to  be  effectual.  Tlie  galleys  and  batteries  con- 
tinued the  cannonade  about  two  hours,  when  the  main  body, 
under  Major-General  Yaughan,  having  made  a  detour  and 
approached  the  fort,  the  commander-in-chief  being  there  in 
person,  sent  orders  to  General  Pattison  and  the  galleys  to  cease 
firing,  the  enemy  having  surrendered ;  they  laid  down  their 
arms,  became  prisoners  of  war,  and  on  Thursday  morning  ai-- 
rived  in  New  York. 

"  The  commodore  had,  previous  to  the  attack,  ordered  up  the 
Yiilture  sloop-of-war  above  the  fort,  with  a  row-galley,  which 
prevented  the  enemy's  retreat  from  the  fort."  ' 

'  Gaine's  Mercury,  June  7 


JuOTE  1. — Amon&  the  many  errors  America  has  been  guilty 
of  during  her  contest  with  Great  Britain,  few  have  been  greater, 
or  attended  with  more  fatal  consequences  to  these 
States,  than  her  lenity  to  the  Tories.  At  first  it 
might  have  been  right,  or  perhaps  political ;  but  is  it  not  sur- 
prising that,  after  repeated  proofs  of  the  same  evils  resulting 
therefrom,  it  should  still  be  continued  ?  "We  are  all  crying  out 
against  the  depreciation  of  our  money,  and  entering  into  meas- 
ures to  restore  it  to  its  value ;  while  the  Tories,  who  are  one 
principal  cause  of  the  depreciation,  are  taken  no  notice  of,  but 
suffered  to  live  quietly  among  us.  "We  can  no  longer  be  silent 
on  this  siibject,  and  see  the  independence  of  the  country,  after 
standing  every  shock  from  without,  endangered  by  internal 
enemies.  House,  America  !  your  danger  is  great — ^great  fi'om 
a  quarter  where  you  least  expect  it.  Tlie  Tories,  the  Tories 
will  yet  be  the  ruin  of  you  !  'Tis  high  time  they  were  sepa- 
rated from  among  you.  They  are  now  busy  engaged  in  under- 
mining your  liberties.  They  have  a  thousand  ways  of  doing 
it,  and  they  make  use  of  them  all.  "Wlio  were  the  occasion  of 
this  war  ?  The  Tories  !  "Who  persuaded  the  tyrant  of  Britain 
to  prosecute  it  in  a  manner  before  unknown  to  civilized  nations, 
and  shocking  even  to  barbarians  ?  The  Tories !  Who  pre- 
vailed on  the  savages  of  the  wilderness  to  join  the  standard 
of  the  enemy  ?  Tlie  Tories  !  "Wlio  have  assisted  the  Indians 
in  taking  the  scalp  from  the  aged  matron,  the  blooming  fair 
one,  the  helpless  infant,  and  the  dying  hero  ?  The  Tories ! 
"Who  advised  and  Avho  assisted  in  burning  your  towns,  ravaging 
your  country,  and  violating  the  chastity  of  your  women  ?  The 

1779.]  THE  TORIES.  167 

Tories !  Who  are  the  occasion  that  thousands  of  you  now 
mourn  the  loss  of  your  dearest  connections  ?  The  Tories ! 
Who  have  always  counteracted  the  endeavors  of  Congress  to 
secxire  the  liberties  of  this  country  ?  The  Tories  !  Who  re- 
fused their  money  when  as  good  as  specie,  though  stamped 
with  the  image  of  his  most  sacred  Majesty?  The  Tories! 
Who  continue  to  refuse  it?  The  Tories!  Who  do  all  in 
their  power  to  depreciate  it  ?  The  Tories  I  Who  propagate 
lies  among  us  to  discourage  the  Whigs  ?  The  Tories  !  Who 
corrupt  the  minds  of  the  good  ^^eople  of  these  States  by  every 
species  of  insidious  coimsel  ?  The  Tories !  Who  hold  a 
traitorous  correspondence  with  the  enemy  ?  Tlie  Tories ! 
Wlio  daily  sends  them  intelligence  ?  The  Tories  !  Wlio  tate 
the  oaths  of  allegiance  to  the  States  one  day,  and  break  them 
the  next  ?  Tlie  Tories  !  Wlio  prevent  your  battalions  from 
being  filled  ?  Tlie  Tories  !  Who  dissuade  men  from  entering 
the  army  ?  The  Tories !  Who  persuade  those  who  have 
enlisted  to  desert  ?  Tlie  Tories  !  Wlio  harbor  those  who  do 
desert  ?  The  Tories  !  In  short,  who  wish  to  see  us  conquered, 
to  see  us  slaves,  to  see  us  hewers  of  wood  and  drawers  of 
water  ?     The  Tories ! 

And  is  it  possible  that  we  should  suffer  men,  who  have 
l)een  guilty  of  all  these  and  a  thousand  other  calamities  which 
this  country  has  experienced,  to  live  among  us !  To  live 
among  us,  did  I  say  ?  Nay,  do  they  not  move  in  our  Assem- 
blies ?  Do  they  not  insult  us  with  their  impudence  ?  Do  they 
not  hold  traitorous  assemblies  of  their  own  ?  Do  they  not 
walk  the  streets  at  noon  day,  and  taste  the  air  of  liberty  ?  Li 
short,  do  they  not  enjoy  every  privilege  of  the  brave  soldier 
who  has  spilt  his  blood,  or  the  honest  patriot  who  has  sacri- 
ficed his  all  in  our  righteous  cause?  Yes — to  our  eternal 
shame  be  it  spoken — they  do.  Those  very  men  who  wish  to 
entail  slavery  on  our  country,  are  caressed  and  harbored  among 
us.  Posterity  will  not  believe  it ;  if  they  do,  they  vnll  curse 
the  memory  of  their  forefathers  for  their  shameful  lenity.  Can 
we  ever  expect  any  grateful  return  for  our  humanity,  if  it  de- 
serves that  name  ?  Believe  not  a  spark  of  that  or  any  other 
vu-tue  is  to  be  foimd  in  the  Tory's  breast ;  for  what  principle 

168  DIAET   OF   THE   EEVOLTFTION.  [1779. 

can  that  wretch  have  who  would  sell  his  soul  to  subject  his 
country  to  the  will  of  the  greatest  tyrant  the  world  at  present 
produces  ?  'Tis  time  to  rid  ourselves  of  these  bosom  vipers. 
An  immediate  separation  is  necessary.  I  dread  to  think  of  the 
evils  every  moment  is  big  with,  while  a  single  Tory  remains 
among  us.  May  we  not  soon  expect  to  hear  of  plots,  assassi- 
nations, and  every  species  of  wickedness  their  malice  and  ran- 
cor can  suggest  ?  for  what  can  restrain  those  who  have  already 
imbrued  their  hands  in  their  country's  blood  ?  Did  not  that 
villain  Matthews,  when  permitted  to  live  among 
us  at  New  York,  plot  the  assassination  of  General 
Washington  ?  lie  did ;  he  was  detected,  and  had  he  received 
liis  deserts,  he  would  now  have  been  in  gibbets,  instead  of  tor- 
tiiring  our  unfortunate  friends,  prisoners  in  ITew  York,  with 
every  species  of  barbarity.  Can  we  liear  this,  and  still  harbor 
a  Tory  among  us  ?  For  my  own  part,  whenever  I  meet  one  in 
the  street,  or  at  the  coffee  house,  my  blood  boils  within  me. 
Their  guilt  is  equalled  only  by  their  impudence.  They  strut, 
and  seem  to  bid  defiance  to  every  one.  In  every  place,  and 
in  every  company,  they  spread  their  damnable  doctrines,  and 
then  laugh  at  the  pusillanimity  of  those  who  let  them  go  un- 
punished. I  flatter  myself,  however,  witli  the  hopes  of  soon 
seeing  a  period  to  their  reign,  and  a  total  end  to  their  existence 
in  America.  Awake,  Americans,  to  a  sense  of  your  danger. 
No  time  to  be  lost.  Instantly  banish  every  Tory  from  among 
you.     Let  America  be  sacred  alone  to  freemen. 

Drive  far  from  you  every  baneful  Avretch  wlio  wishes  to  see 
3'ou  fettered  with  the  chains  of  tyranny.  Send  them  where 
they  may  enjoy  their  beloved  slavery  to  perfection — send  them 
to  the  island  of  Britain ;  there  let  them  drink  the  cup  of  slavery 
and  eat  the  bread  of  bitterness  all  the  days  of  their  existence — 
there  let  them  drag  out  a  jiainful  life,  despised  and  accursed 
by  those  very  men  whose  cause  they  have  had  the  wickedness 
to  espouse.  Never  let  them  return  to  this  happy  land — never 
let  them  taste  the  sweets  of  tliat  independence  Avliieh  they 
strove  to  prevent.  Banishment,  perpetual  banishment,  should 
be  their  lot. 

But,  say  some,  we  allow  tlie  Tories  are  as  bad,  and  indeed 

1779.]  THE  TOKIES.  169 

miicli  worse,  than  you  have  presented  them,  but  how  can  we 
banish  them  ?  They  haA^e  taken  the  oaths,  and  are  under  the 
protection  of  the  laws.  Some  of  these  miscreants,  'tis  true, 
ha,ve  put  on  a  sham  repentance,  and  have  dared  to  call 
the  Almighty  to  witness  to  their  perjuries — perjuries  I  call 
tliem,  for  have  we  not  seen  hundreds  of  them  taking  the  oaths 
of  allegiance  one  day  and  breaking  them  the  next  or  the  first 
safe  opportunity  ?  Nay,  do  they  not  tell  you,  to  your  faces, 
tliat  no  faith  is  to  be  kept  vrith  rebels,  with  which  name  they 
have  still  the  effrontery  to  insult  you  ?  Are  men  who  act  on 
principles  like  these  to  be  trusted  ?  Do  you  think  them  less 
able  or  less  willing  to  assist  the  enemy  than  heretofore  ?  'No ; 
on  the  least  turn  of  fortune  agamst  us,  those  men  whom  we 
now  trust  so  near  us,  woiild  convince  us  om*  confidence  and 
lenity  had  been  misplaced ;  they  would  soon  forget  the  oaths 
with  which  they  now  amuse  us — ^they  would  hail  the  enemy  to 
our  capital — they  would  point  out  those  among  us  who  had 
been  active  in  our  country's  cause ;  and  if  any,  unfortunately 
obliged  to  stay,  and  submit  to  the  mercy  of  the  enemy,  a  pris- 
on or  dungeon  and  irons  would  be  their  portion.  Then,  though 
too  late,  we  should  repent  our  sliameful  lenity  and  our  reliance 
on  their  oaths. 

But,  say  others,  who  are  worked  on  more  by  their  fears 
than  their  reason,  if  we  send  them  to  the  enemy,  tliey  will 
increase  their  strength,  and  be  embodied  against  us.  Fear  not 
this ;  they  may  eat  the  bread  and  spend  the  money  of  their 
idol  king,  but  will  never  be  of  any  material  injury  to  us  in 
the  field.  They  Avill  never  be  formidable  as  soldiers.  Theii- 
wicked  principles  make  cowards  of  them  all.  They  never 
were,  they  never  will  be,  of  service  to  the  enemy  in  battle. 
They  never  could  be  brought  to  storm  the  works  or  stand  the 
fire  of  Americans  in  the  open  field.  Their  cowardice  will  se- 
cure us  from  any  danger  we  may  apprehend  from  their  em- 
bodying against  us;  but  nothing  can  prevent  the  thousand 
mischiefs  they  can  do  while  among  lis.  Think  of  these  things 
betimes,  before  it  be  too  late,  and  we  and  our  posterity  forever 
have  reason  to  repent  our  lenity  to  the  Tories.' 

'  "  A  Whig,"  in  the  rennsYlrania  Packet,  August  5. 

170  DIAPvT    OF   THE   EETOLIJTION.  [1779. 

June  19. — Yesterday  moming,  about  four  o'clock,  thii-ty- 
two  refugees,  commanded  by  Captain  Bounel  and  otlier  officers, 
Bonnei's  Attack  landed  at  Greenwich,  in  Connecticut.  A  thick  fog 
on  Greenwich,  favored  their  entrance,  and  they  marched  through 
the  town  undiscovered ;  but  the  rebel  guard  being  at  length 
alarmed,  and  imagining  the  refugees  to  be  more  nnmerous 
than  in  fact  they  were,  fled  with  precipitation  before  them ; 
and  so  close  was  the  pursuit,  that  some  Avere  overtaken  and 
secured.  The  inhabitants  of  the  town  refused  to  open  their 
doors  to  the  refugees,  and  reduced  them  to  the  necessity  of  en- 
tering the  windows ;  notwithstanding  which,  they  plundered 
the  houses  of  nothing  but  arms  and  ammunition ;  their  princi- 
pal object  being  horned  cattle,  of  which  they  broiight  off  thirty- 
eight,  also  four  horses,  and  ten  or  twelve  prisoners.  Among 
the  latter  is  a  most  pestilent  rebel  priest,  and  preacher  of  sedi- 
tion, who,  when  taken,  swore  that  there  was  no  firearms  in  his 
house,  but,  upon  his  being  cautioned  against  equivocation,  and 
threatened  with  the  consequences  wliich  would  result  from 
persisting  in  it,  his  timid  spouse  produced  his  firelock,  and  a 
cartouch  box  with  eighteen  rounds  in  it.  Tlie  refugees  pro- 
ceeded about  six  miles  into  the  country,  collecting  cattle,  &c. 
On  their  return  they  were  attacked  by  a  body  of  rebels,  sup- 
posed to  consist  of  about  a  hundred  and  fifty,  witli  two  field- 
pieces  ;  but  they  kept  at  such  a  distance,  that  one  loyalist  only 
Avas  wounded  by  their  fire.  Before  the  refugees  embarked, 
they  landed  a  field-piece,  which  Avas  of  great  service,  and  after 
engaging  the  rebels  two  hours,  during  which  time  they  ex- 
pended all  their  ammunition,  they  got  safe  on  board,  and  ar- 
rived at  Oyster  Bay  about  noon  with  their  cattle  and  prisoners. 
Tliey  Avere  obliged  to  leave  a  number  of  the  former  on  the  rebel 
shore  for  want  of  boats  to  bring  them  off.' 

June  20. — ^Tnis  day  the  South  Carolina  troops  attempted 
to  force  the  British  lines  at  Stono  Ferry.    Tlie  numbers  within 

Battle  of       ^^'^^  Avithout  Avcro  rather  too  nearly  equal  for  the 

stono  Foiry.     eutci-prlse.  The  Americans  attacked  boldly,  fought 

gallantly,  and  retired  in  soldierly  order.     It  had  been  precon- 

'  Xow  Ilampshire  Gazette,  July  13. 

1779.]  BATTLE    OF   STOXO   FEEEY.  171 

ccrted  that  seven  liundred  men  should  be  detached  from 
Charleston  to  James'  Island,  where  a  show  should  be  made  of 
a  design  to  land  on  John's  Island,  in  order  to  attract  the  ene- 
my's attention,  while  General  Lincoln  should  attack  their  re- 
doubts and  trenches.  By  some  imlucky  accident  the  appoint- 
ment was  not  kept,  and  the  seven  hundi'ed  did  not  reach 
James'  Island  till  afternoon.  This  failure  enabled  the  British 
to  draw  a  large  reinforcement  from  John's  Island  to  the  main, 
and  broiight  theu*  number  to  be  nearly  eqi;al  to  that  of  Gen- 
eral Lincoln's  troops.  Maugre  this  balk  or  blunder,  the  gen- 
eral, at  half-past  seven  in  the  morning,  began  to  assault.  Tlie 
order  of  the  battle  was  as  follows :  General  Huger,  with  the 
two  Continental  brigades,  and  2d  battalion  of  light  infantry, 
commanded  by  Colonel  Henderson,  on  the  left,  where  the  most 
strenuous  etforts  were  to  be  made,  opposed  to  the  Highlanders ; 
General  Sixmter,  with  the  North  and  South  Carolina  brigades 
of  militia,  and  1st  battalion  of  light  infantry,  commanded  by 
Colonel  Malmadie,  on  the  right;  the  Yirginia  brigades  of 
mihtia  formed  a  corps  of  reserve. 

Colonel  Malmadie  began  the  action.  On  the  extension  of 
General  Huger's  division  to  the  left,  two  hundred  Highlanders 
sallied  out,  and  his  warm  discharge  of  musketry  was  exchang- 
ed, but  on  our  light  infantry's  quick  advance  to  the  charge, 
the  Highlanders  shrunk  into  the  woi'ks,  leaving  twenty-seven 
dead,  and  several  wounded  on  the  ground,  among  the  latter  a 
Captain  Bennet.  The  action  continued  with  great  warmth 
fifty-six  minutes.  The  enemy's  works  being  found  much 
stronger  than  was  expected,  the  American  field-pieces  making 
no  impression  on  them,  and  intelligence  being  likewise  received 
that  the  enemy  had  drawn  in  a  reinforcement  of  five  hundred 
men  from  John's  Island,  General  Lincoln  gave  orders  for  re- 
treating, which  the  troops  performed  in  good  order,  carrying 
ofl:'  their  dead  and  woimded.  The  light  infantry  covered  the 
rear,  and  maintained  so  good  a  countenance,  that  the  enemy 
did  not  attempt  to  follow  more  than  four  hundred  yards,  and 
at  a  respectable  distance.' 

'  New  Hampshire  Gazette,  August  10.     An  officer  in  Lincoln's  army  gives  tlie 

172  DIAET   OF  THE   KEVOLUTION.  [1779. 

June  29. — Last  night  a  party  of  rebels,  supposed  from 
Horse  Neck,  lieaded  by  one  Ben  Kii'by,  wliose  father  lives  on 
Long  Island,  and  is  known  to  be  an  atrocioiis 
ra  am  a  on.  ^^-^^-^^  about  twelve  o'clook  attacked  the  house  of 
Abraham  "Walton,  Esq.,  at  Musqueto  Cove,  forced  open  the 
door  with  the  butt  ends  of  their  muskets,  seized  ijpon  the  per- 
son of  Mr.  "Walton,  who  was  much  indisposed  in  bed,  used 
him  very  coarsely,  obliged  him  to  walk  four  miles,  plundered 
the  house,  took  away  all  the  silver  plate  they  could  find,  and 
demanded  Mrs.  "Walton's  money,  which  she  delivered.  From 
Mr.  "Walton's  they  proceeded  to  several  of  the  neighbors,  as 
Dr.  Brooks,  Mr.  Albert  Coles,  &c.,  and  carried  them  all  oif  to- 
gether to  Connecticut,  where  they  are  to  be  interrogated  by 
our  old  acquaintance  General  Lewis  Morris,  of  Morrisania. 
These  vermin,  during  this  jDredatory  business,  appeared  to  be 
in  great  perturbation.  Kit-by  is  a  native  of  Long  Island,  had 
taken  the  oath  of  allegiance,  but  on  Count  D'Estamg's  arrival 
at  Sandy  Hook,  revolted  to  Jonathan.' 

following  account  of  this  battle : — "  General  Lincoln  having  received  such  intelli- 
gence of  the  intention,  strength,  and  position  of  the  enemy,  as  rendered  it  ad- 
visable to  attack  them  at  Stono  ferry,  did  so  with  great  vigor  this  morning, 
about  seven  o'clock.  They  were  advantageously  posted,  and  covered  by  three 
strong  redoubts,  and  a  well-constructed  abattis  supported  by  several  pieces  of  ar- 
tillery. The  picket  having  been  driven  in,  the  attack  began  on  the  right,  which 
was  instantly  continued  through  the  line.  A  large  body  of  Highlanders  sallied 
out  on  the  left  of  the  Americans,  but  were  soon  driven  into  their  redoubts  with 
considerable  slaughter.  The  action  continued  without  intermission  fifty-six  min- 
utes, when,  as  the  general  could  not  draw  the  enemy  out  of  their  lines,  (which 
were  so  strongly  constructed  that  the  American  light  field-pieces  could  make  no 
impression  upon  them,)  as  the  force  of  the  enemy  was  much  greater  than  had 
been  represented,  and  as  they  had,  during  the  engagement,  obtained  a  large  re- 
inforcement from  John's  Island,  the  American  troops  were  withdrawn  from  the 
lines,  and  all  their  artillery  and  wounded  brought  off.  Their  loss  is  inconsiderable. 
Many  of  the  wounded  are  already  on  duty,  and  most  of  the  rest,  (their  wounds 
being  slight,)  it  is  judged,  will  soon  recover.  The  enemy's  loss  is  supposed  to  be 
much  greater,  as  the  number  of  their  dead  were  reckoned  on  the  ground ;  and  it 
is  observed  that  their  field-pieces  were  several  times  left  without  a  man  to  work 
them.  Upon  the  whole,  though  the  Americans  had  not  the  wished-for  success, 
they  are  convinced  that  they  would  have  beaten  the  enemy  if  they  had  quitted 
their  Unes.  It  is  probable  from  the  enemy's  sticking  close  to  tliem  that  they  were 
of  the  same  opinion." — Neio  York  Journal,  August  2. 
'  Rivington's  Gazette,  July  3. 

1779.]  STOKT   OF  MKS.    BOSS.  173 

Should  America  continaie  firmly  to  oppose  tlie  tyranny  of 
Britain,  says  a  correspondent,  may  not  tlie  promise  of  the  pres- 
ent day  sanctify  a  conjecture,  that  in  a  few  years  The  Future  of 
the  rising  grandeur  of  this  new  world  will  invite  America. 
every  man  from  Europe  who  is  not  attached  to  it  by  landed 
property  or  other  similar  cause.  Tliere  is  a  field  opening  for 
every  species  of  manufacture,  art  and  science,  trade  and  com- 
merce. Finely  situated  for  the  encouragement  and  cultivation 
of  business,  every  artificer  will  fly  here  and  transplant  with 
him  the  art  he  possesses.  Secure  from  tyrannical  burdens,  he 
will  apply  himself  assiduously  in  the  prospect  of  reaping  what 
he  sowed,  and  will  assist  in  rearing  this  new  republic  to  a  pitch 
of  grandeur  superior,  perhaps,  to  any  state  now  existing.' 

Last  week  died,  at  Hammersmith,  in  England,  Mrs.  Ross, 
celebrated  for  her  beauty  and  constancy.  Having  met  with 
opposition  in  her  engagement  with  Captain  Charles  ,j,^^  g^  ^^ 
Ross,  she  followed  liim,  in  men's  clothes,  to  Amer-  ^^^-  ^°^'- 
ica,  where,  after  such  a  research  and  fatigue  as  scarce  any  of 
her  sex  could  have  undergone,  she  found  him  in  the  woods  ly- 
ing for  dead,  after  a  skirmish  with  the  Indians,  and  with  a  poi- 
soned wound.  Having  previously  studied  surgery  in  England, 
she,  with  an  ardor  and  vigilance  which  only  such  a  passion 
coiild  inspire,  saved  his  life  by  suckmg  his  woimd,  the  only  ex- 
pedient that  could  have  efiected  it  at  the  crisis  he  was  in,  and 
nursing  him  with  scarce  a  covering  from  the  sky  for  the  space 
of  six  weeks.  During  this  time  she  remained  unsuspected  by 
him,  having  dyed  her  skin  with  lime  and  bark ;  and  keeping  to 
a  man's  habit,  still  supported  by  the  transport  of  hearing  his 
unceasing  aspu-ations  of  love  and  regret  for  that  dear  though 
(he  then  thought)  distant  object  of  his  soul,  being  charged  by 
him  with  transmitting  to  her  (had  the  captain  died)  his  reniains, 
and  dying  asseverations  of  constancy  and  gratitude  for  the  un- 
paralleled care  and  tenderness  of  his  nurse,  the  bearer  of  them ; 
but,  recovering,  they  removed  into  Philadelphia,  where,  as  soon 
as  she  had  found  a  clergpnan  to  join  her  to  him  forever,  she 

'  New  Hampshire  Gazette,  June  29. 

174  DIAET   OF   THE  EEVOLTJTION.  [1779. 

appeared  as  Iierself,  the  priest  accompanying  her.  They  lived 
for  the  space  of  four  years  in  a  fondness  almost  ideal  to  the 
present  age  of  corruption,  and  that  could  only  be  internipted 
by  her  declining  health,  the  fatigue  she  had  undergone,  and 
the  poison  not  properly  expelled  which  she  had  imbibed  from 
his  womid,  undermining  her  constitution.  Tlie  knowledge  he 
had  of  it,  and  piercing  regret  of  having  been  the  occasion,  af- 
fecting him  still  more  sensibly,  he  died  with  a  broken  heart 
last  spring  at  John's  Town,  in  New  York.  She  lived  to  return 
and  implore  forgiveness  of  her  family,  whom  she  had  distress- 
ed so  long  by  their  ignorance  of  her  destiny.  She  died,  in 
consequence  of  her  grief  and  affection,  at  the  age  of  twenty- 


When  Royal  George  rul'd  o'er  this  land, 

And  loyalty  no  harm  meant, 
For  church  and  king  I  made  a  stand, 

And  so  I  got  preferment. 
I  still  opposed  all  party  tricks, 

Tor  reasons  I  thought  clear  ones, 
And  swore  it  was  their  politics. 

To  make  us  Presbyterians. 

And  this  is  law  I  will  maintain, 
Until  my  dying  day,  sir, 

Let  whatsoeTcr  king  will  reign, 
I'll  be  a  Vicar  of  Bray,  sir. 

When  Stamp  Act  pass'd  the  Parliament, 

To  bring  some  grist  to  mill,  sir, 
To  back  it  was  my  firm  intent. 

But  soon  there  came  repeal,  sir. 
I  quickly  join'd  the  common  cry, 

That  we  should  all  be  slaves,  sir, 
The  House  of  Commons  was  a  sty. 

The  King  and  Lords  were  knaves,  sir. 

Now  all  went  smooth  as  smooth  could  be, 
I  strutted  and  look'd  big,  sir ; 

And  when  they  laid  a  tax  on  tea, 
I  was  believed  a  Whig,  sir. 

'  Gaine's  Mercury,  October  4. 

1779.]  THE   AMERICAN   VICAR   OF   BKAY.  175 

I  laugli'd  at  all  the  vain  pretence 

Of  taxing  at  this  distance, 
And  swore  before  I'd  pay  my  pence, 

I'd  make  a  firm  resistance. 

A  Congress  now  was  quiclily  call'd, 

That  we  might  act  together ; 
I  thought  that  Britain  -would  appall'd 

Be  glad  to  malse  fair  weather. 
And  soon  repeal  th'  obnoxious  bill. 

As  she  had  done  before,  sir. 
That  we  may  gather  wealth  at  will, 

And  so  be  tax'd  no  more,  sir. 

But  Britain  was  not  quiclily  scar'd, 

She  told  another  story ; 
When  independence  was  declar'd, 

I  figur'd  as  a  Tory ; 
Declar'd  it  was  rebellion  base. 

To  talie  up  arms — I  curs'd  it — 
For  faith  it  seemed  a  settled  case, 

That  "we  should  soon  be  worsted. 

When  penal  laws  were  pass'd  by  vote, 

I  thought  the  teat  a  grievance. 
Yet  sooner  than  I'd  loose  a  goat, 

I  swore  the  State  allegiance. 
The  then  disguise  could  hardly  pass, 

For  I  was  much  suspected ; 
I  felt  myself  much  like  the  ass 

In  lion's  skin  detected. 

The  French  alliance  now  came  forth, 

The  papists  flocked  in  shoals,  sir, 
Frizeur  Marquises,  Valets  of  birth. 

And  priests  to  save  our  souls,  sir. 
Our  "  good  ally,"  with  tow'ring  wing, 

Embrac'd  the  flattering  hope,  sir. 
That  we  should  own  him  for  our  king. 

And  then  invite  tlie  Pope,  sir. 

When  Howe,  witli  drums  and  great  parade, 
March'd  through  this  famous  town,  sir, 

I  cried,  "  May  Fame  his  temples  shade 
"  With  laurels  for  a  crown,  sir." 

176  DIAET   OF  THE   EEVOLUTIOX.  [1779. 

With  zeal  I  swore  to  make  amends 

To  good  old  constitution, 
And  drank  confusion  to  the  friends 

Of  our  late  revolution. 

But  poor  Burgoyne's  denounced  my  fate, 

The  Whigs  began  to  glory, 
I  now  bewail'd  my  wretched  state, 

That  I  was  e'er  a  Tory. 
By  night  the  British  left  the  shore. 

Nor  car'd  for  friends  a  fig,  sir, 
I  turn'd  the  cat  in  pan  once  more, 

And  so  become  a  Whig,  sir. 

I  call'd  the  army  butch'ring  dogs, 

A  bloody  tyrant  King,  sir. 
The  Commons,  Lords,  a  set  of  rogues, 

That  all  deserred  to  swing,  sir. 
Since  fate  has  made  us  great  and  free. 

And  Providence  can't  falter. 
So  long  till  death  my  king  shall  be. 

Unless  the  times  should  alter.' 

June  30. — ^That  wretched  tool  of  a  bmtisli  tyrant,  Sir 
Harry  Clinton,  in  a  proclamation,  dated  this  day,  lias  declared, 
Clinton's  NecTo  "  T^iat  all  Negroes  taken  in  arms,  or  upon  any 
Proclamation,  military  duty,  shall  be  purchased,  and  the  money 
paid  to  the  captors."  He  likewise  iiavites  all  Negroes  to  desert 
the  States,  and  "  take  refuge  with  his  army ; "  meaning,  no 
doubt,  (like  the  noted  Negro  thief,  Lord  Dunmore,)  to  put  such 
refugees  in  his  pocket.  However,  I  am  not  much  concerned, 
nor  is  the  cause  of  freedom  much  interested,  how  Sir  Henry 
and  his  llaclc,  and  xoJdte  refugees,  settle  their  accounts ;  as  they 
are  all  villains,  it  matters  little  which  may  prove  in  the  end 
the  greatest.  But  justice,  honor,  and  freedom,  are  concerned 
for  all  men,  of  whatever  nation  or  kindred,  who  are  in  the  ser- 
vice of  the  United  States,  and  fight  under  the  banners  of  free- 
dom ;  therefore  I  have  long  expected  some  notice  from  author- 
ity, would  have  been  taken  of  that  insulting  and  villanous 
proclamation.     Justice  demands  retaliation  for  every  man  in 

'  Rivington's  Gazette,  June  30. 

1770.]  ArrACK  ox  bedfokd..  177 

the  service  of  these  States  who  may  be  injured  by  the  niiRan 
tyrant  or  any  of  his  slaves ;  and  his  slave  Sir  Harry  ought  to 
be  told  what  retaliation  lie  is  to  expect  from  the  insidted  maj- 
esty of  our  nation  in  this  instance.' 

July  2. — Last  night,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Tarleton  marched 
out  with  a  detachment  of  cavalry,  and  early  this  morning  attacked 
a  party  of  the  rebel  Nags,  commanded  hy  a  Colonel  T.„,^.t„n-s  Attack 
Sheldon,  in  the  neighborhood  of  Bedford.  Tlie  o"' '^'^<"'""'' ^- ■^'• 
Americans'  situation  was  in  a  wood,  with  a  morass  on  each 
side,  which  was  intersected  by  a  road,  along  M-hich  they,  with 
great  precipitancy,  retreated.  The  rebel  officers  and  men  quit- 
ted their  jades,  and  threw  themselves  over  the  fences  to  gain 
the  swamp.  By  so  sudden  a  flight,  in  such  a  narrow  road,  no 
great  impression  could  be  made,  only  on  the  rear,  of  whom 
about  twenty-two  were  killed  and  womided.  Two  corps  of 
rebel  militia,  which  had  formed  on  their  rear,  at  the  approach 
of  the  legion,  quitted  their  post,  retreating  to  the  morass.  The 
colonel,  finding  it  impracticable,  with  his  fatigued  horses,  to 
pursue  them  further,  returned  to  the  camp  of  the  rebels,  burned 
and  destroyed  their  whole  baggage,  and  brought  off  a  standard, 
about  an  hundred  helmets,  and  seventeen  prisoners,  Avith  the 
loss  of  one  corporal  of  the  legion  killed,  and  one  light  horseman 
wounded  by  some  skulking  militia  firing  from  the  fences  on  his 
return.  They  wei'e  cautioned  by  the  commanding  officer  to 
desist  from  firing,  on  pain  of  their  houses  being  consumed,  but 
still  foolhardily  persevering  in  their  hostility,  he  was  con- 
strained to  carry  his  menaces  into  execution,  and  several  houses 
were  accordingly  destroyed. 

Among  the  prisoners  is  one  of  the  Yantasscls,  from  near 
Tarrytown,  of  a  pedigree  partly  Lidian  and  partly  Batavian. 
This  despicable  caitiff  has  of  late  amused  himself  with  cr^^elly 
flagellating  numbers  of  inoffensive  women,  whom  he  had  sus- 
pected of  frequenting  the  New  York  markets.  Four  of  this 
hardy  varlets  brothers  are  also  in  safe  custody,  held  as  hostages 
for  four  men  of  the  provincial  corps  who  have  been  made  pris- 

'  An  "American  Soldier,"  in  the  New  Yorlv  Pacliet,  November  18. 
Vol.  11.-12 

178  DIARY    OF   THE   EEVOLUTIOX.  [1779. 

oners  on  tlie  liortli  liiver,  tried  and  destined  to  the  cord  by 
tlieir  new  republican  legislature.  Tlie  Yankees  have  been  for- 
mally apprised  that  the  fate  of  the  Vantassel  fraternity  will  de- 
pend immediately  upon  that  of  the  loyal  provincials ;  when 
once  the  gallows  of  castigation  shall  be  erected  on  the  side  of 
loyalty,  a  period  to  the  public  and  wanton  murder  of  the 
King's  friends  will  most  assuredly  follow. 

One  Hunt,  formerly  a  breeches  maker  of  ISTew  York,  but 
of  late  a  vender  of  the  confiscated  estates  of  loyal  refugees,  an 
orator,  and  a  messenger  employed  by  the  Congress,  was  at  the 
same  time  delivered  to  the  custody  of  JVIr.  Cunningham,"  to 
sympathize  at  leisure,  en  provost,  with  his  mongrel  friend  Van- 
tassel on  the  disastrous  condition  of  their  paper  piastres,  the 
dwindled  number  of  Mr.  "Washington's  scaled  miserables,  and 
the  cliop-fallen  covmtenance  of  each  delegate  at  this  time  com- 
posing the  distracted  Continental  Congress." 

July  5. — Yesterday  being  the  anniversary  of  the  day  which 
gave  freedom  to  the  vast  republic  of  America,  the  Congress, 

Catholic  the  President,  and  the  Council  of  the  State,  with 
Phiiadoipiiia.  the  other  civil  and  military  officers,  and  a  number 
of  principal  gentlemen  and  ladies,  at  twelve  o'clock,  attended 
at  the  Koman  Chapel,  in  PhiladeljDhia,  agreeable  to  invitation 
received  from  the  Minister  Plenipotentiary  of  his  Most  Chris- 
tian Majesty.  A  Te  Deum  was  performed  on  the  occasion  to 
the  great  satisfaction  of  all  present,  and  his  excellency's  chap- 
lain delivered  a  short  and  elegant  address  to  his  aiidience,  of 
which  we  have  been  favored  with  the  following  translation : 

"  Gentlemen  : — -"We  are  assembled  to  celebrate  the  anniver- 
sary of  that  day  which  Providence  had  marked  in  his  eternal 
decrees  to  become  the  epoeha,  of  liberty  and  independence  to 
the  thirteen  United  States  of  America.  Tliat  Being  whose  al- 
mighty hand  holds  all  existence  beneath  its  dominion,  undoubt- 
edly produces  in  the  depth  of  his  wisdom  those  great  events 
which  astonish  the  universe,  and  of  which  the  most  presump- 
tuous, thoufi-h  instrumental  in  accomplishing  them,  dare  not  at- 

'  The  keeper  of  the  ProTOSt  Prison  in  New  York. 
^  Rivington's  Gazette,  July  7. 

1779.]  THE  FKENCU  peiest's  addkkss.  179 

tribute  to  themselves  the  merit.  But  tlie  finger  of  God  is  still 
more  peculiarly  evident  in  that  happj,  that  glorious  revolu- 
tion, M'hich  calls  forth  this  day's  festivity.  He  hath  sti-uck  the 
oppressors  of  a  people,  free  and  peaceable,  -with  that  spirit  of 
delusion,  which  renders  the  wicked  artificers  of  their  own  prop- 
er misfortunes.  Permit  me,  my  dear  brethren,  citizens  of  the 
United  States,  to  address  you  on  this  occasion.  It  is  that  God 
— that  all-powerful  God  who  hath  directed  your  steps,  when 
you  knew  not  where  to  apply  for  counsel — who,  when  you 
were  without  arms,  fought  for  you  Avith  the  sword  of  eternal 
justice — -who,  when  you  were  in  adversity,  poured  into  your 
hearts  the  spirit  of  courage,  of  wisdom,  and  of  fortitude,  and 
who  has  at  length  raised  up  for  your  support  a  youtliful  sover- 
eign whose  virtues  bless  and  adorn  a  sensible,  a  faithful,  and  a 
generous  nation.  This  nation  has  blended  her  interests  with 
your  interests,  and  her  sentiments  with  yours.  She  partici- 
pates in  all  your  joys,  and  this  day  iinites  her  voice  to  yours 
at  the  foot  of  the  altars  of  the  eternal  God,  to  celebrate  that 
glorious  revolution  which  has  placed  the  sons  of  America 
among  the  free  and  independent  nations  of  the  earth ! 

"  We  have  nothing  to  apprehend  but  tlie  anger  of  Heaven, 
or  that  the  measure  of  our  guilt  should  exceed  the  measure 
of  his  mercy.  Let  us  then  prostrate  ourselves  at  the  feet  of 
the  immortal  God,  who  holds  the  fate  of  empires  in  his  hands, 
and  raises  them  up  at  his  pleasure,  or  breaks  them  to  dust — -let 
us  conjure  him  to  enlighten  our  enemies,  and  to  dispose  their 
hearts  to  enjoy  that  tranquillity  and  happiness  which  the  revo- 
lution we  now  celebrate  has  established  for  a  great  part  of  the 
Iraman  race — ^let  us  implore  him  to  conduct  us  by  that  way 
which  his  Providence  has  marked  out  for  arriving  at  so  desir- 
al)le  an  end — let  us  ofli'er  unto  him  hearts  imbued  with  senti- 
ments of  respect,  consecrated  by  religion,  by  h\imanity  and 
patriotism.  N'ever  is  the  august  ministry  of  his  altars  more 
acceptable  to  his  divine  Majesty  than  when  it  lays  at  his  feet 
homages,  offerings,  and  vows  so  pure,  so  worthy  the  com- 
mon parent  of  mankind.  God  will  not  respect  our  joy,  for  he 
is  the  author  of  it ;  nor  will  ho  reject  our  prayers,  for  they  ask 
biit  the  full  accomplishment  of  the  decrees  he  hath  manifested. 

180  DIAET   OF   THE   EEVOLUTION.  [1779. 

Filled  with  this  spirit,  let  its  in  concert  "with  each  other,  raise 
our  hearts  to  the  Eternal — let  us  implore  his  infinite  mercy  to 
be  pleased  to  inspire  the  rulers  of  both  nations  with  the  wis- 
dom and  force  necessary  to  perfect  what  it  hath  begun.  Let 
lis,  in  a  word,  unite  our  voices  to  beseech  him  to  dispense  his 
blessing  upon  the  counsels  and  arms  of  the  allies,  that  we  may 
soon  enjoy  the  sweets  of  a  peace  which  will  cement  the  Union, 
and  establish  the  prosperity  of  the  two  empires.  It  is  with 
this  view  that  we  shall  cause  that  canticle  to  be  performed 
which  the  custom  of  the  Catholic  Church  hath  consecrated,  to 
be  at  once  a  testimonial  of  public  joy,  a  thanksgiving  for 
benefits  received  from  Heaven,  and  a  prayer  for  the  continu- 
ance of  its  mercies." ' 

July  7. — On  Sunday  night  last,  (4th,)  a  fleet  of  British 
ships  and  vessels  were  observed  in  Long  Island  Sound,  stand- 
Tryon's  Descent  ^^S  towards  Ncw  Havcu,  aud  about  two  o'cloclv 
on  New  Uavcn.  ^-^q  ncxt  momiug  the  fleet,  consisting  of  the  Ca- 
milla and  Scorpion  men-of-war,  with  tenders,  row-galleys,  and 
transports,  to  the  number  of  forty-eight,  commanded  by  Sir 
George  Collier,  anchored  off  West  Haven.  Tliey  had  on 
board,  it  is  said,  between  two  and  three  thousand  land  forces, 
commanded  by  Governor  Tryon,  who,  a  little  after  sunrise, 
landed  most  of  the  troops  on  "West  Haven  Point.  Tlie  alarm 
guns  were  fired,  the  drums  beat  to  arms,  and  every  prepara- 
tion which  the  confusion  and  distress  of  the  inhabitants  (on 
the  near  and  sudden  approach  of  so  terrible  an  enemy)  would 
permit,  was  made  for  defence  and  resistance.  Tlie  bridge  on 
the  western  road  was  taken  up,  and  a  niimber  of  field-pieces 
were  placed  and  served  to  such  advantage  as  prevented  the 
enemy's  approaching  the  town  by  that  route.  They  then  pro- 
ceeded on  the  west  side  of  the  creek,  in  order  to  cross  at  the 
bridge  on  the  Amity  road,  biit  were  bravely  opposed  by  small 
parties  of  Americans,  particularly  by  about  twenty-five  under 
the  command  of  a  lieutenant  of  the  militia,  who  drove  up- 
Avards  of  two  hundred  of  the  enemy  for  near  half  a  mile,  and 

'  New  York  Journal,  July  26. 

1779.]  TEYON    AT   KEW    IIATEN.  181 

retarded  tlieir  getting  into  the  town  for  abont  three  hours,  giv- 
ing all  the  women,  except  those  who  entertained  too  favorable 
an  opinion  of  them,  time  to  escape. 

The  British  intended  to  have  destroyed  the  powder  and 
paper  mills,  the  latter  of  which  several  of  them  entered,  but 
were  obliged  to  retire  (before  they  had  time  to  do  any  mis- 
chief) by  a  party  of  Americans  posted  there  and  at  the  bridge, 
who  made  fourteen  of  them  prisoners.  The  main  body  of  the 
enemy  in  a  column,  and  two  flanking  parties,  then  forded  the 
stream,  some  distance  below  the  bridge,  and  proceeded  through 
the  enclosed  grounds  to  the  town.  The  people,  though  yet 
assembled  in  very  small  numbers,  kept  iip  a  scattering  fire 
with  them  all  the  way  to  the  entrance  of  the  town,  and  several 
were  killed  and  wounded  on  each  side.  Between  twelve  and 
one  o'clock  the  enemy  entered  the  town  in  the  most  malignant 
disposition,  enraged  by  the  opposition  from  a  number  much 
inferior  to  their  own,  proud  of  their  superiority,  ashamed  of 
the  difficulty  of  overcoming  the  resistance  of  so  small  a  num- 
ber, and  cruel  in  their  resentment.  Tliey  vented  tlieir  fury 
upon  the  persons  and  effects  of  all  who  unfortunately  fell 
under  their  power.  They  plimdered  the  houses  of  every  thing 
they  could  carry  away  or  convert  to  their  own  use,  and  broke 
or  destroyed  every  whole  article  of  household  goods  and  furni- 
ture, together  with  the  window  glass  and  sashes.  A  few 
houses,  however,  escaped  plunder,  and  a  few  persons  abuse. 
These  were  such  as  were  either  noted  Tories,  or  those  that  had 
been  particularly  recommended  by  such  of  those  at  whose 
houses  the  officers  happened  to  put  up,  or  who  were  spared 
through  caprice  or  accident.  Some  few  of  the  inhabitants, 
both  male  and  female,  were  noted  Tories,  who  stayed  in 
through  choice,  and  were  glad  of  such  visitants.  Some  others, 
though  professing  to  be  Whigs,  had  conceived  a  good  opinion 
of  the  enemy,  and  believed  they  Avould  behave  well  and 
politely  to  those  who  were  peaceable  and  did  not  ojipose  them. 
These,  too,  stayed  in  of  choice  ;  a  -s'cry  small  number,  and  no 
women  among  them  that  wo  have  heard  of,  were  imwillingly 
caiight  in  town,  having  no  opportunity  to  get  out.  Tlie  few 
men  who  stayed  in  town,  most  of  whom  were  old,  infirm,  or 

182  DIAEY   OF   THE   EEV0LTJTI02i.  [1779. 

Tories,  were  treated  witli  tlie  greatest  abiise  and  insolent  fero- 
city— strijjped  and  plundered  of  every  thing  valuable  about 
them,  and  on  the  slightest  pretences,  or  even  without  any  pre" 
tence  at  all,  inhumanly  stabbed  with  bayonets,  shot,  or  other- 
wise murdered,  with  circumstances  of  savage  and  wanton 
cruelty.  One  Kennedy,  a  noted  Tory  who  rejoiced  at  their 
coming,  they  plundered  of  his  buckles,  &c.,  and  on  his  ex- 
pressing some  resentment,  immediately  stabbed  him  to  death. 
A  very  old  man  of  the  name  of  English,  (whose  daughter  was 
busy  in  providing  for  their  entertainment,)  on  expression  of 
reproof,  uttered  in  the  most  gentle,  inoffensive  manner,  they 
murdered  by  running  through  the  body  several  times  with 
bayonets  ;  and  as  he  lay  on  his  back  bleeding  on  the  floor  in 
the  agonies  of  deatli,  his  daughter  coming  in,  exclaimed — 
"  Oh  !  how  could  you  murder  my  poor  old  father  so  cruelly  ?  " 
One  of  them  asking,  "  Is  he  your  father  ?  "  to  which  she  an- 
swered, "  Oh  !  yes,  he  is  my  father,"  the  inhuman  villain  im- 
mediately stood  and  stamped  on  his  breast,  and  then  \ipon  his 
face,  crushing  down  his  nose.  Mr.  Bears,  the  elder,  a  man  of 
a  most  respectable  and  inoffensive  character,  had  been  enter- 
taining them  in  his  own  house,  in  the  most  liberal  and  obliging 
manner,  treating  them  with  good  wine  and  punch ;  one  of  them 
who  had  been  out,  came  in,  and  charged  him  with  having  fired 
a  gun  out  of  the  window,  and  presenting  a  gun,  swore  he  would 
kill  him  for  it  immediately.  Mr.  Bears  seeing  by  the  ruffian's 
motions  that  he  intended  to  murder  him,  denied  that  he  had 
fired  any  gun,  or  knew  or  believed  that  any  had  been  fired  out 
of  the  house  ;  and  said,  "  You  see  I  am  an  old,  infirm  man  ;  I 
am  not  able  to  do  you  any  hurt,  and  have  done  nothing  to  op- 
pose you  ;  all  I  have  is  in  your  hands— why  should  you  take 
away  my  life  ?  "  Unmoved  by  this  remonstrance,  the  villain 
immediately  shot  him,  giving  him  a  mortal  wound. 

One  Tuttle,  (a  man  who  on  some  late  very  great  losses  and 
misfortunes,  occasioned  by  his  having  espoused  the  cause  of 
the  British  tyrant,  had  lost  his  senses  and  been  in  a  state  of 
distraction,  not  having  spoken  a  word  for  above  six  weeks  before 
the  time,)  being  met  by  some  of  the  British  cut-throats,  they 
asked  him  a  question,  whicli  he  not  regarding,  and  making  no 

1Y79.]  THE   BEITISII   AT   KEW   UATEX.  183 

answer,  tliej  stabbed  with  a  bayonet,  which  some  person  of 
tlie  town  seeing,  told  them  the  man  was  crazy,  and  had  not 
spoken  a  word  these  six  weeks.  "  Damn  him,"  replied  the 
mnrderer,  "  it  is  time  he  should  be  made  to  speak  ; "  and  forc- 
ing the  point  of  the  bayonet  into  his  mouth,  thrust  it  into  his 
tongue,  drew  it  out  and  cut  it  off.  Tlie  man  died  in  a  few 
hours.  And  so  firmly  were  these  British  miscreants  possessed 
of  the  diabolical  spirit  of  murder,  that  it  did  not  quit  them  in 
the  last  stage  of  life,  but  went  with  them  into  eternity,  to  at- 
tend them  at  their  aj^^ipearance  before  their  Judge  !  One  Mr. 
Gilbert,  a  man  advanced  in  years,  having  faithfully  attended 
his  duty  in  the  field,  in  defence  of  the  just  rights  and  liberty 
of  his  country  against  the  invasion  of  the  bloody  tjTants, 
happened  to  give  a  mortal  wound  to  one  of  their  officers,  and 
afterwards  was  taken  prisoner  by  the  enemy,  and  brought  to 
the  man  he  had  wounded.  The  dying  wretch,  instigated  by 
infernal  malice  and  revenge,  said  to  the  men  under  his  com- 
mand, "•  Tliat  man  has  murdered  me ;  kill  him,  kill  him !  " 
And  this  murderous  order  was  instantly  executed  accordingly ; 
so  that  both  spirits  took  their  de])arture  nearly  together,  and 
might,  perhaps,  together  be  summoned  to  make  their  appear- 
ance before  the  awful  tribimal.  What  a  contrast  in  then-  cir- 
cumstances ! 

Tlie  behavior  of  this  crew  of  British  miscreants  to  the  un- 
happy women,  who  conceiving  too  favorable  an  opinion  of 
them,  and  confiding  in  their  politeness  and  generosity,  had 
stayed  in  town  and  trusted  themselves  in  their  hands  ;  to  these 
they  behaved  with  worse  than  savage  cruelty,  and  though 
most,  if  not  all  of  them,  were  reputed  of  Tory  principles,  yet 
very  few,  if  any,  of  the  young  women,  (except  some  who  fled 
for  protection  to  a  few  protected  persons)  nor  not  all  the  old, 
or  even  tlie  negroes,  escaped  violation — some  in  the  presence 
of  their  husbands,  and  others  by  great  numbers  successively. 
Some  of  these  unhappy  victims  they  carried  off  with  them  in 
their  vessels.  These  are  some  of  the  exploits  of  Britons  (long 
famous  for  justice  and  generosity,  but  now,  alas  !  how  fallen) 
at  Hew  Haven. 

After  keeping  possession  of  the  town  all  night,  (and  a  night 


of  horror  it  was  to  tlic  inliabitants,)  pretty  early  yesterday 
morning  a  considerable  body  of  militia,  being  collected  under 
tbe  command  of  General  "Ward,  General  Hart,  and  other 
officers,  and  great  numbers  continually  coming  in  from  every 
quarter,  the  enemy  unexpectedly  and  with  great  stillness  and 
despatch,  retreated  with  their  vessels,  taking  with  them  about 
twenty  of  the  inhabitants  prisoners,  with  three  or  four  families. 
and  a  few  other  persons  who  chose  to  accompany  them. 

"While  the  British  General  Garth,  with  his  division,  plun- 
dered iN^ew  Haven,  Sir  George  Collier  brought  his  fleet  into 
the  harbor,  landed  Governor  Tryon  with  the  rest  of  the  troops, 
at  East  IIa\'en,  and  then  began  a  heavy  cannonade  on  the  little 
fort  at  Black  Kock,  which  was  handsomely  defended  as  long 
as  it  was  tenable,  and  then  evacuated.  On  Tuesday  after- 
noon the  militia  collected  in  such  numbers,  and  pressed  so 
close  upon  Governor  Tiyon  that  he  thought  best  to  retreat  on 
board  his  fleet,  and  before  morning  had  set  sail  to  the  west- 

The  abusive  and  cruel  treatment  of  the  inhabitants  of  New 
Haven,  the  wanton  and  malicious  destruction  of  that  part  of 
their  proj)erty  that  could  not  be  carried  away,  and  the  burning 
of  the  warehouses  on  the  wharf  with  the  vessels  that  lay  there, 
as  also  part  of  the  houses  at  East  Haven,  suflicicntly  prove 
that  it  was  not  owing  to  good  will  that  the  town  of  N^ew  Haven 
was  not  burned.  The  most  probable  conjecture  is,  that  it  was 
spared  for  the  sake  of  the  plunder. 

The  American  loss  at  New  Haven  is  twenty-three  killed  and 
fifteen  wounded ;  that  of  the  enemy  cannot  be  exactly  ascer- 
tained, but  is  known  to  exceed  one  himdred,  and  some  rejjort 
one  hundred  and  fifty,  among  which  are  two  adjutants,  and 
some  other  officers  they  much  lament.  The  number  of 
Americans  killed,  exceeding  that  of  the  wounded,  has  been 
uncommon  in  former  wars,  but  has  frequently  happened  in  this 
between  Britain  and  America,  and  can  only  bo  accounted  for 
by  supposing  that  they  generally  murder  our  wounded  men 
that  fall  into  their  hands.' 

'  Now  York  Journal,  July  10. 

1779.]  THE    BURNING   OF   FAUJFIELD.  185 

The  British  fleet,  witla  tlie  same  accursed  crew  of  aban- 
doned, bloody  misci-eants  who  left  New  Haven  yesterday, 
arrived  at  Fairfield  tins  afternoon,  and  continued  .j,,^^  Bumin"  of 
tlieir  plundering  and  destruction.  A  coiTcspond-  Fairfield, 
cnt  gives  the  following  account  of  their  ravages : — "  About 
four  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  the  seventh  of  July,  the  ap- 
proach of  the  fleet  was  announced  by  the  firing  of  a  gun  from 
a  small  fort  on  Grover's  Hill,  contiguous  to  the  Sound.  Tliey 
seemed,  however,  to  be  passing  by.  About  seven  o'clock  we 
with  pleasure  beheld  them  all  to  the  westward  of  us,  steering, 
as  we  thoiight,  for  ISTcw  York.  A  very  thick  fog  came  on 
which  deprived  us  of  them  till  between  the  hours  of  nine  and 
ten,  when,  the  mist  clearing  away,  we  beheld  the  whole  fleet 
right  under  our  western  shore,  and  some  of  them  close  in  Avith, 
Kinzie's  Point.  Tliey  presently  came  to  anchor,  and  lay  till 
aboiit  four  in  the  afternoon,  when  they  began  to  land  the 
troops  a  little  to  the  eastward  of  Kinzie's  Point,  at  a  place 
called  the  Pines.  Prom  thence  the  troops  marched  along  the 
beach  until  they  came  to  a  lane  opposite  the  centre  of  the 
town,  through  which  they  proceeded,  and  in  about  an  hour 
paraded  in  three  divisions  on  the  green  between  the  meeting- 
house and  court  house.  From  thence  they  detached  their 
guards,  and  then  dividing  into  small  parties,  proceeded  on 
their  infernal  business.  Tlieir  commanding  officers  Avere  Sir 
George  Collier  by  sea.  Generals  Tryon  and  Garth  by  land. 

"  The  approach  of  the  fleet  was  so  sudden  that  but  a  few 
men  could  be  collected,  though  the  alann  guns  were  fired  im- 
mediately upon  the  dissipation  of  the  fog.  There  was  no 
thought  of  opposing  their  landing,  as  ovir  force  was  nothing 
to  theirs.  Our  little  party,  however,  posted  themselves  so  as 
to  annoy  them  to  the  best  advantage,  expecting  that  they' 
would  land  at  the  Point.  "Wlien  our  people  found  them  land- 
ing on  their  left,  and  marching  in  their  rear  to  take  possession 
of  the  town,  they  retreated  immediately  to  the  court  house 
green ;  and  as  the  enemy  advanced  through  the  beach  lane, 
they  gave  them  such  a  wai-m  reception  Avith  a  field-piece, 
which  thrcAV  both  round  and  grape  shot,  and  Avith  their  mus- 
ketry, as  quite  disconcerted  thcvu  for  some  time.     The  colimm, 

186  DUUY   OF   THE   EEVOLUTION.  [1770. 

however,  quickly  recovered  its  solidity,  and  advancing  rapidly, 
forced  our  small  body  to  retreat  to  tlic  heights  back  of  the 
town,  where  they  were  joined  by  numbers  who  were  coming 
in  from  the  country.  The  enemy  were  likewise  galled  very 
much,  as  they  turned  from  the  back  of  the  lane,  by  the  can- 
non which  played  from  Grover's  Hill. 

"  The  town  was  almost  cleared  of  inhabitants — a  few  wo- 
men, some  of  them  ladies  of  the  most  respectable  families  and 
character,  tarried  with  a  view  of  saving  their  property.  They 
imagined  that  their  sex  and  character  would  avail  to  such  a 
purpose ;  they  put  such  confidence  in  the  generosity  of  an 
enemy  who  were  once  famed  for  humanity  and  politeness,  and 
thought  that  kind  treatment  and  submissive  behavior  from 
them  would  secure  them  against  harsh  treatment  and  rough 
usage.  Alas  !  they  were  miserably  mistaken  ;  they  every  one 
bitterly  repented  their  confidence  and  presumption. 

"  The  parties  that  were  first  set  loose  for  rapine  and  plun- 
der, were  the  Hessians.  They  entered  the  houses,  attacked  the 
persons  of  Whig  and  Tory  indiscriminately,  breaking  open 
desks,  triinks,  chests,  closets,  and  taking  away  every  thing  of 
value  ;  tliey  robbed  w6men  of  buckles,  rings,  bonnets,  aprons, 
and  handkerchiefs;  they  abused  them  with  the  foulest  and 
most  profane  language,  threatened  their  lives,  presenting  bay- 
onets to  their  breasts,  not  in  the  least  regarding  the  most 
earnest  cries  and  entreaties ;  there  Avas  likewise  heard  the 
dashing  of  looking  glasses,  furniture,  china,  and  whatever  caiiie 
in  their  power.  A  nursing  infant  was  plundered  of  part  of 
its  clothing,  while  the  bayonet  was  held  to  his  mother. 

"Another  party  that  came  on  were  the  American  refugees, 
who,  in  revenge  for  their  confiscated  estates,  carried  on  the 
same  business.  Tliey  were  not,  however,  so  abusive  to  the 
women  as  the  fonner,  but  appeared  very  furious  against  the 
town  and  country. 

"The  Britons  M'ere  the  least  iuA'ctcratc.  Some  of  the 
officers  seemed  to  pity  the  misfortunes  of  the  country,  but  in 
excuse  said  they  had  no  other  way  to  gain  their  authority  over 
us.  Individuals  among  the  British  troop  were  exceedingly 
abusive,  especially  to  women.     Tliey  solicited,  they  attempted 

1779.]  THE   BUKNING    OF   FAIEFIELD.  187 

their  chastity  ;  and  tlioiigh  no  rape  was  committed,  yet  some 
were  forced  to  siibmit  to  the  most  indelicate  and  rongli  treat- 
ment. They  exerted  their  utmost  strength  in  the  defence  of 
their  virtue,  and  some  still  bear  the  scars  and  bruises  of  the 
horrid  conflict. 

"•  Just  about  an  hoiir  before  sunset  the  conflagration  began 
at  the  house  of  Josiah  Jennings,  which  was  consumed,  witli  the 
neighboring  buildings.  In  the  evening,  the  house  of  Elijah 
Abel,  Esq.,  sheriff  of  the  county,  was  consumed,  with  a  few 
others.  In  the  night,  several  buildings  were  burnt  in  the  main 
sti'eet.  General  Tryon  was  in  various  parts  of  the  town — the 
good  women  begging  and  entreating  him  to  spare  their  houses. 
Mr.  Sayre,  the  Church  of  England's  missionary,  a  gentleman 
firmly  and  zealously  engaged  in  the  British  interest,  and  who 
has  siiffered  considerably  in  their  cause,  joined  the  women  in 
their  entreaties,  begged  the  general  to  spare  the  town;  but 
his  request  was  denied.  He  then  begged  that  a  few  houses 
might  bo  kept  as  a  shelter  for  some  who  could  provide  habita- 
tions nowhere  else ;  this  was  likewise  denied  him.  At  length 
Mr.  Tryon  consented  to  spare  the  buildings  and  property  of  Mr. 
Burr  and  the  writer  of  this  epistle.  They  had  both  been  plun- 
dered ere  this.  He  likewise  said  that  the  houses  of  public 
worship  should  be  spared.  He  was  far  from  being  in  a  good 
temper  of  mind  during  the  whole  affair.  General  Garth,  at 
the  other  end  of  the  town,  treated  the  inhabitants  with  as 
much  humanity  as  his  errand  Avould  admit  of. 

"  At  suurise,  some  considerable  part  of  the  town  was  stand- 
ing ;  but  in  about  two  hours  the  conflagration  became  general. 
The  burning  pirates  carried  on  their  business  with  horrible 
alacrity,  headed  by  two  or  three  persons  who  were  born  and 
bred  in  the  neighboring  towns.  All  the  town,  from  the  bridge 
towards  Stratford  to  the  Mill  river,  (a  few  houses  excepted,) 
were  consumed. 

"About  eight  o'clock  the  enemy  soimded  a  retreat.  The 
meeting-house  and  a  few  other  liouses  were  standing,  which 
afforded  some  pleasure  amidst  our  woe ;  but  the  rear  guard, 
consisting  of  a  banditti  of  the  vilest  that  was  ever  let  loose 
among  men,  set  fire  to  every  thing  which  General  Tiyon  had 

1S8  DIAET    OF   THE   EEVOLUTION.  [1779. 

left — tlie  large  and  elegant  meeting,  the  ministers'  honses,  Mr. 
Burr's,  and  other  houses  which  had  received  protection.  Tliey 
tore  Tryou's  j^rotections  in  pieces,  damn'd  "  General  Try  on  and 
his  protections,"  and  abused  women  most  shamefully ;  they 
ran  off  in  a  very  disgraceful  manner.  Happily  oiir  men  came 
in,  and  extinguished  the  flames  in  several  hoiTses,  so  that  we 
are  not  entirely  destroyed.  The  Church  of  England  building 
was  destroyed  ;  but  by  whom,  or  at  what  time,  I  am  not  able 
to  say. 

"  Tlie  rear  guard,  which  behaved  in  such  a  scandalous  man- 
ner, were  chiefly  Germans  called  Jagers,  which  carry  a  small 
rifle-gun,  and  fight  in  a  skulking  manner,  much  like  our  Indi- 
ans. Tliey  may  emphatically  be  called  the  sons  of  plunder 
and  devastation. 

"  Our  fort  yet  stands.  The  enemy  sent  a  row  galley  to 
silence  it,  and  there  was  a  constant  firing  between  them  all 
night.  One  or  two  attempts  were  made  to  take  it  by  parties 
of  troops,  but  it  was  most  bravely  and  obstinately  defended 
by  Lieutenant  Isaac  Jarvis,  who  had  but  twenty-three  besides 
himself.  The  militia  followed  the  bloody  mcendiaries  to  the 
place  of  embarkation,  where  they  galled  them  considerably. 
The  embarkation  took  place  about  tM-elve  o'clock,  and  the  ci'uel 
foe  set  sail  for  Long  Island  about  two  o'clock  in  the  afternoon. 
Many  were  killed  on  both  sides  ;  the  number  cannot  be  ascer- 
tained. They  carried  with  them  several  prisoners,  but  no  per- 
son of  distmction.  Old  Mr.  Solomon  Sturgis,  an  L'ish  servant 
belonging  to  Mr.  Penficld,  and  an  old  negro  man  belonging  to 
Mr.  Jonathan  Lewis,  Avere  put  to  the  bayonet.  Mr.  Job  Bar- 
tram  was  shot  through  the  breast ;  the  ball  came  out  just  un- 
der his  shoulder-blade ;  he  fought  bravely,  as  did  also  many 
others." ' 

'  New  London  Gazette,  August  4.  The  British  troops,  after  destroying  Fair- 
field, crossed  the  Sound  to  Huntington,  Long  Island,  where  they  remained  until 
the  eleventh  of  July,  when  they  appeared  before  Norwallv.  Their  subsequent 
operations  are  thus  recorded  in  Gaine's  M'crcurj',  of  August  12: — "The  sun  being 
nearly  set  before  the  54th,  the  Landgrave's  regiment,  and  the  Jagers  were  in  the 
boats,  it  was  near  nine  o'clock  in  the  evening  when  the  troops  landed  at  the  Cow 
Pasture,  a  peninsula  on  the  east  of  the  harbor,  within  a  mile  and  a  half  of  the^ 
bridge  which  formed  the  communication  between  the  east  and  west  parts  of  Nor- 


A  British  writer  gives  the  following  account  of  tlie  burn- 
ing of  Fairfield: — "About  five  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  the 
British  troops  landed  about  a  mile  and  a  half  British  Account  of 
west  of  the  fort  at  Fairfield.  One  division,  con-  raMe'id? " 
sisting  of  Jagers,  flank  companies  of  guards,  Fanning's  coi-ps. 
and  regiment  of  Landgrave,  Avith  General  Trjon,  moved  up 
in  columns  to  gain  the  right  of  the  town,  and  were  cannonaded 
from  the  fort  hill  above  it,  without  suffering  any  loss.  The 
advanced  corps  drew  up  a  little  short  of  the  town,  where 
they  proposed  remaining;  but  the  enemy  bringing  a  six- 
pounder  on  their  left  to  enfilade  them,  they  were  obliged  to 
move  towards,  and  drive  the  enemy  from  the  lower  heights  in 
front  of  the  town,  which  they  occupied  with  this  field-piece. 
This  they  efiected  with  little  loss  and  diflicnlty,  Jonathan  very 
prudently  removing  himself  to  the  upper  heights,  at  a  very 
decent  distance,  where  he  amused  himself  with  firing  long  shot 
till  about  eight  o'clock  ;  when,  upon  the  approach  of  General 
Garth  Avith  another  division,  he  thought  proper  to  retire  en- 
tirely, after  a  narrow  escape  of  being  cut  off  by  the  forces 

walk,  nearly  equally  divijcd  by  a  salt  creek.  The  King's  American  regiment 
being  unable  to  join  the  army  before  three  the  next  morning,  the  troops  lay  that 
night  on  their  arms. 

"  In  the  march  at  the  first  dawn  of  day,  the  54th  led  the  column,  and  soon  fell 
in  with  the  rebel  outposts,  and  driving  the  enemy  with  great  alacrity  and  spirit, 
dispossessed  them  of  Drummond  (Grummon)  Hill,  and  the  heights  at  the  end  of 
the  village,  east  from  and  commanding  the  bridge. 

"  It  being  now  about  four  o'clock  in  the  morning  and  the  rebels  having  taken 
post  within  a  random  cannon  shot  upon  the  hills  on  the  north,  the  troops  halted, 
and  the  second  division  landing  at  the  Old  Wells,  on  the  west  side  of  the  harbor, 
had  advanced  and  formed  the  junction. 

"  General  Garth's  division  passed  the  bridge  by  nine,  and  proceeded  to  the 
north  end  of  the  village,  from  whence,  and  especially  from  the  houses,  there  had 
been  a  fire  for  five  hours  upon  our  advanced  guards.  The  fusileers,  supported  by 
the  light  infantry  of  the  guards,  began  the  attack,  and  soon  cleared  that  quarter, 
pushing  their  main  body  and  a  hundred  cavalry  from  the  northern  heights,  and 
taking  one  piece  of  their  cannon. 

"  After  many  salt  pans  were  destroyed,  whale  bo.ats  carried  on  board  the  fleet, 
and  the  magazines,  stores,  and  vessels  set  in  flames,  by  which  the  greater  part  of 
the  dwelling-houses  were  consumed,  the  advanced  corps  were  drawn  back,  and 
the  troops  retired  in  two  columns  to  the  place  of  their  first  debarkation,  and  un- 
assaulted  took  ship  and  returned  to  Huntington  Bay." 

190  DIAEY   OF   THE   KEVOLUTION.  [1T79. 

under  that  general.  Not  a  single  lionse  Avas  touclied,  as  the 
general  liad  taken  some  pains  the  two  days  before  to  circulate 
their  address  and  proclamation  ; '  and  New  Haven,  though  so 
fine  a  town,  and  of  so  much  use  to  the  rebellious  colonists,  was 
spared,  in  hopes  these  deluded  people  would  at  last  be  made 
sensible  that  lenity,  whilst  it  could  be  shown  without  pre- 
judice to  ourselves,  was  the  wish  of  British  souls  and  British 
commanders.  New  Haven,  except  one  or  two  storehouses 
and  one  or  two  small  vessels,  was  left  unhurt. 

'  The  following  is  the  address  to  the  inhabitants  of  Connecticut  by  Commodore 
Sir  George  Collier  and  Major  General  William  Tryon; — "The  ungenerous  and 
wanton  insurrection  against  the  sovereignty  of  Great  Britain,  into  which  this 
colony  has  been  deluded  by  the  artifices  of  desperate  and  designing  men,  for 
private  purposes,  might  well  justify  in  you  every  fear  which  conscious  guilt  could 
form,  respecting  the  intentions  of  the  present  armament. 

"  Your  towns,  your  property,  yourselves,  lie  still  within  the  grasp  of  that 
power,  whose  forbearance  you  have  ungenerously  construed  into  fear ;  but  whose 
lenity  has  persisted  in  its  mild  and  uoble  efforts,  even  though  branded  with  the 
most  unworthy  imputation. 

"The  existence  of  a  single  habitation  on  your  defenceless  coast,  ought  to  bo  a 
constant  reproof  to  your  ingratitude.  Can  the  strength  of  your  whole  province 
cope  with  the  force  which  might  at  any  time  be  poured  through  every  district  in 
your  country?  You  are  conscious  it  cannot.  Why  then  will  you  persist  in  a 
ruinous  and  ill-judged  resistance  ? 

"  We  have  hoped  that  you  would  recover  from  the  pihrensy  which  has  distract- 
ed this  unhappy  country ;  and  we  believe  the  day  to  bo  now  come  when  the 
greater  part  of  this  continent  begin  to  blush  at  their  delusion.  You,  who  lie  so 
much  in  our  power,  afford  the  most  striking  monument  of  our  mercy,  and  there- 
fore ought  to  set  the  first  example  of  returning  to  allegiance. 

"  Reflect  upon  what  gratitude  requires  of  you ;  if  that  is  insufficient  to  move 
you,  attend  to  your  own  interest.  We  offer  you  a  refuge  against  the  distress 
which  you  universally  acknowledge  broods  with  increasing  and  intolerable  weight 
over  all  your  country. 

"  Leaving  you  to  consult  with  each  other  upon  this  invitation,  We  now  do  de- 
clare,— That  whosoever  shall  be  found,  and  remain  in  peace  at  his  usual  place  of 
residence,  shall  be  shielded  from  any  insult,  either  to  his  person  or  his  property, 
excepting  such  as  bear  offices,  cither  civil  or  military,  under  your  present  usurped 
government:  of  whom  it  will  bo  further  required,  that  they  shall  give  proofs  of 
their  penitence  and  voluntary  submission ;  and  they  shall  then  partake  of  the  like 

"  Those,  whose  folly  and  obstinacy  may  slight  this  favorable  warning,  must 
take  notice,  that  they  are  not  to  expect  a  continuance  of  that  lenity  which  their 
inveteracy  would  now  render  blamable." — Rivincjton^s  Oasette,  July  7. 

1779.]  BUKNIXCr   OF   FAIEFIELD.  191 

'•  Fninfluenced  by  this  gentle  treatment,  their  hearts  seemed 
hardened  like  the  hearts  of  Pharaoh's  servants.  Fairiield,  till 
six  in  the  evening,  remained  as  before,  when  an  order  came 
for  the  advanced  troops  to  retire  a  little  nearer  the  town. 
Jonathan,  imagining  the  dread  of  him  had  inspired  this  mo- 
tion, felt  very  bold,  and  advancing  nearer,  got  in  behind  some 
houses  in  front  of  the  town,  and  flattering  himself  he  was  then 
in  security,  threw  his  shot  something  thicker  about  him.  The 
troops  faced  about,  drove  Jonathan  from  his  fancied  fortress, 
and  then  set  fire  to  these  few  alone  which  had  emboldened  and 
afforded  cover  to  their  enemies  ;  these  houses  Avere  in  front  of 
the  to\n\.  General  Tryon  then  sent  a  flag  to  them  by  the 
clergyman  of  the  place,  offering,  if  they  would  return  to  their 
allegiance,  the  town  should  be  spared,  and  those  who  would 
come  in  should  remain  unmolested.  This  generous  offer  Jona- 
than did  not  think  fit  to  comply  with,  but  cannonaded  his  own 
town  all  night ;  the  consequence  of  which  was,  in  the  morn- 
ing the  troops  set  it  on  fire,  and  they  re-embarked,  leaving 
their  conduct  in  these  two  mstauces  to  inspire  proper  reflec- 
tions in  their  enemies." ' 

JrLY  10. — Still  the  rebels  clierish  one  another  with  the 
assurances  of  eating  their  next  Christmas  dinner  in  I^ew  York, 
(peradvcnture  in  the  provost.)  Indeed,  Mr.  Wash-  g^^^^  ^^  Liberty  in 
ington  has  declared  he  will  very  soon  visit  that  ^""^  "^°''^- 
capital  with  his  army,  as  it  is  confessed,  without  the  least  re- 
serve, there  are  many  Sons  of  Lieeety  in  New  York  that  hold 
a  constant  intercoiirse  and  correspondence  with  the  commander- 
in-chief  of  the  rebel  army,  from  whom  he  is  supplied  with  ac- 
curate communications  of  all  arrivals  and  departures,  and  of 
every  thing  daily  cai-rying  on  there,  both  in  the  military  and 
civil  branches.  Tlie  rebel  prisoners  on  Long  Island,  (notwith- 
standing being  indulged  with  their  parole,)  and  the  white- 
washed inhabitants  hold  a  constant  correspondence  -with  the 
inhabitants  of  Connecticut ;  and,  through  their  means,  goods  to 
great  amount  are  every  week  conveyed  to  them.     It  provokes 

'  Eivington's  Gazette,  July  14. 

192  DIAEY   OF   THE   EEVOLUTION.  [1779. 

the  Avell  affected  to  government,  at  a  distance  from  JSTew  York, 
to  perceive  sucli  comfort  and  accommodations  afforded  to  the 
most  ungrateful  and  insidious  people  on  earth.' 

July  15. — ^The  British,  in  conjunction  with  their  allies,  the 
Tories,  seem  desirous  to  extirpate  religion,  with  the  Whigs,  out 
of  the  country.  An  arduous  task,  indeed  !  They 
manifest  peciiliar  malice  against  the  Presbyterian 
churches,  having,  during  this  month,  burnt  three  in  ISTew  York 
State,  and  two  in  ConnecticTit.  What,  Britons !  because  we 
won't  worship  your  idol  King,  will  you  prevent  us  from  wor- 
shipping the  King  of  kings  ?  Heaven  forbid  !  We  despair 
not  of  being  able  soon  to  rebuild  our  churches ;  till  then  the 
canopy  of  heaven,  a  barn,  or  the  shady  woods  will  serve  the 
purpose.  If  you  burn  our  elegant  houses,  we  will  dwell  in 
huts  till  we  can  build  better.  We  have  too  long  imitated  your 
excesses  ;  now  you  teach  us  economy  and  humility." 

July  16. — ^Tnis  morning.  General  Wayne,  Avith  the  light 
infantry,  consisting  of  about  twelve  hundred  men,  drawn  from 
Wayne  takes  ^■'^^  wholc  of  tlic  American  army  on  each  side  of 
stony  Point,  ^j-^q  Is  ortli  Puvcr,  surpriscd  the  British  garrison, 
consisting  of  five  hundred  men,  commanded  by  a  Colonel 
Johnson,  in  their  works  at  Stony  Point,  on  the  west  side  of 
King's  Ferry,  and  made  the  whole  prisoners,  with  the  loss  of 
four  Americans  killed,  and  General  Wayne  slightly  wounded.^ 
Tlie  detachment  marched  in  two  divisions,  and  about  one 
o'clock  came  up  to  the  enemy's  pickets,  who,  by  firing  their 
pieces,  gave  the  alarm,  and  with  all  possible  speed  ran  to  the 
fort,  from  every  quarter  of  which,  in  a  short  time,  they  made 
an  incessant  fire  upon  our  people.  They,  with  fixed  bayonets 
and  uncharged  pieces,  advanced  with  quick  but  silent  motion, 
through  a  heavy  fire  of  cannon  and  musketry,  till  getting  over 
the  abbatis,  and  scrambling  up  the  precipices,  the  enemy 
called  out,  "  Come  on,  ye  damn'd  rebels  ;  come  on  !  "     Some 

'  Rivington's  Gazette,  July  10.  ^  New  Hampshire  Gazette,  August  10. 

'  New  Hampshire  Gazette,  July  27. 

1779.]  STONY   POINT   TAKEN.  193 

of  our  people  softly  answered,  "  Don't  be  in  sucli  a  huny,  my 
lads  ;  we  ■will  be  with  you  presently."  And  accordingly,  in  a 
little  more  than  twenty  minutes  from  the  time  the  enemy  be- 
gan first  to  fire,  our  troops,  overcommg  all  obstructions  and 
resistance,  entered  the  fort.  Spurred  on  by  their  resentment 
of  the  former  cruel  bayoneting,  which  many  of  them  and  oth- 
ers of  our  people  had  experienced,  and  of  the  more  recent 
and  savage  barbarity  of  plundering  and  burning  unguarded 
towns,  murdering  old  and  imarmed  men,  abusing  and  forcing 
defenceless  women,  and  rediicing  multitudes  of  innocent  people 
from  comfortable  livings  to  the  most  distressful  want  of  the 
means  of  subsistence ; — deeply  affected  by  these  cniel  injuries, 
cm'  people  entered  the  fort  with  the  resolution  of  putting  every 
man  to  the  sword ;  but  the  cry  of  "  Mercy !  mercy !  dear 
Americans !  mercy !  quarter !  brave  Americans !  quarter ! 
quarter !  "  disarmed  their  resentment  in  an  instant ;  insomuch 
that  even  Colonel  Johnson,  the  commandant,  freely  and  can- 
didly acknowledges  that  not  a  drop  of  blood  was  spilt  un- 
necessarily. Oh,  Britain !  turn  thine  eye  inward, — behold, 
and  tremble  at  thyself ! ' 

Colonel  Fleury,  who  commanded  the  van-guard  and  be- 
haved with  his  usual  gallantry,  was  the  first  man  who  mounted 
the  bastion  and  struck  the  British  flag.  All  our  oflicers  and 
]nen  behaved  with  remarkable  bravery.  They  were  even  enm- 
lous  to  go  upon  the  Forlorn  Hope,  which  was  decided  by  lot, 
when  one  gentleman  thereby  exchided  from  that  command, 
spoke  of  himself  as  a  child  of  misfortune  from  the  cradle, 
while  the  other  leaped  for  joy. 

Of  the  Americans,  about  twenty-five  are  killed,  and  up- 
wards of  fifty  wounded,  among  whom   are  General  "Wayne, 

'  A  correspondent  in  England  says  : — "The  American  account  of  Stony  Point 
is  as  pompons  a  parade  of  tlieir  courage  as  tlie  French  displayed  of  their  ma- 
noeuvres in  our  channel.  The  fact  is,  that  they  surprised  the  garrison,  and  bay- 
oneted the  men  after  the  surrender  was  made.  Had  Colonel  Johnson  and  his 
party  been  prepared  for  their  reception  the  Americans  would  have  fled  at  the  very 
sight  of  the  British  bayonets ;  and  in  that  case  have  as  disgracefully  retreated 
without  making  the  attempt,  as  they  shamefully  afterwards  abandoned  the  con- 
quest they  had  made." — UpcoU,  v.  389. 
Vol.  II.— 13 

194  DIAKT  OF   THE   EEVOLtTTION.  [1779. 

who  received  a  slight  wound  on  the  side  of  his  face  ; '  Colonel 
Hay,  of  Pennsylvania,  a  wound  in  his  thigh ;  and  of  Colonel 
Meigs's  regiment.  Captain  Phelps,  wounded  in  the  arm ;  Cap- 
tain Selden,  badly  in  the  hip  ;  Lieutenant  Palmer,  in  the  arm 
and  thigh  ;  Ensign  Hall,  in  the  hip,  and  his  arm  broken  ;  five 
of  the  wounded  privates  are  dead,  the  rest  likely  to  recover. 

Of  the  enemy  killed,  aboiit  sixty ;  and  of  whom  was  Colonel 
Few,  of  the  17th  grenadiers,  who  was  too  obstinate  to  submit, 
and  another  officer  who  has  died  of  his  wounds.  Their  wounded 
are  also  supposed  to  be  about  sixty,  among  whom  are  two  or 
three  officers.  The  prisoners  of  the  enemy  amount  to  four 
hundred  and  five,  including  the  commandant,  Lieutenant-Col- 
onel Johnson,  of  the  17tli  regiment,  and  twenty-three  other 
officers,  all  of  whom  are  to  be  sent  off  to  Pennsylvania. 

Among  the  prisoners  are  two  sons  of  Beverly  Eobinson,  (of 
ISTew  York,  now  a  Colonel  in  the  service  of  the  enemy  against 
his  country  !)  and  a  son  of  the  late  Kev.  Dr.  Anchniuty,  late 
rector  of  Trinity  Church.  It  was  with  great  difficulty  these 
three  were  saved  by  our  officers  from  being  sacrificed  to  the 
resentment  of  the  soldiery,  who  being  aboiit  to  retaliate  upon 
them  with  bayonets,  (the  usage  our  people  have  repeatedly 
received  from  the  British  troops,)  they  begged  for  mercy,  and 
to  excite  pity,  said  they  were  Americans.  This  plea  proving 
them  to  be  traitors  as  well  as  enemies,  naturally  increased  the 
fury  of  the  soldiers,  who  were  upon  the  point  of  plunging 
bayonets  into  their  breasts,  when  they  M'ere  restrained  by 
their  officers.'' 

'  When  the  gallant  General  "Wayne  received  his  wound  in  storming  the  fort 
at  Stony  Point,  lie  ■was  a  good  deal  staggered,  and  fell  upon  one  knee.  But  the 
moment  he  recOTered  himself,  he  called  to  his  aids,  who  supported  him,  and  said, 
"Lead  me  forward,  if  I  am  mortally  wounded,  let  me  die  in  the  fort." — Kew 
Hampshire  Gazette,  September  Y. 

-  New  York  Journal,  August  2.  Eivington,  in  the  Royal  Gazette  of  July  21, 
gives  the  following  "best  account  yet,"  of  this  action  : — "  We  are  informed  that 
a  large  detachment  of  the  rebel  army,  commanded  by  Mr.  Wayne,  last  Friday  morn- 
ing, about  one  o'clock,  attacked  the  fort  at  Stony  Point,  on  the  Hudson  River, 
garrisoned  by  the  llth  regiment,  two  companies  of  grenadiers  of  the  Vlst,  one 
company  of  Colonel  Beverly  Robinson's  regiment,  under  the  command  of  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Johnson  of  the  l7th  regiment.     The  enemy  were  repulsed  several 

1779.]  STOXY   POINT.  195 

Nothing  can  exceed  the  spirit  and  intrepidity  of  our  brave 
countrymen  in  storming  and  carrying  tlie  British  fortress  at 
Stony  Point.  It  demonstrates  that  the  Ameri-  The  stormin.' of 
cans  have  soldiers  equal  to  any  in  the  world  ;  and  ^'■""^  ^°'"'- 
that  they  can  attack  and  vanquish  the  Britons  in  their  strongest 
Avorks.  IS^o  action  during  the  war,  performed  by  the  British 
military,  has  equalled  this  coup  de  main.  Tlie  generosity 
shown  by  our  men  to  the  vanquished,  when  the  parties  of  our 
enemy  are  rej^eating  their  savage  barbarities,  whenever  they 
come  by  surprise,  is  imexampled.  How  much  more  honorable 
and  manly  is  it  to  carry  fortresses  sword  in  hand,  than  to  burn 
defenceless  towns,  and  distress  unarmed  citizens,  and  even 
women  and  children  ?  What  action  has  Clinton  to  boast  of, 
this  campaign,  that  may  be  compared  with  this  master-piece 
of  soldiership  by  General  "Wayne?  And  how  much  provoca- 
tion had  he  to  have  bayoneted  tlie  whole  British  garrison, 
when  he  recollected  how  cruelly  the  British  had  massacred 
the  men  he  commanded  some  time  ago,  who  fell  into  their 
merciless  hands  ?  How  many  of  these  brave  men  were  killed 
in  cold  blood,  after  they  could  make  no  resistance?  Clin- 
ton must  be  highly  chagrined  at  this  conquest,  and  employ 
some  good  pen  to  disguise  and  palliate  this  aifair  at  the  court 
of  London.  He  has  exceeded  Howe  in  the  ferocity  and  sav- 
ageness  of  his  exploits ;  but  perhaps  will  not  succeed  better 
than  he  in  accomplishing  the  designs  of  Britam.' 

times,  and  lost  a  considerable  number  killed  on  the  spot,  but  being  supported  by 
Mr.  Washington  with  the  main  body  of  the  rebel  army,  the  garrison  gave  way  to 
a  Tast  superiority  of  numbers.  The  loss  of  the  enemy,  though  considerable,  is 
not  yet  known. 

"Of  the  British  troops,  thirty  were  killed,  including  Colonel  Few  of  the  17th 
regiment,  forty-eight  wounded,  and  two  hundred  and  six  prisoners.  On  Sunday 
some  rebel  provision  vessels  attempting  to  pass  down  the  river  by  Verplank's  to 
Stony  Point,  were  prevented  by  a  severe  cannonade  from  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Webster,  who  commands  at,  and  has  very  cfTectually  defended  that  post,  which  is 
now  become  perfectly  secure,  as  the  rebels,  baffled  in  their  attempts  upon  Ver- 
plank's Point,  on  Monday  evacuated  Stony  Point,  and  it  was  that  evening  again 
taken  possession  of  by  the  British  forces.  Amongst  the  enemy's  wounded,  was 
Mr.  Wayne,  who  commanded  the  attack." 

'  New  Hampshire  Gazette,  July  27. 


July  20. — We  have  just  seen  a  rebel  newspaper  wliicli  con- 
tains a  very  enrious  article  relative  to  the  late  attack  on  Stony 
Capture  of  stony  1*°™*-  Th^  article  is  written  in  that  turgid  style, 
Point  Criticized.  .^^^  ^^  ^^^^^  i^^^^q  gpij,j|-  ^f  triumph,  which  distin- 
guish almost  all  the  rebel  publications,  on  the  acquisition  of 
any  trifling  advantage ;  and  is  at  once  a  just  sample  of  the 
eloquence  and  temper  of  the  rebels.  It  begins  thus :  "  Our 
gallant  light  infantry,  who,  under  the  brave,  intrepid  General 
Wayne,  have  gained  immortal  honor  by  storming  the  British 
garrison  at  Stony  Point,  were  composed  of  drafts  from  each 
State.  The  firm  coolness  with  which  they  marched,"  &c.  It 
proceeds  in  the  same  style  of  bombast  and  exaggeration  to  de- 
scribe the  amazing  fortitude,  wonderful  prowess,  and  aston- 
ishing hiimanity  which  marked  tlie  conduct  of  the  rebel  troops, 
from  the  beginning  to  the  end  of  the  whole  business. 

Far  be  it  from  me  to  detract  from  any  bravery  or  humanity 
which  may  have  been  shown  by  the  rebels  on  this  occasion.  I 
respect  those  qualities  even  in  an  enemy ;  and  so  far  as  the 
rebels  exhibited  either,  or  both,  at  Stony  Point,  (of  which, 
however,  I  am  unable  to  judge  at  present,)  I  give  them  full 

Biit  the  writer  of  the  above  article  was  not  aware  that  by 
extolling  the  bravery  and  humanity  of  General  Wayne  and 
his  men  so  extravagantly,  he  induces  his  readers  to  conclude 
that  such  instances  are  very  rare  among  the  rebels.  People 
who  would  make  a  figure,  and  have  but  slender  means,  must 
make  the  most  of  the  little  they  possess.  This  writer  tells  us 
that  the  men  destined  for  the  attack  at  Stony  Point  "  were 
composed  of  drafts  from  each  State  ;  "  and  Ave  are  elsewhere 
assured  that  they  amounted  to  upwards  of  twelve  hundred — 
some  say  to  double  that  niimber.  Is  it  so  extraordinary  a 
matter  that  all  the  States,  as  he  calls  them,  should  furnish 
twelve  liundred  men,  (reckoning  them  at  tlie  lowest  calcula- 
tion, and  of  whom  many  Avere  Euroj^eans,)  Avho,  in  the  dead 
of  the  night,  and  after  taking  every  precaution  to  conceal  their 
design — CA'en  killing  all  the  dogs  in  the  neighborhood  of  Stony 
Point  to  prevent  an  alarm — is  it  extraordinary,  I  say,  that 
such  a  body  of  men,  thus  picked,  and  culled,  and  circum- 


stanced,  -n-oiild  venture  to  attack  about  four  hiandred  men  ? 
for,  if  my  information  be  right,  the  effective  men  at  Stony- 
Point  did  not  exceed  that  number.  Among  troops  accustomed 
to  face  and  meet  their  enemies,  I  am  sure  this  would  not  be 
esteemed  any  mighty  affair.  AVhen  tlie  British  troops,  not 
amounting  to  twelve  hundred  men,  really  stormed  the  rebel 
forts  at  the  Highlands,  in  open  day — forts  that  were  defended 
by  a  gan-ison  three  times  as  numerous  as  that  at  Stony  Point — • 
there  was  not  half  so  much  said  about  it  as  there  is  said  here 
of  General  Wayne's  exploit.  Such  things  are  expected  from 
British  troops :  there  is  nothing  unusual  in  it,  and  therefore 
little  is  said  about  it. 

Our  writer  reminds  me  of  a  passage  in  De  Solis's  history 
of  the  conquest  of  Mexico.  AVhile  Cortcz  was  siibduing  that 
empire,  a  Spaniard  was  killed  in  a  fray  with  the  natives.  Tlie 
Mexicans  got  possession  of  the  corpse,  and  viewed  it  with  a 
mixture  of  admiration  and  joy  :  admiration  at  their  own  prow- 
ess in  killing  a  Spaniard,  and  joy  to  find  tliat  the  Spaniards 
were  vulnerable  and  mortal !  Similar  to  this  is  an  incident 
related  by  Joseplms,  when  Titus  besieged  Jerusalem;  The 
Eoman  general  constructed  works,  and  planted  engines  on 
them  to  batter  the  walls.  The  Jews  made  a  sally,  destroyed 
the  works,  and  burnt  the  engines.  Tliey  exulted  most  extrav- 
agantly on  this  little  success,  which  only  served  to  confirm 
their  obstinacy,  hasten  their  ruin,  and  stimulate  them  to  greater 
cruelties  against  their  wi-etched  brethren,  who  groaned  under 
all  the  horrors  of  foreign  and  domestic  war. 

Tliis  writer  is  so  hugely  elevated  with  the  affair  at  Stony 
Point,  that  he  thinks  Britain  should  now  confirm  the  inde- 
pendency of  America  publicly  !  Can  any  one  be  so  stupid  as 
to  imagine  that  such  a  trifling  affair  could  be  any  way  decisive 
at  present,  or  influence  the  conduct  of  Britain  ?  Or  are  inci- 
dents of  this  kind  umisual  in  the  course  of  Avar  ?  I  could  men- 
tion several  instances  where  outposts  belonging  to  the  greatest 
generals  that  ever  led  armies  into  the  field,  have  been  attacked 
and  carried  ;  and  in  wars,  too,  where  those  generals  have  been 
most  successful.  People  wlio  are  so  easily  elevated,  betray 
their  own  wealaiess,  both  in  judgment  and  resources,  and  gen- 

198  DIAET   OF   THE   EEVOLUTIOX.  [17Y9. 

erally  are  easily  depressed.  Tlieir  minds,  like  a  pendulum, 
will  vibrate  to  either  extreme  equally,  as  circumstances  occur  ; 
and  it  is  an  indubitable  proof  how  low  the  afiairs  of  the  rebels 
are  sunk,  when  so  trivial  an  advantage  is  puffed  off  with  so 
much  parade.  It  evidently  shows  that  they  are  obliged  to 
seize  every  little  incident  which  can  serve,  by  exaggeration,  to 
support  the  flagging  spirits  of  their  party. 

Our  writer  goes  on  to  extol  the  "  humanity  of  the  rebels," 
and  contrasts  it  with  the  "  savage  barbarity  of  burning  un- 
guairded  towns,  deflowering  defenceless  women,"  &c.  As  far 
as  truth  will  permit,  I  am  willing  to  believe,  for  the  honor  of 
America,  that  the  rebels  on  this  occasion  relaxed  in  their  usual 
barbarity.  As  it  is  the  first  instance,  it  should  be  recorded, 
though  it  would  have  lost  nothing  had  it  been  expressed  in  less 
exaggerated  terms. 

Tlie  rebels  have  hitherto  been  infamous  for  their  wanton 
cruelties.  Tlieir  brutal  treatment  of  Governor  Franklin,  and 
many  other  persons  of  distinction  whom  I  could  mention, — 
their  barbarity  to  loyalists  in  general,  and  at  this  present  hour 
— hanging  men  for  acting  according  to  the  dictates  of  con- 
science— whipping  men  almost  to  death  because  they  will  not 
take  up  arms — publicly  whipping  even  women,  whose  luTsbands 
would  not  join  the  militia — ^their  confiscations,  fines,  and  im- 
prisonments ;  these  things  which  they  daily  and  indubitably 
practice,  very  ill  agree  with  the  character  of  humanity  so  lav- 
ishly bestowed  on  them  by  this  writer.  Nothing  but  a  long, 
very  long  series  of  conduct  the  reverse  of  this  can  wipe  oS  the 
infamy  which  they  hereby  incurred. 

Tlie  charge  of  "  deflowering  defenceless  women  "  is  one  of 
those  deliberate,  malicious  falsehoods  which  are  circulated  by 
the  rebels,  purely  to  iacensethe  inhabitants  against  the  British 
troops.  As  to  burning  "  tmguarded  towns,"  this  writer  should 
know  that  the  King's  troops  burn  no  houses  except  public  mag- 
azines, and  those  from  which  they  are  fired  at,  or  otherwise  an- 
noyed. This  was  lately  the  case  at  Fairfield  and  Norwalk,  the 
towns  to  which,  I  suppose,  the  author  alludes  ;  and  when  houses 
are  thus  converted  into  citadels,  it  is  justifiable  to  biu-n  them 
by  the  rules  of  war  among  all  civilized  nations. 

1YY9.]  STONY   POINT.  199 

New  Haven  -was  in  the  possession  of  the  King's  troops,  yet 
they  did  not  burn  it.  Tlie  reason  was,  they  were  not  fired  at 
from  the  lionses  during  their  approach  to,  or  retreat  from,  the 
town.  Some  of  the  inhabitants,  however,  did  what  would 
have  justified  the  British  troops  in  consigning  it  to  the  flames. 
Sentries  placed  to  guard  particular  houses  have  been  fired  at 
from  those  very  houses,  and  killed.  An  ofiicer  of  distinction 
took  a  prisoner  who  was  on  horseback,  and  had  a  gun ;  tlie 
prisoner  apparently  submitted,  but  watching  for  an  opportu- 
nity, he  discharged  his  gun  at  the  ofiicer,  and  wounded  him. 
Tlie  wounded  officer  was  carried  into  an  adjoining  house  to 
have  his  wound  di-essed ;  the  owner  of  the  house  seemed  to  be 
kind  and  attentive  to  the  ofiicer ;  the  latter,  in  gratitude  for 
his  attention,  ordered  the  soldiery,  on  his  departure,  to  be  par- 
ticularly careful  of  the  house,  that  no  injuries  shoiild  be  ofiFered 
to  it.  Yet,  no  sooner  was  the  officer  gone,  and  at  the  distance 
of  fifty  yards,  than  this  very  man  discharged  a  loaded  musket 
at  him.  These  are  samples  of  rebel  humanity,  which  sweetly 
harmonize  with  our  writer's  sentiments. 

In  fine,  this  writer,  and  all  others  of  his  stamp,  should  re- 
member that  the  colonies  are  now  in  a  state  of  revolt  and 
rebellion  against  their  rightful  sovereign.  Tlie  British  legisla- 
tm-e  is  unalterably  determined  to  bring  them  back  to  their 
allegiance.  Tlie  most  generous  overtures  have  been  made  to 
them— a  redress  of  grievances,  an  exemption  from  taxes,  and 
a  free  trade,  have  heen  offered.  These  liberal  terms  would 
indubitably  make  America  the  happiest,  freest,  and  most  flour- 
ishing country  in  the  world.  But  the  American  Congress 
have  madly  and  insolently  rejected  these  terms.  The  Con- 
gress, therefore,  and  their  partisans,  are  justly  chargeable, 
before  God  and  the  world,  with  all  the  calamities  which  Amer- 
ica now  sufi'ers,  and  with  all  those  other  and  greater  calamities 
which  it  will  probably  hereafter  suflcr  in  the  course  of  this 
unnatural  contest.' 

August  3. — This  morning,  arrived  at  Boston,  in  Massachu- 

'  "  Candidas,"  in  the  New  York  Gazette,  August  16. 

200  DIAET  OF  THE  REVOLUTION.  [1779. 

setts,  a  Frencli  frigate  of  tliirty-two  guns,  from  France,  in 
whicli  came  passengers  his  excellency  tlie  Chevalier  de  la 
chcTaiier  de  la  LuzEENE,  Plenipotentiary  from  his  most  Christian 
"^"BostoS™" "  Majesty,  to  the  United  States,  with  his  secretary, 
&c. ;  as  also  the  Honorable  John  Adams,  Esqnire,  late  a  com- 
missioner from  the  United  States  to  the  Court  of  France.  His 
excellency  and  suite  landed  on  General  Hancock's  wharf, 
about  five  o'clock  this  afternoon,  where  they  were  received  by 
a  committee  from  the  Honorable  Council  of  the  State,  who 
were  waiting  with  carriages  for  their  reception.  They  were 
conducted  to  tlie  house  late  the  residence  of  the  Continental 
general.  He  was  saluted  by  a  discharge  of  thirteen  cannon, 
on  his  landing,  from  the  fortress  on  Fort  Hill,  and  every  other 
mark  of  respect  shown  him  which  circumstances  would  admit." 


Upon  his  recovery  from  the  phrensy  into  which  he  was  thrown  hy  the  forming  of 
Stony  Point. 
"  To  fight,  or  not  to  fight,  that  is  the  qliestion ! " 

Whether  'tis  best  within "  Manhattan's  isle, 

Snug  to  encamp,  secure  from  war's  alarms! 

Or,  mounting  Hudson's  oft-attempted  wave, 

Encircled  with  my  British  German  bands, 

At  once  let  loose  the  terrors  of  my  arm, 

And  crush  rebellion  at  its  farthest  source  ! 
"  To  fight — perchance  to  beat !  Ah,  there's  the  rub." 

(Conscience  makes  a  coward  of  Sir  Harry!) 

Well  I  remember  the  opprobrious  time. 

When  Tryon  and  Sir  George,  by  my  command, 

O'er  poor  Connecticut's  defenceless  towns 

Pour'd  out  the  flaming  vials  of  my  wrath, 

Murder'd  the  old,  and  plundered  the  infirm ; 

Torrent-like,  when  brave  Wayne's  determined  corps 

Resistless  rush'd  o'er  all  my  boasted  works, 

And  in  an  instant  quench'd  the  British  fire  ! 

What  dread  ideas  fill  my  tortured  brain! 

West  Point  still  rises  to  my  troubled  view  ! 

Unnerves  my  heart  !  and  damps  my  ardent  passion 

For  the  charge ! 

There  proud  America's  undaunted  host 

With  vict'ry  flush'd,  and  pulses  beating  high, 

'  Pennsylvania  Packet,  August  17.  "  York  Island. 

1779.]  THE   CRISIS.  201 

Unfurl  their  glitt'ring  ensigns  to  the  air, 
And  claim,  impatient  claim,  the  promis'd  fight ! 
There  god-like  Washington  triumphant  stands, 
Smiles  at  ray  losses  and  defies  my  power ! 
What's  to  be  done  ? — at  Charleston  baffled  twice, 
At  Monmouth  routed  with  a  dire  disgrace  ! 
Britannia  blushing ! — my  sovereign's  hopes, 
So  flatt'ring  late,  all  vanishing  to  nought ! 
"  It  must  be  so  !  "  soon  as  to-morrow's  sua 
Thro'  Ether  darts  his  horizontal  rays. 
Strait  I'll  embark ! 

Unfold  the  spreading  canvas  to  the  winds. 
And  bend  my  course  to  England's  peaceful  shore, 
Join  Gage,  Burgoyne,  and  Howe,  ill  fated  chiefs. 
Who  trod  before  me  this  disastrous  round ; 
Beneath  their  wither'd  laurels  lay  me  down. 
And  sleep  the  hours  away !  nor  dream  again 
Of  conquering  Freedom's  all-subduing  sons ! ' 

During  the  course  of  the  present  war,  the  situation  of  our 
public  affairs,  as  well  as  the  enemy's,  has  several  times  been  so 
nicely  critical,  that  each  alternately  seemed  to  be 

,       T     ,  ,  -,         .  ■,  ,  The  Crisis. 

upon  the  balance  between  total  rum  and  complete 
victory ;  and  the  event  has  been  determined  by  causes  so 
wholly  unforeseen  and  beyond  human  power,  that  he  must  be  a 
strangely  blind  and  inattentive  observer  who  does  not  discern 
and  ascribe  it  to  the  overruling  hand  of  Divine  Providence. 
Hence  we  may  infer,  that  though  our  cause  being  just.  Heaven 
is  on  ovtr  side,  and  will  finally  ci'own  it  with  such  success,  yet 
that  the  general  prevalence  of  wickedness  among  us  renders 
us  unfit  for  the  blessings  of  peace,  lengthens  out  the  calam- 
ities of  war  upon  us,  and  prevents  the  success  of  our  arms. 
If,  then,  we  are  really  friends  to  the  rights  and  freedom  of 
our  country,  let  every  one  of  us  forsake  the  evil  of  his  ways, 
that  draws  down  and  continues  the  judgments  of  God  upon 
the  land.  Let  us  consider  that  the  highest  interest  of  every 
individual  indispensably  requires  it,  and  together  with  the 
common  interest  of  our  country  unitedly  claims  it  at  our 
hands.  Let  tts  consider  that  while  we  continue  in  any  vicious 
practices,  we  are  not  only  ruining  ourselves,  but  our  country  : 

'  "  S."  in  the  New  York  Packet,  August  19. 

202  DIAEY   OF  THE   EEYOLUTION.  [1Y79. 

we  are  troublers  of  the  land,  and  the  cause  of  its  piiblic  calam- 
ities ;  we  prevent  the  success  of  its  arms,  (the  return  and  bless- 
ing,) and  do  it  more  harm  than  all  its  foreign  enemies.  But 
if  we  reform  our  lives,  and  put  away  evil  from  among  us,  par- 
ticularly that  iincharitableness  which  shows  itself  in  extortion, 
preying  upon  one  another's  necessities,  and  many  other  ways 
of  injustice  and  oppression,  together  with  debauchery,  obscen- 
ity, horrible  profaneness,  and  other  gross  immoralities,  and 
act  like  reasonable  creatures  who  must  give  an  account  of  their 
actions,  we  may  safely  rely  on  Heaven  for  success  in  all  our 
enterprises — for  the  return  of  peace  and  all  its  blessings — for 
happy  lives  and  comfortable  deaths.' 

A  GENTLEMiAN  from  America  observed  in  a  large  company 
in  France,  that  the  Americans  were  all  enthusiasts  for  liberty. 
"No,"  said  a  French  Whig,  "that  is  impossible;  for  if  only 
one-half  of  them  were  inspired  with  a  proper  enthusiastic 
affection  for  liberty,  they  would  have  risen  long  ago  as  mie 
man,  and  not  have  suffered  a  single  British  soldier  to  have  re- 
mained on  the  continent."  ° 

August  13. — A  weitee  in'  the  London  Evening  Post  of 
this  day,  says  : — "  If  freedom  of  speech,  and  the  most  vigorous 
The  opposition  to  ministers,  were  ever  necessary  in  a 
Court  of  England.  fj,gg  eouutry,  they  are  certainly  at  tliis  awful  pe- 
riod ;  a  period  which  not  only  marks  the  decline  of  a  great 
empire,  but  the  immediate  fall  of  it ;  a  period  in  wliich  one 
man  seems  to  have  usurj^ed  the  sole  direction  of  government ; 
and  having  procured  a  set  of  profligate  associates  to  go  through 
thick  and  thin  with  him,  has  bribed  the  senate,  and  deluded 
the  people  into  an  approbation  of  measures  M-liicli  liumanity 
shudders  at,  and  common  sense  condemns. 

"  A  Avriter  who  has  lately  taken  up  the  pen  to  expose  the 
secret  designs  of  tlie  crown  against  the  liberties  and  grandeur 
of  Britain,  in  speaking  of  tlie  contest  with  America,  observes 
that,  '  to  the  cruelty  and  injustice  of  drawing  the  sword,  were 
added  insult  and  calumny.     Both  Houses  of  Parliament  were 

'  New  York  Journal,  September  6.  °  Pennsylvania  Packet,  August  1. 

I'r'r9.]  IIAiULTON    ON    THE   EEVOLfTION.  203 

prodigal  in  tlieii'  abuse  of  the  Americans,  -whom  tliej  stigma- 
tized as  co-n-ards  and  blocldieads.  Allowing  these  stigmas  to 
have  been  just,  is  it  not  a  reflection  (says  the  writer)  to  have 
sued  to  these  very  cowards  and  blocklieads  for  peace,  after  a 
contest  of  foirr  years,  in  which  the  strength  of  this  coimtry  had 
been  in  vain  exerted  to  subjugate  them  ? ' 

"  To  tliis  passage  a  bold  but  admirable  note  is  subjoined,  as 
it  proves  the  author  to  have  a  perfect  knowledge  of  the  man,  of 
whom  it  may  be  said,  '  Omnis  ilia  tempestas  Cfesare  impulsore 
exercitata  est ; '  we  have  extracted  it  for  the  perusal  of  our  read- 
ers. '  Lord  Sandwich  in  one  House,  and  General  Grant  in  the 
other,  were  the  first  to  brand  the  Americans  as  cowards.  The 
foi-mer  summoned  the  ghost  of  Sir  Peter  Warren  from  its  silent 
mansion,  in  support  of  his  illiberal  reproach,  while  the  latter 
declared  that  with  five  hundred  men  he  would  march  from  one 
extreme  of  the  continent  to  the  other.  These  were  opinions 
of  men  high  in  the  royal  confidence  of  their  sovereign — opin- 
ions abhorrent  to  reason  and  philosophy,  but  which  were 
received  with  avidity  because  they  wore  consonant  with  the 
sanguinary  and  obdurate  temper  of  a  man  who  seems  desirous 
of  exchanging  his  ancient  and  venerable  motto  for  the  more 
classical  and  pleasing  one  of  sio  volo,  siejuheo.  Had  either  of 
tlie  senators  above  mentioned  consulted  Horace,  they  would 
have  been  informed  that  the  lion  could  not  beget  the  lamb,  nor 
the  bird  of  Jove  the  timid  dove. 

'  Fortes  creantur  fortibus 
Est  in  Juvencis,  est  in  cquis  patrum 

Tirtus ;  nee  imbellem  feroces 

Progenerant  aquilse  columbaia.' " ' 

It  is  said  little  Hamilton,  the  poet  and  composer  to  the 
Lord  Protector  Mr.  Washington,  is  engaged  upon  a  literary 
work  which  is  intended  to  give  posterity  a  triie  HamiUon-s  work 
estimate  of  the  present  rebellion  and  its  support-  °°  *'"'  E"<>1''"o°- 
ers,  in  case  Clinton's  light  bobs  should  extii-pate  the  whole  race 
of  rebels  this  campaign. 

'  Political  Mirror ;  or  a  summary  review  of  the  present  reign. — iVeit'  Jersey 
Gazette,  January  12,  ITSO. 

204  DIAPvY   OF   THE   EEVOLUTION.  [17T9. 

As  the  facile  penman  lias  seen  a  great  deal  of  life  in  a  very 
few  years,  and  is  withal  a  "  tarnation  cute  obsarver"  it  is  prob- 
able he  will  afford  posterity  great  amusement  as  well  as  in- 
strnction.  It  is  said  that  the  best  American  artists  are  engaged 
to  illustrate  the  work,  which  is  to  be  much  enhanced  in  value 
by  the  presence  of  a  vignette,  representing  a  combat  between 
a  Presbyterian  deacon,  and  the  flesh  and  the  devil,  (in  which 
the  deacon  gets  whipped.) 

The  great  interest  Mr.  "Washington  has  in  the  work  will  be 
imagined,  when  we  consider  that  he  wore  out  four  pair  of 
sherry  vallies  (leather  breeches)  a  few  weeks  ago,  sitting  for 
his  picture  to  a  peddling  limner  in  Philadelphia,  especially  to 
illuminate  the  writer's  ideas.  Of  the  natiire  of  the  other 
illustrations,  we  know  of  but  two : — One,  of  Polly  Wajme's 
brigade  '"  boldly  "  retreating  from  Stony  Point,  after  a  "  man- 
ly "  possession  of  that  fortress  for  three  hours ;  the  other,  a 
rear  view  (by  far  the  most  intelligent  and  pleasing)  of  the  tit- 
tA&v  Lord  Stirling,  on  his  return  from  one  of  his  nightly  feu 
de  joies  at  Bergen,  in  Jersey,  and  supposed  to  be  mumming 
his  usual  boast  in  a  strain  something  like  this : — 

"Peer's  blood  I  have  " — 
Toddied  and  brave — 
Who-o-o'd  be  a  sla-a-a-ve  ? 

In  the  phrase  of  the  Gazette  writer,  "  we  congratulate  the 
lovers  of  romance  on  the  spicy  repast  that  is  in  store  for  them," 
and  at  the  same  time  regret  that  we  are  unable  to  give  a 
longer  extract  from  Stirling's  interlude  on  his  descent ;  which 
descent,  by  the  way,  has  been  so  rapid  and  effectual  as  not 
only  to  deprive  him  of  nobility,  but  leaves  him  quite  below 

August  15. — ^The  nmnber  seven,  which  signifies  fulness  or 

perfection,  from  vai-ious  passages  of  scripture,  appears  to  point 

,p^g  out  events  interesting  and  important.     But  noth- 

Numbor  Seven.   j,jg  ^f  t]j|g  ^^^^^  -^  j^^^j.^,  extraordinary  than  Avhat 

is  afforded  to  us  in  the  course  of  the  present  contest  Avith 

'  Smythe'a  Journal,  p.  91. 

1779.]  THE   NUMBER   SEVEN.  205 

Great  Britain.  On  the  seventeenth  day  of  the  month  the 
repeal  of  the  stamp  act  passed  the  House  of  Commons.  On 
tlie  seventeenth  day  of  the  month  the  news  of  it  arrived  at 
Boston.  On  the  seventeenth  day  of  the  month  and  the  seventh 
day  of  the  week  was  the  battle  on  Bunker's  Hill,  from  which 
time  just  three  years,  on  the  seventeenth  day  of  the  month  was 
the  commencement  of  hostilities  between  France  and  Great 
Britain.  On  the  seventh  day  of  the  week  was  the  battle 
of  Germantown ;  and  on  the  seventh  day  of  the  month  was 
the  battle  of  Stillwater.  In  August,  1776,  instructions  were 
drawn  up  by  the  authority  of  the  King  of  Great  Britain,  and 
directed  to  General  Carleton  in  Canada,  relative  to  the  late  in- 
glorious expedition  of  the  British  northern  army.  This  de- 
spatch not  arriving  in  seven  months  from  the  above  date,  new 
instructions  were  formed,  from  which  it  appears  that  Burgoyne 
was  to  proceed  with  an  army  of  about  seven  thousand,  and  St. 
Leger  with  about  seven  hundred,  besides  Canadians  and  Indi- 
ans, to  force  their  way  to  Albany.  In  seven  months  from  the 
last-mentioned  period,  on  the  seventeenth  day  of  the  month, 
in  the  seventeenth  year  of  the  reign  of  the  tyrant  Georji'o  the 
Tliird,  who  is  the  seventh  monarch  from  the  tyrant  Cluu-les 
the  First,  in  seven  years  and  seven  months  from  the  first  blood 
shed  by  the  British  troops  in  the  present  unhappy  contest ; 
the  massacre  in  Icing's  street,  Boston,  which  was  seven  years 
from  the  assumed  right  of  the  British  Parliament  to  tax  Amer- 
ica ;  in  seventy  years  from  the  union  of  England  and  Scot- 
land ;  in  seventeen  months  from  the  late  important  capture, 
on  the  seventh  day  of  the  month,  of  seven  sail  of  vessels 
richly  laden.  In  the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  seven 
hundred  and  seventy-seven,  Burgoyne  and  his  whole  army 

Seven  marks  tlie  crisis  of  the  rising  States, 

When  Britain's  hero  bows  to  valiant  Gates, 

In  seventy-seven  our  troops  to  conquest  led, 

Our  foes  fell  captives,  or  like  dastards  fled. 

When  seventeen  years  the  tyrant  George  had  rcign'd. 

His  troops  were  vanquish'd  and  his  glory  stain'd. 

Seven  years  and  months  successive  interven'd, 

From  Preston's  carnage  to  the  important  scene, 

206  DIAET   OF   THE   EEYOLUTIOIT.  [1779. 

When  freedom's  sons  in  one  firm  band  combin'd, 
Our  foes  surrendcr'd  and  their  arms  resign'd. 
With  joy  reyere  the  perfect  number  seven, 
And  prize  the  bounties  of  indulgent  Heaven, 
And  let  seven  thunders  blast  the  tyrant's  ire, 
And  warm  our  heroes  with  electric  fire.' 

Shoetlt  after  the  conclusion  of  the  late  war,  the  Court  of 
France,  as  a  reward  for  the  Count  D'Estaing's  services,  be- 
Anecdofe  of  stowcd  upon  him  the  government  of  St.  Domin- 
D'Estaing.  g^^  whcrc  he  no  sooner  arrived  than  he  testified 
his  enmity  against  Great  Britain  by  fitting  out  a  squadron  of 
four  ships-of-war,  in  June,  176-i,  and  possessed  himself  of 
Turk's  Island,  just  ceded  to  England  by  the  treaty  of  peace. 
This  caused  a  great  clamor  in  London,  and  it  was  imagined 
would  have  made  a  fresh  rupture  with  France.  That  court, 
however,  disavowed  his  proceedings,  and  restored  the  island, 
enjoining,  at  the  same  time,  the  Count  D'Estaing  to  make  such 
reparation  for  the  damage  we  had  sustained,  as  the  Governor 
of  Jamaica  (Mr.  Lyttleton)  should  deem  adequate  thereto. 
When  D'Estaiug  received  these  instructions,  he  declared  lie 
would  no  longer  hold  a  government  where  he  was  to  be  the 
instrument  of  such  disgrace  to  his  king  and  country ;  and 
joining  his  hands,  with  eyes  to  heaven,  exclaimed,  "  Que  le  ciel 
me  fait  la  grace  avant  le  trepas,  de  voir  le  moment  oh  ces  fiers 
insulaires  ne  possedront  ni  terres  ni  iles  an  nouveau  monde;" 
i.  e.,  "  May  Heaven  grant  that  before  my  deatli  I  may  see  the 
moment  when  these  proud  islanders  shall  not  possess  either  con- 
tinent or  island  in  the  new  world."  " 

August  20. — ^Yesteedat  morning,  at  tln-ee  o'clock,  an  at- 
tack was  made  on  the  British  garrison  at  Powle's  Hook ; 
Major  Lee's  Attack  "^^^^i^'^'  ^^^^^'  ^  ^^"^''  rcsistaucc.  Surrendered  pris- 
on Powie-s  uook.  oners  of  war,  except  Major  Sutherland  and  about 
fifty  of  liis  men,  who,  under  cover  of  the  niglit,  made  their 
escape  to  a  small  block-house  on  the  left  of  the  fort.     Tlio 

'  "An  Observer,"  in  the  Massachusetts  Spy;  and  New  Hampshire  Gazette, 
August  17. 

'  New  Hampshire  Gazette,  August  17. 

1779.]  lee's  attack  ok  powle's  hook.  207 

American  party  was  commanded  by  Major  Lee,  of  the  liorse, 
who,  in  a  letter  to  General  Washington,  gives  the  following 
particular  account  of  the  affair : '  "I  took  command  of  the 
troops  employed  on  this  occasion,  on  the  ISth.  They  amount- 
ed to  four  hundred  infantry,  composed  of  detachments  of  the 
Virginia  and  Maryland  divisions,  and  one  troop  of  dismounted 
dragoons.  The  troojjs  moved  from  the  vicinity  of  the  New 
Bridge  about  four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon — patrols  of  horse 
being  detached  to  watch  the  communication  with  the  North 
Kiver,  and  parties  of  infantry  stationed  at  the  different  ave- 
nues leading  to  Powle's  Hook.  My  anxiety  to  render  the 
march  as  easy  as  possible,  induced  me  to  pursue  the  Bergen 
road  lower  than  intended.  After  filing  into  the  mountains, 
the  timidity  or  treachery  of  the  principal  guide  prolonged  a 
short  march  into  a  march  of  three  hours  ;  by  this  means  the 
troops  were  exceedingly  harassed  ;  and,  being  obliged  to  pass 
through  deep,  mountainous  woods  to  regain  our  route,  some 
parties  of  the  rear  were  tmfortunately  separated.  This  affected 
me  most  sensibly,  as  it  not  only  diminished  the  number  of  the 
men  destined  for  the  assault,  but  deprived  me  of  the  aid  of 
several  ofiicers  of  distinguished  merit. 

"  On  reaching  the  point  of  separation,  I  found  my  first  dis- 
position impracticable,  both  from  the  near  approach  of  day, 
and  the  rising  of  the  tide.  Not  a  moment  being  to  spare,  I 
paid  no  attention  to  the  punctilios  of  honor  or  rank,  but  or- 
dered the  troops  to  advance  in  their  then  disposition.  Lieu- 
tenant Rudolph,  whom  I  had  previously  detached  to  reconnoitre 
the  passages  of  the  canal,  returned  to  me  at  this  point  of  time, 
and  reported  that  all  was  silence  within  the  works :  that  he 
had  fathomed  the  canal,  and  foimd  the  passage  on  the  centre 
route  still  admissible.  This  intervening  intelligence  was  im- 
mediately communicated  from  front  to  rear,  and  the  troops 
pushed  on  with  that  resolution,  order,  and  coolness,  M'hich 
insures  success. 

"The  forlorn  hopes,  led  by  Lieutenant  M'Callister  of  the 

'  Extract  of  a  letter  from  an  oflScer  at  Paramus,  August  21,  in  tlie  Nciv  Hamp- 
Ehire  Gazette,  September  7. 

208  DIAKT  OF  THE  EETOLUTION.  [1779. 

Maryland,  and  Lieutenant  Hudolpli  of  the  dragoons,  marched 
on  with  trailed  arms  in  most  ^wofound  silence.  Such  was  the 
singular  address  of  these  two  gentlemen,  that  the  first  notice 
to  the  garrison  was  the  forlorns  plunging  into  the  canal.  A 
firing  immediately  commenced  from  the  block-houses,  and  along 
the  line  of  abattis,  but  did  not  in  the  least  check  the  advance 
of  the  troops.  Tlie  forlorn,  supported  by  Major  Clarke  at  the 
head  of  the  right  column,  broke  throitgh  all  opposition,  and 
found  an  entrance  into  the  main  work.  So  rapid  was  the 
movements  of  the  troops,  that  we  gained  the  fort  before  the 
discharge  of  a  single  piece  of  artillery.  Tlie  centre  column, 
commanded  by  Captain  Forsyth,  on  passing  the  abattis,  took 
a  direction  to  their  left.  Lieutenant  Armstrong  led  on  the 
advance  of  this  column.  Tliey  soon  possessed  themselves  of 
the  ofiicers  and  troops  posted  at  the  house  No.  6,  and  fully 
completed  every  object  of  their  destination.  The  rear  colunm, 
under  Captain  Handy,  moved  forward  in  support  of  the  whole. 
Tims  were  we  completely  victorious  in  the  space  of  a  few  mo- 

"The  appearance  of  daylight,  my  apprehension  lest  some 
accident  might  have  befallen  the  boats,  the  numerous  difficul- 
ties of  the  retreat,  the  harassed  state  of  the  troops,  and  the 
destruction  of  all  our  ammunition  by  passing  the  canal,  con- 
spired in  influencing  me  to  retire  at  the  moment  of  victor3\ 
Major  Clarke,  with  the  right  column,  was  immediately  put  in 
motion  with  the  greater  part  of  the  prisonei's.  Captain  Handy 
followed  on  with  the  remainder.  Lieutenants  Armstrong  and 
Eeed  formed  the  rear  guard. 

"  Immediately  on  the  commencement  of  the  retreat,  I  sent 
forward  Captain  Forsyth  to  Prior's  Mill  to  collect  such  men  from 
the  different  columns  as  were  most  fit  for  action,  and  to  take 
post  on  the  heights  of  Bergen  to  cover  the  retreat.  On  my 
reaching  this  place,  I  was  informed  by  Cornet  Neill  (who  had 
been  posted  there  during  the  night  for  the  purpose  of  laying 
the  bridge  and  communicating  with  the  boats)  that  my  mes- 
senger directed  to  him  previous  to  the  attack,  had  not  arrived, 
nor  had  he  heard  from  Captain  Peyton,  who  had  charge  of 
the  boats. 



1779.]  ATTACK   ON    POWLe's   HOOK.  209 

"  Struck  with  appreliension  tliat  I  should  be  disappointed 
in  the  route  of  retreat,  I  rode  forward  to  the  front  under 
Major  Clarke,  whom  I  found  very  near  the  point  of  embarka- 
tion, and  no  boats  to  receive  them.  In  this  very  critical  situ- 
ation, I  lost  no  time  in  my  decision,  but  ordered  the  troops  to 
regain  Bergen  road,  and  move  on  to  the  New  Bridge.  At  the 
same  time,  I  communicated  my  disappointment  to  Lord  Stirling 
by  express,  then  returned  to  Prior's  Bridge  to  the  rear  guard. 

"  Oppressed  by  every  possible  misfortune,  at  the  head  of 
troops  worn  down  by  a  rapid  march  of  thirty  miles,  through 
mountains,  swamps,  and  deep  morasses,  without  the  least  re- 
freshment during  the  whole  march,  ammunition  destroyed, 
encumbered  with  prisoners,  and  a  retreat  of  fourteen  miles  to 
make  good,  on  a  route  admissible  of  interception  at  several 
points  by  a  march  of  two,  three,  or  four  miles,  one  body  mov- 
ing in  our  rear,  and  another  (from  the  intelligence  I  had 
received  from  the  captured  officers)  in  all  probability  well 
advanced  on  our  right,  a  retreat  naturally  impossible  to  our 
left,  under  all  these  distressing  circumstances,  my  sole  depend- 
ence was  in  the  persevering  gallantry  of  the  officers,  and  ob- 
stinate courage  of  the  troops.  In  this  I  was  fully  satisfied  by 
the  shouts  of  the  soldiery,  who  gave  every  proof  of  unimpaired 
vigor  at  the  moment  the  enemy's  approach  was  announced. 

"  Having  gained  the  point  of  interception  opposite  "Wee- 
hock,  (Weehawken,)  Captain  Handy  was  directed  to  move  with 
his  division  on  the  mountain  road,  in  order  to  facilitate  the  re- 
treat. Captain  Catlett,  of  the  second  Yirginia  regiment,  for- 
tunately joined  me  at  this  moment  at  the  head  of  fifty  men 
with  good  ammunition.  I  immediately  halted  this  officer,  and 
having  detached  two  parties,  the  one  on  the  Bergen  road  in 
the  rear  of  Major  Clarke,  the  other  on  the  banks  of  the  ISTorth 
Eiver,  I  moved  with  the  party  under  command  of  the  cap- 
tain on  the  centre  route.  By  these  precautions  a  sudden  ap- 
proach of  the  enemy  was  fully  prevented.  I  am  very  much 
indebted  to  this  officer  and  the  gentlemen  under  him,  for  their 
alacrity  and  vigilance  on  this  occasion. 

"  On  the  rear's  approach  to  the  Fort  Lee  road,  we  met  a 
detachment  under  the  command  of  Colonel  Ball,  which  Lord 
Vol.  II.— 14 

210  DIAET   OF   THE   EEVOLUTIOX.  [1779. 

Stirling  had  pushed  forward,  on  the  first  notice  of  our  situation, 
to  sujjport  the  retreat.  The  colonel  moved  on  and  occupied  a 
position  which  eifectually  covered  us. 

"  Some  little  time  after  this,  a  body  of  the  enemy  made 
their  appearance,  issuing  out  of  the  woods  on  our  right,  and 
moving  through  the  fields  directly  to  the  road.  They  immediate- 
ly commenced  a  fire  upon  our  rear.  Lieutenant  Reed  was  or- 
dered to  face  them,  while  Lieutenant  Rudolph  threw  himself 
with  a  party  into  a  stone  house  which  commanded  the  road. 
These  two  officers  were  directed  mutiially  to  support  each 
other,  and  give  time  for  the  troops  to  pass  the  English  Neigh- 
borhood Creek,  at  the  liberty  pole.  On  the  enemy's  observing 
this  disposition,  they  immediately  retired  by  the  same  route 
they  had  approached,  and  gained  the  woods.  Tlie  precipita- 
tion with  which  they  retired  prevented  the  possibility  of  Col- 
onel Eall's  falling  in  with  them,  and  saved  the  whole. 

"  The  body  which  moved  in  our  rear,  having  excessively 
fatigiied  themselves  by  the  rapidity  of  their  march,  thought 
prudent  to  halt  before  they  came  in  contact  with  us. 

"  Thus  was  every  attempt  to  cut  ofi"  our  rear  completely 
baffled.  The  troops  arrived  safely  at  the  New  Bridge  with  all 
the  prisoners,  about  one  o'clock  p.  m.,  on  the  nineteenth.  I 
should  commit  the  highest  injustice,  was  I  not  to  assure  your 
excellency  that  my  endeavors  were  fully  seconded  by  every 
officer  in  his  station ;  nor  can  any  discrimination  justly  be 
made,  but  what  arose  from  opportunity.  The  troops  vied  with 
each  other  in  patience  imder  their  many  sufferings,  and  con- 
ducted themselves  in  every  vicissitude  of  fortune  with  a  reso- 
lution which  reflects  the  highest  honor  on  them.  During  the 
whole  action,  not  a  single  musket  was  fired  on  our  side  ;  the 
bayonet  was  our  sole  dependence. 

"  Having  gained  the  fort,  such  was  the  order  of  the  troops, 
and  attention  of  the  officers,  that  the  soldiers  were  prevented 
from  plundering,  although  in  the  midst  of  every  sort.  Amer- 
ican humanity  has  been  again  signally  manifested.  Self- 
preservation  strongly  dictated,  on  the  retreat,  the  putting  the 
prisoners  to  death,  and  British  cruelty  fully  justified  it ;  not- 
withstanding which,  not  a  man  was  wantonly  hurt. 

1779.]  LEE   AT   POWLe's    HOOK.  211 

"  During  the  progress  of  tlie  troops  in  tlie  woriis,  from  the 
different  reports  of  my  ofScers  I  conchide  not  more  than  fifty 
of  the  enemy  were  killed,  and  a  few  wounded.  Among  the 
killed  is  one  ofiieer,  supposed  (from  his  description)  to  be  a 
captain  in  Colonel  Buskirk's  regiment.  Our  loss  on  this  occa- 
sion is  very  trifling.  I  have  not  yet  had  a  report  from  the 
detachment  of  Yirginians  ;  but,  as  I  conclude  tlieir  loss  to  be 
proportionate  to  the  loss  of  the  other  troops,  I  can  venture  to 
pronounce  that  the  loss  of  the  whole  in  killed,  woimded,  and 
missing,  will  not  exceed  twenty.  As  soon  as  the  report  comes 
to  hand,  I  will  transmit  to  head-quarters  an  accurate  return. 
I  herewith  enclose  a  return  of  the  prisoners  taken  from  the 

"  At  every  point  of  the  enterprise  I  stood  highly  indebted 
to  Major  Clarke  for  his  zeal,  activity,  and  example.  Captains 
Handy  and  Forsyth  have  claim  to  my  particular  thanks  for  the 
support  I  experienced  from  them  on  every  occasion.  The 
Captains  Eeed,  M'Clane,  Smith,  Crump,  and  "Wilmot,  behaved 
with  the  greatest  zeal  and  intrepidity.  I  must  acknowledge 
myself  very  much  indebted  to  Major  Burnet  and  Captain  Pey- 
ton, of  the  dragoons,  for  their  counsel  and  indefatigability  in 
the  previous  preparations  for  the  attack.  The  premature 
withdrawal  of  the  boats  was  owing  to  the  non-arrival  of  my 
despatches  ;  and  though  a  most  mortifying  circumstance,  can 
be  called  nothing  more  than  unfortunate.  Lieutenant  Yan- 
derville,  who  was  to  have  commanded  one  of  the  forlorns,  but 
was  thrown  out  by  the  alteration  of  the  disposition  of  the 
battle,  conducted  himself  perfectly  soldier-like.  The  whole 
of  the  oiScers  behaved  with  the  greatest  propriety ;  and,  as 
I  said  before,  no  discrimination  can  justly  be  made,  but  what 
arose  from  opportunity. 

"  The  Lieutenants  M'Callister,  Armstrong,  Eeed,  and  Eu- 
dolph,  distinguished  themselves  remarkably.  Too  much  praise 
cannot  be  given  to  those  gentlemen  for  their  prowess  and 
example.  Captain  Bradford,  of  the  train,  who  volunteered  it 
with  me  for  the  purpose  of  taking  direction  of  the  artillery, 
deserves  my  warmest  thanks  for  his  zeal  and  activity.  I  am 
personally  indebted  to  Captain  Kudolph,  and  Dr.  L-vine  of 

212  DIAET   OF  THE   EEVOLUTION.  [1779. 

the  dragoons,  who  attended  me  during  the  expedition,  for  their 
many  services. 

"  I  beg  leave  to  present  yonr  excellency  with  the  flag  of  the 
fort  by  the  hands  of  Mr.  M'Callister,  the  gentleman  into 
whose  possession  it  fell. 

"Among  the  many  nnfortnnate  circumstances  which  crossed 
our  wishes,  none  was  more  so  than  the  accidental  absence  of 
Colonel  Buskirk,  and  the  greatest  part  of  his  regiment.  They 
had  set  out  on  an  expedition  up  the  North  Eiver  the  very  night 
of  the  attack.  A  company  of  vigilant  Hessians  had  taken 
their  place  in  the  fort,  which  rendered  the  secrecy  of  approach 
more  precarious,  and,  at  the  same  time,  diminished  the  object 
of  the  enterprise  by  a  reduction  of  the  number  of  the  gai-ri- 
son.  Major  Sutherland  fortunately  saved  himself  by  a  soldier's 
counterfeiting  his  person.  This  imposition  was  not  discovered 
until  too  late. 

"  I  intended  to  have  burnt  the  barracks  ;  but  on  finding  a 
number  of  sick  soldiers  and  women  with  young  children  in 
them,  humanity  forbade  the  execiition  of  my  intention.  The 
key  of  the  magazine  could  not  be  foimd,  nor  could  it  be  broken 
open  in  the  little  time  we  had  to  spare,  many  attempts  having 
been  made  to  that  purpose  by  the  Lieutenants  M'Callister 
and  Reed.  It  was  completely  impracticable  to  bring  off  any 
pieces  of  artillery.  I  consulted  Captain  Bradford  on  the  point, 
who  confirms  me  in  my  opinion.  The  circumstance  of  spiking 
them  being  trivial,  it  was  omitted  altogether. 

"  After  most  of  the  troops  had  retired  from  the  works,  and 
were  passed  and  passing  the  canal,  a  fire  of  musketry  com- 
menced from  a  few  stragglers,  who  had  collected  in  an  old 
work  on  the  right  of  the  main  fort.  Their  fire  being  ineffec- 
tual, and  the  object  trifling,  I  determined  not  to  break  in 
upon  the  order  of  retreat,  but  continue  passing  the  defile  in 
front.  I  cannot  conclude  this  relation  without  expressing  my 
warmest  thanks  to  Lord  Stirling  for  the  full  patronage  I  re- 
ceived from  him  in  every  stage  of  the  enterprise.  I  must  also 
return  my  thanks  to  the  cavalry  for  their  vigilant  execution  of 
the  duties  assigned  them."  ' 

'  Pennsylvania  Packet,  September  2.     General  Sir  Henry  Clinton,  in  a  letter 

1T79.]  sm  HENBY  Clinton's  lettee.  213 

Atjgtjst  24. — ^Yesterday  being  the  anniversary  of  the  birth 
of  his  most  Christian  Majesty,  LEWIS  the  XVIth,  the  vessels 
in  the  harbor  of  Philadelphia  were  decorated  with  Birthday  of 
union  nags ;  thu'teen  rounds  were  fared  by  many  trated. 
of  them,  as  also  from  the  State  artillery  at  the  coffee- 
lioiise.  Tlie  bells  were  rang,  and  in  the  evening  the  city  was 
entertained  by  a  most  brilliant  display  of  fireworks,  from  a 
stage  erected  before  the  door  of  his  Excellency  the  President 
of  the  State.  All  ranks  of  people  testified  by  their  coimte- 
nances  and  behavior  the  most  sincere  joy  in  paying  these 
marks  of  respect  to  the  birthday  of  an  illustrious  Prince,  who 
has  justly  merited  from  the  world,  and  in  particular  from  these 
States,  the  exalted  title  of  the  Peotectok  of  the  Kights  of 

August  25. — ^Yesteeday  evening,  the  Chevalier  de  la  Lu- 
zerne, accompanied  with  M.  de  Valnais,  consul  of  France, 
M.  de  Marbois,  counsellor  of  parliament,  M.  de  Ln^eme  visits 
Chavagnes,  captain  in  the  royal  navy  of  France,  harvard  coiiege. 
and  a  number  of  other  gentlemen  of  distinction,  both  French 
and  Americans,  made  a  visit  to  Harvard  College,  at  the  invi- 
to Lord  George  Gemiaine,  dated  New  York,  August  21,  1T79,  says  of  tbis  action: 
"On  the  19th  instant,  the  garrison  of  Powle's  Hook  being  reinforced,  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Buskirk  was  detached  with  part  of  the  troops  to  cut  off  some  small  parties 
who  interrupted  the  supplies  of  provision ;  a  considerable  body  of  the  rebels  availed 
themselves  of  that  opportunity  to  attempt  the  post.  At  three  in  the  morning 
they  advanced  to  the  gate  of  the  works,  and  being  mistaken  by  a  negligent  guard 
for  Lieutenant-Colonel  Buskirk's  corps  returning,  entered  without  opposition.  I 
fear  they  found  the  garrison  so  scandalously  absorbed,  in  consequence  of  their 
security,  that  they  made  themselves  masters  of  a  block-house  and  two  redoubts 
with  scarcely  any  difficulty.  The  alarm  being  now  spread.  Major  Sutherland,  the 
commandant,  threw  himself,  with  forty  Hessians,  into  a  redoubt,  by  an  incessant 
fire  from  which  he  forced  the  enemy  to  quit  the  post  without  either  damaging  any 
of  the  cannon  or  setting  fire  to  the  barracks.  In  short,  their  retreat  was  as  dis- 
graceful as  their  attempt  was  well-conducted.  They  carried  off  with  them  near 
forty  invalids,  prisoners.  A  detachment  being  sent  over  from  New  York,  Major 
Sutherland  pursued  the  enemy,  and  coming  up  with  their  rear  made  a  captain  and 
some  privates  prisoners.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Buskirk,  on  his  return,  had  a  small 
skirmish  with  the  rebels,  and  took  four  prisoners  without  any  loss  on  his  part." — 
Upcott,  v.  327. 

'  Pennsylvania  Packet,  August  24. 

214  DIAET   OF   THE   KETOLUTION.  [1779. 

tation  of  the  president  and  corporation.  Tlie  Chevalier  and 
company  having  alighted  from  their  carriages,  passed  through 
the  college  yard  between  two  lines  of  students  in  their  academ- 
ical habits,  their  heads  uncovered,  to  the  door  of  Harvard 
Hall,  where  they  were  received  by  the  j)resident,  corpora- 
tion, professors,  and  tutors,  and  conducted  to  the  library. 
Soon  after  they  were  seated,  the  president  rose,  and  in  the 
name  of  the  corporation  and  the  whole  university,  addressed 
the  Chevalier  in  the  Latin  language,  congratulating  his  safe 
arrival,  making  the  most  respectful  mention  of  our  illustrious 
ally,  his  most  Christian  Majesty;  expressing  the  warmest 
wishes  for  the  perpetuation  of  the  alliance,  and  the  completion 
of  its  important  and  happy  design,  and  for  the  prosperity  of 
religion  and  learning  throughout  the  world. 

The  Chevalier  replied  in  the  most  polite  manner,  and  in 
the  same  language,  assuring  his  audience  that  his  Avishes  had 
been  most  fortunately  crowned  by  seeing  a  country,  once  in- 
deed the  region  of  ignorance  and  barbarity,  now  the  seat  of 
-freedom,  commerce,  virtue,  and  tlie  liberal  arts ;  and  express- 
ing, at  the  same  time,  the  i;ncommon  joy  he  should  derive 
from  finding  the  turbulent  scenes  of  war,  and  the  public  nego- 
tiation in  which  he  was  engaged,  prej^aring  the  way  for  a  closer 
alliance  betAveen  the  arts  and  sciences  in  distant  nations,  to 
their  mutual  improvement,  and  the  common  benefit  of  man- 
kind. After  amusing  themselves  among  the  rich  variety  of 
books  deposited  in  the  library,  the  company  were  conducted 
into  a  large  and  elegant  philosophy  room,  Avhere  a  very  decent 
entertainment  was  provided.  After  dinner  they  viewed  the 
curiosities  of  the  museum,  and  the  philosophical  apparatus 
fabricated  by  some  of  the  best  artists  in  Europe. 

Every  countenance  indicated  pleasure,  and  every  circiim- 
stance  of  the  day  testified  the  joy  that  Avas  difl:used  through 
the  whole  university  upon  this  agreeable  occasion.' 

'  New  Hampshire  Gazette,  September  7. 


Septejibee  4. — This  morning,  the  Congress  being  informed 
that  Mr.  William  Henry  Drayton,  one  of  tlie  delegates  of  the 
State  of  Sonth  Carolina,  died  last  night,  and  that  Death  of -wiiiiam 
circnmstanees  required  that  his  remains  should  be  ^""^  DraytoD. 
interred  this  evening,  they  "Jiesolved,  That  the  Congress  would, 
in  a  body,  attend  the  funeral  this  evening  at  six  o'clock,  as 
mourners,  "(vith  a  crape  round  the  left  arm,  and  -n-ould  continue 
in  mourning  for  the  space  of  one  month."  They  further  re- 
solved that  Mr.  Laurens,  Mr.  Matthews,  and  Mr.  Harnett  be  a 
committee  to  superintend  the  funeral ;  and  that  the  Eev.  Mr. 
White,  the  attending  chaplain,  should  be  notified  to  officiate  on 
the  occasion.  Tliey  also  directed  the  committee  to  invite  the 
General  Assembly,  the  President  and  Supreme  Executive 
Council  of  Pennsylvania,  the  Minister  Plenipotentiary  of 
France,  and  other  persons  of  distinction  in  town,  to  attend 
the  fnneral. 

Accordingly,  at  six  o'clock  this  evening,  the  coi-pse  was 
carried  in  procession  to  Christ  Church — the  President,  two 
members  of  the  Executive  Council,  the  Judge  of  the  Admi- 
ralty, and  the  Attorney-General  of  Pennsylvania,  and  Briga- 
dier-General Hogan,  supported  the  pall.  Besides  the  Presi- 
dent and  members  of  Congress  as  mourners,  the  Minister  and 
Consul  of  Prance,  several  civil  and  military  officers  of  the 
United  States,  and  a  number  of  inhabitants  and  strangers  of 
distinction,  attended  the  funeral.  After  Divine  service  had 
been  performed  by  the  Eev.  Mr.  White,  rector  of  the  Episco- 
pal churches  in  Philadelphia,  and  one  of  the  chaplains  of  Con- 
gTess,  the  corpse  was  interred  in  the  adjoining  cemetery. 

216  DIAET  OF  THE  REVOLUTION.  [1779. 

Mr.  Drayton's  age  did  not  exceed  tliirty-eight  years ; — lie 
died  of  a  putrid  fever.  His  health  had  been  almost  insensibly 
impaired  by  a  sedentary  life,  and  incessant  attention  to  busi- 
ness for  near  two  years'  attendance  on  Congress,  which  his 
constitution,  though  naturally  strong,  was  unable  longer  to 
sustain.  His  family  was  always  among  the  number  of  the 
most  respectable  and  opulent  in  South  Carolina.  He  had 
taken  an  early  and  decided  part  in  the  present  contest,  and 
been  honored  from  time  to  time  by  his  country,  with  the  most 
important  and  confidential  offices.  At  the  time  of  his  death 
he  was  chief-justice  of  that  State,  and  one  of  its  delegates  to 
Congress.  His  literary  attainments,  acc[uired  by  good  talents 
and  an  excellent  education,  are  well  known  here  and  in  Eu- 
rope, where  several  of  his  political  papers  have  been  admired 
and  read  in  different  languages. 

To  speak  particularly  of  his  character  would  perhaps  be 
improper  in  a  newspaper,  which,  like  the  grave,  generally 
places  the  dead  on  a  level,  without  respect  to  the  wise  man  or 
the  fool,  the  saint  or  the  sinner.  Let  this  subject,  therefore, 
be  reserved  for  the  pen  of  some  impartial  historian,  who,  when 
he  shall  infoi'm  posterity  that  William  Henry  Drayton  was  an 
honest,  independent  patriot,  and  an  iipright,  candid  gentleman, 
will,  at  the  same  time,  communicate  facts  more  than  sufficient 
to  establish  and  support  his  title  to  that  character.' 

Septemeek  16. — ^The  expedition  of  General  Sullivan  against 
the  Indians  has  been  crowned  with  complete  success.  Forty 
sniiivan's  ^^  *^'^"'  towns  have  been  reduced  to  ashes :  one 
Ei-pedition.  pf  them  (Genesee)  contained  about  one  hundred 
and  twenty-eight  houses  ;  all  of  their  corn  destroyed,  computed 
to  amount  to  one  hundred  and  sixty  thousand  bushels,  besides 
large  quantities  of  other  articles.  Tlic  Avhole  country  of  the 
Senecas,  and  other  tribes  of  the  Six  Nations,  have  been  over- 
mn  and  destroyed,  and  they  compelled  to  fly  to  Niagara  for  se- 
curity ;  and  all  this  done  with  the  loss  of  less  than  forty  men  on 
our  part,  including  killed,  wounded,  taken,  and  those  who  died 

Pennsylvania  Packet,  September  11. 

1779.]  BEODHEAd's   EXrEDIXION.  217 

natural  deaths.  In  course  of  the  expedition,  it  became  neces- 
sary to  lessen  the  issues  of  provisions  to  half  the  usual  allow- 
ance, in  which  the  troops  acquiesced  with  the  greatest  cheer- 
fulness, being  determined  to  prosecute  the  enterprise  to  a 
complete  and  successful  issue. 

Colonel  Brodhead,  who  commanded  a  party  from  Fort 
Pitt,  has  penetrated  the  Lidian  country,  Ijang  on  the  Alle- 
ghany River,  one  hundred  and  eighty  miles,  burnt  Brodhead-s  visit 

\>     ,        ,V  -.r  -.  >,  •  to  the  Seneca 

ten  of  the  Mmgo,  Munsey,  and  beneca  towns  m  Towns, 
that  quarter,  containing  one  hundred  and  sixty -five  houses,  and 
destroyed  all  the  fields  of  corn,  computed  to  be  five  hundred 
acres,  with  the  only  loss  on  onr  side  of  three  men  slightly 
wonnded.  Forty-three  of  their  warriors  were  met  by  Lieuten- 
ant Harding  and  an  advance  party  of  twenty-two  men,  who 
attacked  the  savages,  and  routed  them,  killed  five  on  the  spot, 
and  took  all  their  canoes  and  blankets.' 

A  gentleman  who  attended  Colonel  Brodhead,  gives  the 
following  particular  account  of  the  expedition  : — "  Tlie  many 
savage  barbarities  and  horrid  depredations  committed  by  the 
Seneca  and  Munsey  nations  upon  the  western  frontiers,  had 
determined  Colonel  Brodhead,  as  the  most  effectual  way  to 
prevent  such  hostilities  in  future,  and  revenge  the  past,  to 
carry  the  war  into  their  owti  country,  and  strike  a  decisive 
blow  at  their  tovras. 

"  On  the  11th  of  August,  our  little  army,  consisting  of  only 
six  hundred  and  five  rank  and  file,  marched  from  Pittsburg 
with  one  naonth's  provision.  At  Mahoning,  fifteen  miles 
above  the  Old  Kittanning,  we  were  detained  four  days  by 
the  excessive  rains,  from  whence  (leaving  the  river,  which 
flows  in  a  thousand  manners)  we  proceeded  by  a  blind  path 
leading  to  Cuscushing,  through  a  country  almost  impassable 
by  reason  of  the  stupendous  heights  and  frightful  declivities, 
with  a  continued  range  of  craggy  hills,  overspread  with  fallen 
timber,  thorns,  and  underwood  ;  here  and  there  an  intervening 
valley,  whose  deep,  impenetrable  gloom  has  always  been  im- 
pervious to  the  piercing  rays  of  the  warmest  sun.     At  Cus- 

'  New  Hampshire  Gazette,  November  2. 

218  DIAET   OF   THE   EETOLUTIO^^  [1779 

cusliing  (wliicli  is  fifteen  miles  above  Venango)  we  crossed  tlie 
Alleghany,  and  continued  our  route  upon  its  banks.  But  here 
our  march  was  rendered  still  more  difficult  by  the  mountains, 
which  jutted  close  upon  the  river,  formmg  a  continued  naiTow 
defile,  allowing  us  only  the  breadth  of  an  Indian  path  to 
march  upon.  In  the  midst  of  these  defiles,  our  advanced 
party,  consisting  of  fifteen  white  men  and  eight  Delawares,  dis- 
covered between  thirty  and  forty  warriors  landing  from  their 
canoes,  who,  having  also  seen  part  of  our  troops,  immediately 
stripped  themselves  and  prepared  for  action.  Lieutenant 
Harding,  who  commanded  our  advance,  disposed  his  men  in 
a  semi-circular  form,  and  began  the  attach  with  such  irresisti- 
ble fury,  tomahawk  in  hand,  that  the  savages  could  not  long 
sustain  the  charge,  but  fled  with  the  utmost  horror  and  precip- 
itation, some  plunging  themselves  into  the  river,  and  others, 
favored  by  the  thickness  of  the  bushes,  made  their  escape  on 
the  main,  lea%dng  five  dead  on  the  field,  without  any  loss  on 
our  side  except  three  men  slightly  woimded.  Upon  the  first 
alarm,  supposing  it  to  be  more  serious,  the  army  was  arranged 
for  fight ;  both  officers  and  men,  enraged  at  their  former  cru- 
elties, animated  by  the  calmness,  resolution,  and  intrepidity  of 
the  commandant,  showed  the  utmost  ardor  to  engage ;  and  had 
the  action  been  general,  we  had  every  prospect  of  the  most 
ample  success  from  a  brave  commander  at  the  head  of  brave 
men.  Continuing  our  march,  we  arrived  the  same  day  at 
Buchan,  where,  leaving  our  baggage,  stores,  &c.,  under  a 
guard,  we  proceeded  to  their  towns  with  the  utmost  despatch, 
which  we  found  at  the  distance  of  about  twenty  miles  further, 
with  extensive  cornfields  on  both  sides  of  the  river,  and  de- 
serted by  the  inhabitants  on  our  approach.  Eight  towns  we 
set  in  flames,  and  committed  their  pagod  and  war  posts  to  the 
river.  The  corn,  amounting  in  the  whole  to  near  six  hundred 
acres,  was  our  next  object,  which  in  three  days  we  cut  down 
and  piled  into  heaps,  without  the  least  interruption  from  the 

"  Upon  our  return,  we  several  times  crossed  a  creek  about 
ten  miles  above  Venango,  remarkable  for  an  oily  liquid  which 
oozes  from  the  sides  and  bottom  of  the  channel  and  the  adjacent 


sjirings,  much  resembling  Britisli  oil,  and  if  applied  to  woollen 
cloth,  burns  it  in  an  instant. 

"  After  burning  the  old  towns  of  Conauwago  and  Mahus- 
quachinkockeu,  we  arrived  at  Pittsburg,  the  fourteenth  instant, 
with  the  scalps  we  had  taken,  and  three  thousand  dollars'  worth 
of  plunder ;  having,  in  the  course  of  thirty-three  days,  com- 
pleted a  march  of  near  four  hundred  miles,  through  a  country 
the  Indians  had  hitherto  thought  impenetrable  by  us,  and  con- 
sidered as  a  sufficient  barrier  for  the  security  of  their  towns ; 
and,  indeed,  nothing  but  the  absolute  necessity  of  such  a  meas- 
ure, and  a  noble  spirit  of  enterprise,  could  be  a  sufficient  in- 
ducement to  undertake  so  arduous  a  task,  and  encounter  those 
difficulties  and  obstacles  which  require  the  most  consummate 
fortitude  to  surmount." ' 

30. — We  hear  that  the  committee  at  Philadel- 
phia is  dissolved,  and  that  the  utmost  confusion  now  reigns  in 
that  city;  that  their  currency  is  got  as  low  as  coBfnsionat 
twenty-eight  for  one ;  that  General  Lee  has  had  r^i'^'ieiphia. 
a  duel  with  Mr.  Clarkson,  aide-de-camp  to  General  Arnold,  in 
whicli  the  former  was  wounded  in  the  side  slightly  ;  that  Gen- 
eral Washington  remains  at  "West  Point,  Lord  Stirling  in  the 
Clove  ;  that  about  sixty  of  Baylor's  light  horse  moved  down 
to  Monmouth  a  few  days  ago  ;  that  Major  Hays  commands  at 
Elizabethtown  at  present ;  that  the  news  of  the  Spaniards  in- 
terfering in  the  present  war  is  but  very  coolly  received  in  most 
parts  of  the  country,  the  sensible  part  of  the  people  being  of 
opinion  that  some  European  powers  will  join  Great  Britain, 
and  in  the  end  that  America  will  fall  a  prey  to  one  of  the 
powers  at  war.'' 

OoTOBEE  7. — ^Testeedat  moming,  about  one  o'clock,  made 
their  escape  from  the  Good  Hope  prison-ship,  lying  in  the 
Iforth  Kiver  at  New  York,  nine  captains  and  two  Prince's  Escape 
privates.    Among  the  number  was  Captain  James     Prison  sMp. 
Prince,  who  had  been  confined  four  months,  and  having  no 

'  Extract  of  a  letter  from  Pittsburg,  September  16,  in  the  New  York  Gazette, 
November  1.  -  New  York  Gazette,  October  4. 

220  DIAET   OF   THE  EETOLUTION.  [1T79. 

prospect  of  being  excLauged,  concerted  a  plan  in  conjunction 
with  the  other  gentlemen,  to  make  their  escape,  which  they 
effected  in  the  following  manner :  They  confined  the  mate, 
disarmed  the  sentinels,  and  hoisted  ont  the  boat  which  was  on 
deck.  They  bronght  off  nine  stand  of  arms,  one  pair  of  pis- 
tols, and  a  sufficient  quantity  of  ammunition,  being  determined 
not  to  be  taken  alive.  Tliey  had  scarcely  got  clear  of  the  ship 
before  the  alarm  was  given,  when  they  were  fired  on  by  three 
dififerent  ships,  but  fortunately  no  person  was  hurt.  Caj^tain 
Prince  speaks  in  the  highest  terms  of  Captain  Charles  Nelson, 
who  commanded  the  prison-ship,  using  tlie  prisoners  with  a 
great  deal  of  humanity,  and  in  particular  himself.' 

October  21. — ^Tms  day,  a  Mr.  Van  Mater  was  knocked  oflT 
his  horse  on  the  road  near  Longstreet's  mill,  in  Monmouth 
Lewis  Fenton  ^o^nty,  Ncw  Jersey,  by  LcAvis  Fenton  and  one 
Killed.  Debow,  by  whom  he  was  stabbed  in  the  arms  and 
otherwise  much  abused,  besides  being  robbed  of  his  saddle. 
In  the  mean  time,  another  person  coming  up,  drew  the  atten- 
tion of  the  robbers,  and  gave  Yan  Mater  an  opportunity  to 
make  his  escape.  He  went  directly  and  informed  a  sergeant's 
guard  of  Major  Lee's  light  dragoons,  who  were  in  the  neigh- 
borhood, of  what  had  happened.  The  sergeant  immediately 
impressed  a  wagon  and  horses,  and  ordered  three  of  his  men  to 
secrete  themselves  in  it  under  some  hay.  Having  changed  liis 
clothes  and  procured  a  guide,  he  made  haste,  thus  equipped,  to 
the  place  where  Fenton  lay.  On  the  appi-oach  of  the  wagon, 
Fenton  (his  companion  being  gone)  rushed  out  to  plunder  it. 
Upon  demanding  what  they  had  in  it,  he  was  answered,  "  a 
little  wine  and  spirits."  Tliese  articles  he  said  he  wanted ; 
and  while  advancing  towards  the  Avagon  to  take  possession  of 
them,  one  of  the  soldiers,  being  previously  informed  who  he 
was,  shot  him  through  the  head,  which  killed  liim  instantly  on 
the  spot.  Thus  did  tliis  villain  end  his  days,  which  it  is  hoped 
will  at  least  be  a  warning  to  others,  if  not,  induce  them  to 
throw  themselves  on  the  mercy  of  their  injured  country.'' 

'  New  Hampshire  Gazette,  November  2.  "  Same. 

1779.]  THE   SIEGE   OF   SAVANNAH.  221 

Ie  Ave  may  venture  to  conjecture  from  many  expressions 
dropped  from  the  different  flags  of  truce  arrived  in  New  York 
lately,  it  is  greatly  to  be  believed  that  the  Con- 
gress has  made  a  solemn  request  to  the  Court  of 
France  to  find  a  polite  pretext  of  inviting  Mr.  "Washington 
to  the  Court  of  Versailles,  by  way  of  getting  rid  of  a  man 
whom  they  no  longer  wish  should  control  their  rebellious 

October  22. — On  the  first  day  of  last  month  (September) 
Count  D'Estaing  arrived  off  the  coast  of  Georgia,  in  order  to 
co-operate  with  the  Americans  under  the  com-  British  Account 
mand  of  General  Lincoln,  in  the  reduction  of  savannah. 
Savannah.  Upon  the  fifteenth,  says  a  correspondent,  the 
Count  summoned  the  town  to  surrender,  in  the  true  style  of  a 
Frenchman."  A  proper  answer  was  returned.  In  the  mean 
time  Moncrieffe  was  indefatigable  in  putting  the  place  in  a 
proper  state  of  defence.  A  few  days  afterwards,  the  French 
and  rebels  began  to  throw  up  works  upon  the  hill  to  the  left 
of  Tatnall's,  within  about  three  or  four  hundred  yards  of  the 
British  lines,  when  three  companies  of  light  infantry  were  sent 
out  in  hopes  of  drawing  on  a  general  action  ;  biit  were  obliged 
to  retire,  being  opposed  by  ten  thnes  their  number,  after  fight- 
ing like  lions  in  the  sight  of  the  whole  army.  The  British  loss 
was  Lieutenant  M'Pherson  killed,  and  about  fifteen  privates 
killed  and  wounded  ;  and  it  is  beyond  doubt  that  the  French 
had  upwards  of  fifty  killed,  and  a  considerable  number  wound- 
ed. Major  Graham  commanded  in  this  little  afiair.  After 
this,  the  British  never  attempted  to  interrupt  the  Monsieurs, 
who  could  be  heard  working  lilce  devils  every  night. 

About  one  o'clock  in  the  morning  of  the  third  instant,  they 
began  a  most  dreadful  cannonade  and  bombardment,  which 

'  Rivington's  Gazette,  October  23. 

''  The  Count  summoned  General  Prevost  to  surrender  to  the  arms  of  the  King 
of  France.  General  Lincoln  remonstrated  with  him  on  his  summons  to  surrender 
to  the  arms  of  France  07i!i/,  while  the  Americans  were  acting  in  conjunction  -with 
him.  The  matter,  however,  was  soon  settled,  and  the  mode  of  all  future  nego- 
tiations amicably  adjusted. — Gordon,  iii.  31. 

222  DIAET   OF   THE   EEVOLtJTION-.  [1779. 

continued  witli  very  little  intermission  until  tlie  ninth,  when 
the  town  was  very  much  shattered,  and  two  houses  burnt  by 
carcases.  Notwithstanding  there  were  thirty  pieces  of  heavy 
cannon  and  ten  mortars  incessantly  playing  upon  us,  it  is 
astonishing  the  little  loss  we  sustained  ;  the  only  officer  killed 
was  our  worthy  friend  Captain  Simpson,  of  Major  "Wright's 
corps.  About  daybreak  on  the  ninth,  the  united  forces  of 
France  and  America,  consisting  of  upwards  of  four  thousand 
French,  and  the  Lord  knows  how  many  rebels,  attempted  to 
storm  our  lines.  The  piineipal  attack  was  made  in  three  col- 
unms,  who  intended  to  unite  and  attack  the  works  at  the 
redoubt  upon  the  Ebenezer  road.  Tlie  count,  in  person,  be- 
gan the  attack  with  great  vigor,  but  was  soon  thrown  into 
confusion  by  the  well-pointed  fire  from  our  batteries  and  re- 
doubts. A  choice  body  of  grenadiers  came  on  with  such 
spirit  to  attack  the  old  redoubt  upon  the  Ebenezer  road,  that 
if  Tawse,  with  a  number  of  his  men,  had  not  thrown  himself 
in  very  opportunely,  it  must  have  been  carried  ;  upwards  of 
sixty  men  were  lying  dead  in  the  ditch  after  the  action.  Poor 
Tawse  fell  bravely  fighting  for  his  country.  The  rebels  could 
not  be  brought  to  the  charge,  and  in  their  confusion  are  said 
to  have  fired  upon  their  allies,  and  killed  upwards  of  fifty  of 
them.  It  is  almost  incredible  the  trifling  loss  we  sustained ; 
the  only  officer  killed  was  poor  Tawse,  and  there  were  not 
twenty  privates  killed  and  wounded.  Tlie  enemy's  loss  was 
astonishing.  I  never  saw  such  a  dreadful  scene,  as  several 
hundreds  lay  dead  in  a  space  of  a  few  yards,  and  the  cries 
of  many  hundreds  woTinded  was  still  more  distressing  to  a 
feeling  mind.  The  exact  loss  of  the  enemy  cannot  be  ascer- 
tained ;  but  Mr.  Eobert  Baillie,  who  was  a  prisoner  with  the 
French  during  the  whole  of  the  siege,  says  they  own  a  loss  of 
near  fifteen  hiindred.  The  coimt,  in  the  action  of  the  ninth, 
was  wounded  in  the  arm  and  thigh,  and  Pulaski  very  danger- 
ously by  a  grape-shot  in  the  groin.  Two  days  ago  the  last  of 
the  French  troops  embarked  ;  the  rebels  have  been  gone  some 
time,  and  we  are  now  in  as  much  tranquillity  as  we  have  been 
for  any  time  these  six  months  past.  Mutual  animosity  and 
reviling  have  arisen  to  such  a  height  between  the  French  and 

1779.]  THE   SIEGE   OP   SAVANNAH.  223 

rebels  since  they  "w^ere  defeated,  that  tliey  were  almost  ready 
to  cut  one  another's  throats.' 

The  chief-justice  of  Georgia,  in  a  letter  to  his  wife,  dated 
November  ninth,  gives  the  following  particular  account  of  the 
siege  of  Savannah  : — "  Soon  after  my  arrival,  I  ,j,^^  ^^^^^  ^^ 
made  application  to  the  barrack-master  to  be  pro-  Saraunah. 
vided  with  apartments  ;  but  Savannah  was  so  full  that  it  was 
with  difficulty  I  got  two  rooms  in  a  house  in  which  the  town 
adjutant  and  his  wife  were  quartered ;  and  those  worthy 
people  showed  me  great  civility,  doing  every  thing  in  their 
power  to  make  my  life  comfortable.  After  some  time  my 
health  was  so  nixich  impaired  with  living  in  town,  that  I  pro- 
posed going  to  my  house  in  the  country,  Avhieh  is  on  the  Salts. 
"With  the  assistance  of  friends  and  a  good  deal  of  trouble,  I  at 
last  moved  my  baggage  and  some  provisions  to  the  country, 
where  I  soon  grew  better ;  but  I  had  not  been  there  many 
days,  and  had  scarcely  completed  the  removal  of  my  baggage, 
when  (on  the  third  of  September)  the  Count  D'Estaing,  with 
twenty-two  sail  of  the  line,  and  fourteen  frigates,  and  a  num- 
ber of  transports,  appeared  on  the  coast,  and  a  descent  being 
preconcerted  with  the  rebels  in  South  Carolina,  the  latter  had 
sent  parties  within  ten  miles  of  Savannah,  and  taken  several 
prisoners,  negroes,  and  horses.  I  now  moved  into  town,  and 
ordered  my  negroes  to  bring  in  my  baggage;  but  before 
that  was  completed,  the  French  landed  on  the  twelfth  of  Sep- 
tember, and  came  into  my  neighborhood,  by  which  means  I 
lost  the  wine,  provisions,  furniture,  some  books,  and  other  arti- 
cles- that  were  left  behind.  Several  of  my  negroes  were  also 
left  at  the  plantation,  and  Fanny,  that  was  just  delivered,  ran 
into  the  woods  to  avoid  being  taken.  The  house  in  which  I 
was  quartered,  was  that  in  which  Mrs.  Lloyd  formerly  lived ; 
and  under  the  house  there  was  a  cellar,  which  a  merchant 
desired  the  town  adjutant  and  myself  would  permit  him  to 
apply  to  the  barrack-master  for  the  use  of,  and  we  accordingly 
consented  to  it.     Tliis  merchant  lent  his  cellar  to  two  others, 

'  Extract  of  a  letter  from  Savannah,  in  Rivington's  Gazette,  November  20. 

22i  DIARY   OF   THE   EEVOLUTION.  [1779. 

who,  M'ithout  the  knowledge  of  the  town  adjutant  or  myself, 
inhumanly  put  twenty-five  puncheons  of  rum  into  the  cellar, 
after  the  town  had  been  invested,  and  Count  D'Estaing  had 
demanded  the  surrender  thereof  to  the  arms  of  France.  The 
French  and  Americans  had  invested  the  town,  and  the  French 
had  intrenched  themselves  up  to  the  chin,  about  two  hundred 
yards  from  our  lines,  some  time  before  their  artillery  and  am- 
munition came  up  from  their  ships  ;  and  as  a  slight  cannonade 
had  passed  over,  many  began  to  flatter  themselves  that  the 
enemy  would  go  away  without  any  furtlier  effects.  But  in 
this  they  found  themselves  much  mistaken ;  for  at  midnight 
of  the  third  of  October,  when  all  the  women  and  children 
were  asleep,  the  French  opened  a  battery  of  nine  mortars,  and 
kept  up  a  very  heavy  bombardment  for  an  hour  and  a  half, 
in  which  time  those  who  counted  the  shells  found  that  they 
fired  one  hundred,  which  were  chiefly  directed  to  the  town.  I 
heai-d  one  of  the  shells  whistle  over  my  quarters,  and  present- 
ly afterwards  I  got  up  and  dressed  myself;  and  as  our  neigh- 
borhood seemed  to  be  in  the  line  of  fire,  I  went  out  with  a 
view  to  go  to  the  eastward,  oi;t  of  the  way ;  but  a  shell  that 
seemed  to  be  falling  near  me,  rather  puzzled  me  how  to  keep 
clear  of  it,  and  I  returned  to  the  house  not  a  little  alarmed. 
I  then  proceeded  to  the  westward,  and  then  the  shells  seemed 
to  fall  all  around  ;  there  I  soon  joined  a  number  of  gentlemen 
who  had  left  their  houses  on  account  of  the  bombardment,  and 
like  me,  were  retiring  from  the  line  of  fire  to  Yammacraw ; 
here  we  stayed  till  between  one  and  two  in  the  morning,  when 
the  bombardment  ceased.  Fortunately  for  us,  there  was  no 
cannonade  at  the  same  time,  and  in  the  night  shells  are  so  dis- 
cernible that  they  are  more  easily  avoided  than  in  the  day. 
Being  indisposed,  I  had  not  slept  a  wink  from  my  going  to 
bed  at  nine  till  the  bombardment  began  at  twelve ;  and  before 
I  returned  again,  it  was  near  three  in  the  morning,  when 
from  fatigue  I  soon  fell  asleep ;  but  at  five  I  was  aM^akened 
with  a  very  heavy  cannonade  from  a  French  frigate  to  the 
north  of  the  to^m,  and  with  a  bombardment  and  cannonade 
from  the  French  lines  in  the  south,  which  soon  hurried  me  out 
of  bed ;  and  before  I  could  get  my  clothes  on,  an  cigliteen- 


>.,,,,#,/V%!'MimTA»         =^.,f''' 


oniw SIEGE  or 

wrtilt^l('J(>llltAtt^^ck<)^'lh(^  h'tvndniAnioviciins 


22-i  DIAET   OF  THE   EEVOLUTION.  [1779. 

who,  without  the  knowledge  of  the  town  adjutant  or  myself, 
inhumanly  put  twenty -live  puncheons  of  rum  into  the  cellar, 
after  the  town  had  been  invested,  and  Count  D'Estaing  had 
demanded  the  surrender  thereof  to  the  arms  of  France.  The 
French  and  Americans  had  invested  the  town,  and  the  French 
had  intrenched  themselves  up  to  the  chin,  about  two  hundred 
yards  from  our  lines,  some  time  before  their  artillery  and  am- 
munition came  up  from  their  ships  ;  and  as  a  slight  cannonade 
had  passed  over,  many  began  to  flatter  themselves  that  the 
enemy  would  go  away  withoiit  any  further  effects.  But  in 
this  they  found  themselves  much  mistaken ;  for  at  midniglit 
of  the  third  of  October,  when  all  the  women  and  children 
were  asleep,  the  French  opened  a  battery  of  nine  mortars,  and 
kept  up  a  very  heavy  bombardment  for  an  hour  and  a  half, 
in  which  time  those  who  counted  the  shells  found  that  they 
fired  one  hundred,  which  were  chiefly  directed  to  the  town.  I 
heard  one  of  the  shells  whistle  over  my  quarters,  and  present- 
ly afterwards  I  got  up  and  dressed  myself;  and  as  our  neigh- 
borhood seemed  to  be  in  the  line  of  fire,  I  went  out  with  a 
view  to  go  to  the  eastward,  out  of  the  way ;  but  a  shell  that 
seemed  to  be  falling  near  me,  rather  puzzled  me  how  to  keep 
clear  of  it,  and  I  returned  to  the  hoiise  not  a  little  alarmed. 
I  then  proceeded  to  the  westward,  and  then  the  shells  seemed 
to  fall  all  around  ;  there  I  soon  joined  a  number  of  gentlemen 
who  had  left  their  houses  on  account  of  the  bombardment,  and 
like  me,  were  retiring  from  the  line  of  fire  to  Yammacraw ; 
here  we  stayed  till  between  one  and  two  in  the  morning,  when 
the  bombardment  ceased.  Fortunately  for  us,  there  was  no 
cannonade  at  the  same  time,  and  in  the  night  shells  are  so  dis- 
cernible that  they  are  more  easily  avoided  than  in  the  day. 
Being  indisposed,  I  had  not  slept  a  wink  from  my  going  to 
bed  at  nine  till  the  bombardment  began  at  twelve ;  and  before 
I  returned  again,  it  was  near  three  in  the  morning,  when 
from  fatigue  I  soon  fell  asleep ;  but  at  five  I  was  awakened 
with  a  very  heavy  cannonade  from  a  French  frigate  to  tlie 
north  of  the  town,  and  with  a  bombardment  and  cannonade 
from  the  French  lines  in  the  south,  which  soon  hurried  me  out 
of  bed ;  and  before  I  could  get  my  clothes  on,  an  eighteen- 

1779.]  THE   SIEGE   OF   SAVANNAH.  226 

pounder  entered  the  house,  stuck  in  the  middle  partition,  and 
drove  the  plastering  all  about.  "We  who  were  in  the  house 
now  found  ourselves  in  a  cross  fire ;  and  notwithstanding  the 
rum  in  the  cellar,  we  thought  it  less  dangerous  to  descend 
there  than  to  continue  in  the  house,  as  the  fall  of  a  shell 
into  the  cellar  was  not  so  probable  as  the  being  killed  in  the 
house  with  a  cannon  ball ;  for  the  cellar  being  under  ground, 
a  shot  in  its  usual  direction  would  not  reach  us.  Tlie  cellar 
was  so  full  of  rum  and  provisions,  that  Mrs.  Cooper,  the  ne- 
groes, and  myself,  could  hardlj  creep  in ;  and  after  we  had 
descended  into  it,  some  shot  struck  the  house,  and  one  passed 
through  the  kitchen,  from  which  the  negroes  had  then  lately 
come  down ;  and  had  they  not  luckily  moved  away,  it  is  prob- 
able that  several  of  them  would  have  been  killed.  Whilst 
we  were  in  the  cellar,  two  shells  burst  not  far  from  the  door, 
and  many  others  fell  in  the  neighborhood  all  around  us.  In 
this  situation  a  number  of  us  continued  in  a  damp  cellar, 
until  the  cannonade  and  bombardment  almost  ceased,  for  the 
French  to  cool  their  artillery ;  and  then  we  ascended  to  break- 
fast. As  the  cannonade  and  bombardment  were  chiefly  direct- 
ed to  the  town,  no  mischief  was  done  in  the  lines  that  I  heard 
of;  but  a  Mr.  Pollard,  deputy  barrack-master,  was  killed  by  a 
shell  in  that  house  on  the  bay  which  was  formerly  inhabited 
by  Mr.  Moss ;  and  the  daughter  of  one  Thomson  was  almost 
shot  in  two  by  a  cannon  ball,  at  the  house  next  to  where  Mr. 
Elliott  lived.  I  am  told  there  were  other  lives  lost,  but  I  have 
not  heard  the  particulars.  Fortunately  for  us,  after  breakfast 
the  town  adjutant's  wife  and  myself  went  over  to  Captain 
Knowles,  who  is  agent  for  the  transports,  and  to  whose  cellar 
Mr.  Prevost,  the  general's  lady,  and  several  gentlemen  and 
ladies  had  retired  for  security.  This  house  was  directly  oppo- 
site to  my  quarters,  and  about  thirty  or  forty  feet  distant. 
Tlie  general's  lady  and  Captain  Knowles  invited  us  to  stay 
there,  which  invitation  we  accepted,  and  we  continued  in  the 
cellar,  with  several  others,  as  agreeably  as  the  situation  of 
matters  would  admit  of,  until  three  o'clock  on  Tuesday  morn- 
ing. During  the  whole  of  this  time  the  French  kept  up  a 
brisk  cannonade  and  bombardment,  the  shot  frequently  struck 
Vol  II.— 15 

226  DIAKY    OF  THE   EETOLTJTION.  [1779. 

near  us,  and  the  shells  fell  on  each  side  of  ns  with  so  much 
violence,  that  in  their  fall  they  shook  the  ground,  and  many 
of  them  burst  with  a  great  explosion.  On  Monday  night  we 
heard  a  shot  strike  my  quarters,  and  in  the  morning  we  foimd 
an  eighteen-pounder  had  entered  the  house  and  fallen  near  the 
head  of  my  negro,  Dick,  who  providentially  received  no  hurt. 
Tlie  guns  seemed  to  approach  on  each  side,  and  about  three 
o'clock  on  AVednesday  morning  a  shell  whistled  close  by  Cap- 
tain Knowles'  house.  Soon  afterwards  another  came  nearer, 
and  seemed  to  strike  my  quarters,  and  I  thought  I  heard  the 
cry  of  people  in  distress.  "We  all  jumped  up,  and  before  I 
could  dress  myself,  my  charters  were  so  much  in  flames  that  I 
could  not  venture  further  than  the  door,  for  fear  of  an  explo- 
sion from  tlie  rum.  George  and  Jemmy  were  over  with  me  in 
Captain  Knowles'  cellar;  the  others  were  at  my  quarters. 
George  ran  over  before  me,  and  fortunately  for  me  drew  out 
of  the  flames  the  two  black  trunks  with  some  of  my  apparel, 
&c.,  that  I  brought  oiit  with  me,  and  then  removed  them  over 
to  Captain  Knowles'  passage,  which  was  all  the  property  I 
saved,  except  a  little  black  trunk  that  was  put  into  one  of  the 
large  ones  by  accident ;  for  I  momently  expected  that  the  ex- 
plosion of  the  rum  would  blow  up  the  house,  and  kill  every 
one  near  it ;  and  as  soon  as  tlie  French  observed  the  flames, 
they  kept  up  a  very  heavy  cannonade  and  bombardment,  and 
pointed  their  fire  to  that  object  to  prevent  any  person  ap- 
proaching to  extinguish  the  flames.  I  retired  to  Captain 
Knowles',  where,  in  vain,  I  called  out  for  some  negroes  to 
help  me  to  save  my  two  trunks,  for  I  expected  that  Captain 
Knowles'  house,  and  the  commodore's  next  to  it,  Avoiild  be  de- 
stroyed. No  negro  came  to  my  assistance,  and  I  was  informed 
that  mine,  who  slept  at  the  quarters,  being  frightened  at  the 
shell,  liad  ran  away ;  but  unfortunately  that  information  was 
not  true.  Being  in  the  direction  of  the  French  fire,  I  was 
every  moment  in  danger  of  being  smashed  to  2:)ieces  with  a 
shell,  or  shot  in  two  with  a  cannon  ball ;  and  as  each  of  the 
trunks  were  too  large  for  me  to  carry  oft',  I  thought  it  safest  to 
abandon  them,  and  retire  to  a  place  of  safety,  than  to  run  tlie 
risk  of  losing  my  life  as  well  as  my  property.     I  had  some 

1779.]  THE   SIEGE   OF   SAVAI^NAH.  227 

distance  to  go  before  I  got  out  of  tlie  lino  of  fire,  and  I  did 
not  know  the  way  under  Savannali  Bluff,  where  I  should  have 
been  safe  from  cannon  balls ;  and,  therefore,  whenever  I  came 
to  the  opening  of  a  street,  I  watched  the  flashes  of  the  mortars 
and  guns,  and  pushed  on  until  I  came  imder  cover  of  a  house ; 
and  when  I  got  to  the  common,  and  heard  the  whistling  of  a 
shot  or  shell,  I  fell  on  my  face.  But  the  stopping  under  cover 
of  a  house  was  no  security,  for  the  shot  went  through  many 
houses ;  and  Tliomson's  daughter  was  killed  at  the  side  opposite 
to  that  where  the  shot  entered.  At  last  I  reached  an  encamp- 
ment made  by  Governor  "Wright's  negroes  on  the  common 
between  Savannah  and  Tammacraw,  and  it  being  dark  I 
fell  down  into  a  trench  which  they  had  dug.  I  proposed  to 
stop  at  the  house  of  a  Mr.  Tully ;  but  a  soldier,  who  was  on 
guard  at  the  Hessian  Hospital  at  Yammacraw,  advised  me  to 
go  further  from  the  line  of  fire,  and  conducted  me  to  the 
house  of  Mr.  Moses  Nones,  at  the  west  end  of  Yammacraw, 
which  was  quite  out  of  the  direction  of  the  enemy's  batteries. 
Tliis  place  was  crowded,  both  inside  and  out,  with  a  number 
of  whites  and  negroes,  who  had  ficd  from  the  town.  Women 
and  children  were  constantly  fiocking  there,  melting  into  tears, 
and  lamenting  their  unhappy  fate,  and  the  destruction  of  their 
houses  and  property.  Several  of  them  I  helped  out  of  a  chair, 
which  was  immediately  despatched  to  fetch  more  from  the  dan- 
ger they  were  threatened  with.  Tlie  appearance  of  the  town 
afi"orded  a  melancholy  prospect,  for  there  was  hardly  a  house 
which  had  not  been  shot  through,  and  some  of  them  were 
almost  destroyed.  Ambrose,  Wright,  and  Stute's,  in  which 
we  lived,  had  upwards  of  fifty  shot  that  went  through  each 
of  them,  as  I  am  informed ;  and  old  Mr.  Habersham's  house, 
in  Avhich  Major  Prevost  lived,  was  almost  destroyed  with  shot 
and  shells.  In  the  streets,  and  on  the  common,  there  was  a 
number  of  large  holes  made  in  the  ground  by  the  shells,  so 
that  it  was  not  without  some  difficulty  the  chair  got  on ;  and 
in  the  church,  and  Mr.  Jones'  house,  I  observed  that  the  shells 
came  in  at  the  roof,  and  went  through  to  the  ground ;  and  a 
number  of  other  houses  sufli'ered  by  shells.  Tlie  troops  in  the 
lines  were  much  safer  from  the  bombardment  than  the  people 


in  town.  Tliose  who  pitched  marquees  on  the  common  to  the 
sonth-west  of  the  town,  were  quite  out  of  the  line  of  fire ;  and 
some  of  the  militia  officers'  ladies,  and  several  other  women, 
repaired  to  the  lines  for  safety,  and  not  one  of  them  were  hurt. 
Many  of  the  inhabitants  went  on  board  the  ships  in  the  river, 
and  others  retired  to  Hutchinson's  island,  opposite  the  town, 
which  you  may  remember  is  a  rice  swamp,  and  very  unwhole- 
some, j^articularly  in  the  fall.  I  twice  took  a  stroll  to  that  isl- 
and, and  in  Mr.  M'Gillvray's  rice  barn  the  ladies  told  me 
there  were  fifty  men,  women,  and  children.  Other  places 
seemed  to  be  equally  crowded ;  but  neither  the  ships  nor  isl- 
and were  places  of  security,  for  many  shells  fell  into  the 
river,  and  some  into  the  shipping,  and  it  required  only  a 
greater  elevation  of  the  French  mortars  and  more  powder,  to 
throw  the  shells  among  them  on  the  island.  One  of  their  brass 
cannon  threw  a  great  number  of  balls  into  a  point  of  Hutch- 
inson's island  that  lay  next  the  town  ;  besides,  a  descent  on 
the  island  was  expected  from  the  French  frigate  and  galleys 
in  the  back  river  ;  and  at  one  time,  some  gun-boats  from  the 
French  ships  landed  there,  but  a  party  of  armed  negroes  drove 
them  off.  In  short,  the  siti:ation  of  Savannah  was  at  one  time 
deplorable.  A  small  garrison  in  an  extensive  country  was 
surrounded  on  the  land  by  a  powerful  enemy,  and  its  seacoast 
blocked  up  by  one  of  the  strongest  fleets  that  ever  visited 
America.  Tliere  was  not  a  single  spot  where  the  women  and 
children  could  be  put  in  safety ;  and  the  numerous  desertions 
daily  weakened  that  force  which  was  at  first  inadequate  to 
man  such  extensive  lines  ;  but  the  situation  of  the  ground 
would  not  permit  the  able  engineer  to  narrow  them.  How- 
ever, with  the  assistance  of  God,  British  valor  surmounted 
every  difficulty,  and  the  siege  has  rendered  famous  a  sickly 
hole,  which  was  in  woods,  and  had  only  one  white  man  in  it 
at  the  time  General  Oglethorpe  landed.  But  insignificant  as 
some  may  think  it,  this  place  is  the  key  of  the  southern  prov- 
inces, and  the  Gibraltar  of  the  Gulf  passage  ;  for  to  the  south 
of  this  province  there  is  not  a  port  on  the  continent  that  will 
receive  a  sloop  of  war.  Most  of  the  houses  in  the  town  had 
banks  of  earth  thrown  up,  and  those  that  had  cellars  secured 

1779.]  SIEGE   OF   SAVANNAH.  229 

them  as  well  as  circumstances  would  admit  of.  Captain 
Ejiowles,  for  the  security  of  the  ladies  in  his  cellar,  had  in 
some  places  thrown  up  a  bank  of  sand  on  the  outside,  and  in 
other  places  put  large  casks  filled  with  sand ;  he  also  propped 
up  the  floor  over  the  cellar,  and  put  such  a  quantity  of  sand 
on  it  that  it  was  homb-proof.  This  worthy  man  and  able 
officer,  had  been  taken  prisoner  by  the  rebels  in  Carolina,  and 
was  on  parole  unexchanged ;  he  therefore  could  not  go  into 
the  batteries,  which  was  a  loss  to  his  Majesty's  service.  To 
add  to  our  misfortunes,  we  heard  during  the  siege  that  the 
Experiment,  Sii-  James  "Wallace  commander,  was  taken  on 
the  coast  by  the  French  fleet.  She  had  money  on  board  to 
pay  the  troops,  a  brigadier-general  for  this  place,  and  several 
other  officers.  On  the  seventh  and  eighth  of  October,  at  night, 
the  French  fired  carcases  on  the  town  to  set  it  on  fire ;  but 
by  the  vigilance  of  those  who  were  appointed  by  the  general 
to  act  as  firemen,  only  one  house  was  burnt.  The  enemy  find- 
ing that  then-  artillery  did  not  naake  such  an  impression  on  the 
town  as  to  bring  about  a  capitiilation,  at  half-past  four  on  the 
morning  of  Saturday  the  nineteenth  of  October,  marched  up  in 
columns,  and  attacked  two  redoubts  on  the  west;  but  the 
principal  attack  was  made  on  a  redoubt  built  by  the  sprmg  near 
the  edge  of  the  road  that  goes  out  to  Mr.  M'Gillvi'ay's  plan- 
tation. Tlie  enemy  showed  themselves  in  parties  all  round  the 
lines,  and  were,  by  the  blessing  of  God,  repulsed  everywhere. 
But  the  principal  slaughter  was  at  the  redoubt  near  the  spring, 
where  their  loss  was  very  great.  On  the  side  of  the  British 
troops  only  one  captain  and  seven  men  were  killed.  How- 
ever, I  do  not  mean  to  be  particular  on  this  head,  as  his  excel- 
lency the  general's  account  will  be  exact  and  authentic.  I 
shall  only  observe,  that  some  who  were  taken  prisoners  by  the 
French,  and  afterwards  exchanged,  said  that  the  French  ac- 
knowledged that  they  embarked  twenty-five  hundred  men  less 
than  they  landed.  Even  the  people  at  Charleston  admit  that 
twelve  hundred  French  and  rebels  fell  on  the  ninth.  Amongst 
the  slain  were  Charles  Price,  formerly  prothonotary,  who  was 
killed  in  the  governor's  plantation,  nearly  opposite  his  own 
house  ;  young  Baillie  and  John  Jones,  who  formerly  lived  out 

230  DI.VJKY   OF  TIIB   EEVOLUTION.  [17Y9. 

at  Sunbuiy,  and  some  others  from  Carolina  and  Georgia, 
whom  you  did  not  know.  Tlie  French  behaved  with  great 
bravery,  and  several  of  them  got  on  the  top  of  the  redoubt ; 
bnt  they  all  accuse  the  rebels  of  backwardness,  and  the  French 
officers  mentioned  them  in  the  most  contemptible  manner  to  the 
British  officers  that  went  out  with  flags.  Tlie  affair  of  the 
ninth  made  such  an  impression  on  the  enemy,  that  their  fire 
was  afterwards  very  slack,  and  they  were  chiefly  employed  in 
removing  their  camion  and  stores.  On  the  nineteenth  of  Octo- 
ber, the  French  quitted  their  lines,  on  the  twenty-first  of  the 
same  month  they  embarked,  and  two  or  three  days  ago  the  last 
of  their  ships  quitted  this  port.  You  will  naturally  wish  to 
knoAV  Avhat  the  amount  of  the  forces  were  that  acted  against 
us.  I  have  it  from  good  authority  that  about  forty-flve  hun- 
dred men  landed  from  the  French  ships ;  and  although  the 
number  of  rebels  is  not  known,  yet  they  are  generally  agreed 
to  have '  amounted  to  about  twenty-five  hundred  at  least ; 
some  say  a  greater  number.  Tlie  French  fleet  consisted  of 
twenty-two  sail  of  the  line  and  fourteen  frigates,  as  I  men- 
tioned before,  besides  a  number  of  Carolina  galleys  and  priva- 
teers ;  and  the  French  took  from  us  the  Experiment  of  fifty 
guns,  Sir  James  "Wallace  commander,  and  the  Ariel  of  twen- 
ty, commanded  by  Captain  M'Kenzie.  The  British  regulars 
in  the  lines  never  amounted  to  two  thousand  eflective  men ; 
the  militia  that  came  in  were  about  three  hundred  and  fifty, 
and  the  sailors  hardly  exceeded  that  number.  Many  who  did 
not  think  so  much  of  religion  before,  now  acknowledge  that 
our  deliverance  was  miraculous,  and  arose  from  the  immediate 
interposition  of  God  in  our  favor.  Had  tlie  French  marclied 
up  to  town  immediately,  or  had  they  prevented  Colonel  Mait- 
land  joining  us  with  the  troops  under  his  command,  I  will 
leave  you  to  judge  what  the  consequences  must  have  been. 
At  first  I  found  numbers  in  despair  ;  but  I  did  all  that  I  could 
to  support  those  who  desponded,  and  I  would  not  sufi"er  tlie 
language  of  fear  to  pass  my  lips.  Colonel  Maitland  died  on  the 
night  of  the  twenty-sixth  of  the  month,  (October,)  regretted 
by  all  that  knew  him.  Tlie  French  and  Americans  plundered 
the  country  in  tlie  most  shameful  manner.     Not  content  with 

1779.]  THE   DEFEAT   AT   SAVANNAH.  231 

taking  away  provisions  and  stock,  they  even  robbed  poor  people 
of  their  bedding  and  clothes.  Colonel  Mullryne  came  in  before 
the  siege,  as  did  most  of  his  Majesty's  well-aftected  subjects  ; 
but  Mrs.  MiillrjTie  was  at  her  own  house  all  the  time,  and  it 
would  shock  you  to  hear  her  relate  how  basely  the  French 
and  Americans  treated  her.  Tliey  pillaged  the  hoTise  of  every 
thing  but  the  furniture  of  one  room.  Many  of  those  who 
had  taken  the  oaths  to  government  after  Colonel  Campbell's 
arrival,  and  had  obtained  his  Majesty's  protection,  thought  the 
French  and  rebels  were  so  sure  of  taking  the  town,  that  they 
joined  them.    Several  of  these  false  brethren  are  noAV  in  jail." ' 

The  following  are  some  of  the  reasons  that  have  been  as- 
signed why  the  assault  on  Savannah  did  not  succeed,  viz. : 

First.  The  enemy  had  a  much  more  numerous  garrison 
than  had  been  represented,  being  said  to  consist  jj^^^^jj^^f^^^^^, 
of  about  seventeen  hundred  effective  regulars,  and  &"' "t  savannah. 
a  great  number  of  sailors,  marines,  militia,  armed  blacks,  &c. 

Secondly.  Tlieir  having  the  advantage  of  the  presence,  skill, 
and  activity  of  Colonel  Maitland  ;  who,  while  the  American 
army  were  obliged  to  wait  for  the  bringing  up  proper  cannon 
and  mortars  from  the  fleet,  (which  took  up  many  days,  and  was 
attended  with  inconceivable  difliculties  on  account  of  the  dis- 
tance of  the  shipping  and  a  series  of  tempestuous  weather,) 
was  night  and  day  incessantly  engaged  in  adding  to  the 
strength  and  number  of  the  works,  upon  which  it  is  said  he 
employed  upwards  of  two  hundred  negroes. 

Thirdly.  The  enemy  having  by  some  means  or  other  dis- 
covered the  approach  of  the  American  columns  a  full  hour  be- 
fore it  was  possible  for  them  to  reach  their  respective  stations, 
by  which  they  had  an  opportunity  of  pouring  iipon  their  re- 
spective assailants  such  a  heavy  and  incessant  front,  flank,  and 
cross  fire,  as  no  troops  whatever  could  have  sustained  without 
being  disordered,  and  occasioned  the  order  for  discontinuing  the 
assault,  even  while  the  brave  French  troops  had  gained  one  of 
the  enemy's  works,  and  ours,  as  brave  troops,  another." 

'  ITpcott,  v.  S35.  ■■■  New  York  Journal,  December  20. 

232  DIAET   OF   THE   EEVOLUTION.  [17Y9. 

Colonel  Delancet  told  a  good  story  last  niglit  at  Panton's, 
of  General  Robertson  and  the  commander-in-chief's  cook.  It 
General  Kobertson  ^^  '^^'^^^  known  that  the  general  is  almost  too  fond 
and  the  Cook,  ^f  ^|jg  table,  and  lie  especially  feels  his  failing  at 
this  time,  when  it  is  almost  impossible  to  obtain  any  fresh 

One  morning  the  general,  in  a  fit  of  despair  at  seeing 
nothing  but  salt  codfish  for  breakfast,  ofi'ered  a  premium  to 
any  one  who  would  vary  the  style  of  serving  it ;  and  a  fresh 
premium  for  every  new  style.  This  reached  the  ears  of  General 
Clinton's  cook,  who  produced  for  dinner,  as  the  first  variation, 
cod  au  codling.  With  this  the  general  was  delighted,  and  he 
ordered  a  brimming  premium  to  the  cook.  At  supper  the  cod 
appeared  in  another  style  equally  palatable,  and  the  cook  was 
rewarded  with  a  still  higher  premium.  This  was  succeeded  by 
another,  and  still  another  style,  until  the  old  general,  in  another 
kind  of  despair,  ordered  a  servant  to  tell  the  cuisinier  that  if 
he  made  another  variation  with  codfish  he  should  be  hanged, 
as  a  few  more  styles  would  render  him  bankrupt.' 

October  26.-^Last  evening  the  invincible  troops  of  Biut- 
ain,  having  evacuated  Newport,  in  Ehode  Island,  embarked 
British  Evacuate  °^^  board  the  transports  which  laj^  ready  to  receive 
Newport,  E.  I.  tiieij^  .  and  soon  after  the  whole  fleet  sailed,,  it  is 
said,  to  New  York,  to  assist  in  defending  that  last  asylum  of 
British  tyranny  in  the  thirteen  United  States.  The  American 
troops  took  possession  of  the  town  this  morning.  It  being 
evident  that  Sir  Henry  Clinton  ordered  that  motion,  it  will  not 
be  in  the  power  of  his  rivals  to  rob  him  of  the  title  of  Moon- 
shine General,  to  which  his  celebrated  retreat  from  Philadel- 

'  Elliot  Manuscript.  This  anecdote  is  very  similar  to  the  following: — The 
Earl  of  Southampton,  in  Queen  Elizabeth's  reign,  was  the  pattern  of  learning. 
Spenser,  who,  like  other  poets,  was  very  poor,  carried  his  Faerie  Queene  to  his  lord- 
ship's house  and  sent  it  up  stairs  by  the  steward.  When  the  Earl  had  read  two 
stanzas,  he  said,  "  Give  that  man  twenty  pounds."  Having  read  it  a  little  farther 
he  said,  "Give  him  twenty  pounds  more ; "  then  proceeding  he  said,  "Give  him 
another  ten  pounds ;  "  and  at  length,  "  Turn  that  fellow  out  of  the  house,  for  if  I 
give  as  he  writes,  I  shall  give  away  all  my  patrimony." — Eivington\  Gazette, 
December  26,  1778. 


pliia  tliroiigli  the  Jerseys,  lias  already  given  him  the  fairest 

It  is  reported  that  several  officers  entreated  their  general  to 
delay  the  evacuation  till  to-day,  that  the  epoch  of  their  King's 
accession  to  the  throne  might  not  be  disgraced  by  the  evacua- 
tion of  one  of  his  most  important  posts  in  America.  But  old 
Silver  Pipe,  desirous  as  he  was  to  gratify  their  sensibility, 
thought  that  his  situation  could  not  excuse  such  condescension 
were  he  ever  reduced  to  justify  it  before  a  court-martial. 

The  enemy  have  left  at  Khode  Island  a  large  quantity  of 
forage  and  fuel,  with  a  number  of  horses,  &c.  Tlie  barracks 
at  Brenton's  Point  (where  they  embarked)  are  burnt ;  but  the 
others,  with  some  works  in  and  near  the  town,  are  left  in  good 

October  27. — ^Testeedat  morning,  about  two  o'clock,  the 
Queen's  rangers,  with  the  cavalry  belonging  to  that  regiment, 
and  ten  light  horse  under  the  command  of  Cap-       simcoe-s 

f~,  1  .  1  r^  T  1    Enterprise  in  New 

tarn  Stewart,  who  are  stationed  on  btaten  isl-  Jersey. 
and,  landed  at  Amboy,  in  Jersey,  and  proceeded  as  far  as 
Bonanitown,  when  the  foot  returned  to  Amboy,  and  the  cav- 
alry, amounting  to  seventy,  commanded  by  Colonel  Simcoe, 
advanced  to  Bound  Brook,  where  they  destroyed  eighteen 
large  flat-bottomed  boats,  and  some  stores.     They  then  pro- 

'  New  Hampshire  Gazette,  November  9.  An  ofiScer  in  Colonel  Jaelison's  regi- 
ment, in  writing  of  tliis  event,  says: — "At  last  the  heroic  plunJerers  of  the  amia- 
ble prince  of  Great  Britain  have  left  one  of  their  most  important  posts  in  America, 
and  joined  their  brave  associates  in  every  thing  detestable  at  New  York.  But  be 
it  spoken  to  the  honor  of  Mr.  Prescot,  before  he  left  the  town  he  forbade  its  being 
plundered.  Tommony  Fort  is  left  complete  in  every  particular.  How  completely 
wretched  is  the  situation  of  those  poor  despicable  Tory  animals,  who  have  been 
so  long  and  so  ardently  wishing  for  Ihe  subjection  of  their  country,  and  who  are 
now  deserted  by  their  protectors,  and  obliged  to  fling  themselves  on  the  mercy  of 
their  injured  country.  But  there  is  this  reflection  for  their  comfort,  that  let  their 
sufferings  be  what  they  may,  tliey  will  not  be  greater  than  the  poor  dogs  deserve."  * 
— New  Hampshire  Gazette,  November  9. 

*  Joseph  ■Wanton,  Esq.,  finding  the  Britons  were  about  to  evacuate  Newport,  loaded  a 
vessel  with  his  efi'ects,  in  order  to  talie  his  departure  with  them,  hut  the  master  being  on  shore, 
and  the  mate  perceiving  a  fair  gale  for  putting  off,  slipped  out  of  the  harbor,  and  instead  of  talcing 
the  destined  course,  carried  the  vessel  and  its  effects  to  Providence,  where  they  were  very 
cheerfully  received. — New  York  Journal,  November  S. 

234  DIAET   OF   THE   EE^'OLUTION.  [1779. 

ceeded  to  Somerset  court  Louse,  twentj-eiglit  miles  from  Am- 
boy,  released  tlie  loyalists  confined,  set  fire  to  it,  and  destroyed 
a  large  quantity  of  forage  and  stores,  collected  for  Mr.  Wash- 
ington's ai-my. 

On  their  return,  on  tlie  south  side  of  the  Earitan,  within 
two  miles  of  Brunswick,  in  a  piece  of  woods,  they  were  fired 
upon  by  a  large  body  of  rebels  who  lay  in  ambush.  The  cav- 
alry immediately  charged  and  dispersed  the  rebels  ;  but  Colo- 
nel Simcoe  having,  in  the  charge,  his  horse  shot  under  him,  in 
the  fall  received  a  bruise  which  stunned  him,  and  his  gallant 
party,  thinking  him  killed,  left  him  on  the  field,  approached 
to  Bnmswick,  and  on  the  hill  near  the  barracks  they  discov- 
ered one  hundred  and  seventy  rebels  drawn  up  to  receive  them- 
Tliese  were  also  immediately  charged  and  defeated,  with  great 
slaughter.  Among  the  killed,  we  are  informed,  was  a  rebel 
major  named  Edgar,  a  Captain  Voorhies,  and  another  captain, 
besides  many  other  officers.  Tlie  party  then  proceeded  on  the 
road  towards  South  Amboy ;  and  several  miles  from  Bruns- 
wick they  joined  the  foot,  who  had  passed  over  to  South  Am- 
boy. In  this  excursion  near  thirty  prisoners  were  taken.  The 
whole  loss  sustained  by  the  enterprise,  is  one  man  killed  and 
four  taken,  besides  the  brave  Colonel  Simcoe,  who,  we  hear,  is 
now  a  prisoner  at  Brunswick.' 

Another  account  of  this  enterprise  is  given  by  an  ofiicer 
who  belonged  to  Simcoe's  party,  as  follows  : — "  Twenty-two 
men,  of  the  Buck's  light  dragoons,  forty-six  of  the  ranger 
hussars,  and  a  few  others  as  guides,  landed  at  Perth  Amboy 
on  the  morning  of  the  twenty-sixth  of  October,  under  the  com- 
mand of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Simcoe.  "We  immediately  pro- 
ceeded through  Quibbletown,  and  early  arrived  at  Mr.  Wash- 
ington's grand  camp,  with  an  intent,  if  the  colonel  thought  it 
an  object,  to  destroy  the  huts  ;  but  were  informed  they  had 
been  sold  to  the  inhabitants,  some  of  which  upon  the  right  of 
the  line  had  been  pulled  do-mi ;  the  remainder  the  colonel 
thought  proper  to  leave  standing.  We  then  pursued  our  route 
to  Karitan,  in  the  way  to  which  the  Buck's  troops  surrounded 

'  Xcw  York  Gazette,  Norcnibcr  1. 

1779.]  COLONEL   6IMC0E   CArTUEED.  235 

the  house  of  Mr.Yanliorne,  made  prisoners  one  captain,  one  lieu  ■ 
tenant,  and  another  person,  who  signed  their  paroles  of  honor. 
We  then  continued  our  march  to  Karitan,  where  we  completely 
burned  and  destroyed  eighteen  large  boats  on  travelling  car- 
riages, one  ammunition  wagon,  and  a  quantity  of  forage  and 
some  stores.  We  there  received  a  single  shot  from  a  distant 
liill.  After  this  work  was  completed,  we  crossed  to  Somerset, 
released  two  British  prisoners,  and  consumed  the  court  house 
by  fire.  On  our  retreat  from  Somerset  to  Brunswick,  the  reb- 
els were  discovered  in  a  wood  iipon  our  right  flank ;  upon  our 
left  a  strong  rail  fence.  Tlio  wood  was  so  thick  that  it  was  im- 
possible to  charge  the  enemy.  We  pushed  through  their  line 
of  fire  in  open  files,  at  which  time  Colonel  Simcoe's  horse  was 
killed,  and  himself  much  hurt  by  the  fall.  Tlie  command  then 
devolved  on  Captain  Sandford,  of  the  Buck's  troop,  who,  as 
soon  as  he  was  informed  of  the  colonel's  misfortune,  collected 
about  twenty  dragoons,  with  which  he  entered  the  wood,  but 
found  it  impossible  (owing  to  its  thickness)  to  act  to  advantage 
against  the  rebels.  Indeed,  it  was  the  opinion  of  all  at  that 
time,  that  the  colonel  was  killed.  Captain  Sandford  then  or- 
dered a  retreat  towards  Bnmswick,  the  mounted  rebels  in  his 
rear  increasing  apace.  Upon  the  plains  behind  Brunswick, 
we  found  ourselves  in  a  critical  situation — infantry  in  our  front, 
formed  upon  the  very  road  we  were  obliged  to  pass,  popping 
shots  from  both  flanks,  and  the  mounted  men  pressing  upon 
our  rear.  In  this  situation  we  had  but  one  resource,  which  was 
to  cut  oiir  way  through  them  if  they  kept  their  ground  in 
front ;  this  would  have  been  dangerous  with  their  mounted 
men  in  our  rear.  Captain  Sandford,  after  drawing  them  in 
the  rear  across  a  ravine,  faced  about  the  squadron  and  charged 
them  with  success  :  killed  a  Captain  Yoorhies,  and  some  oth- 
ers, woimded  and  took  the  noted  rebel  Hampton  prisoner. 
After  forming,  we  advanced  towards  the  infantry  in  front,  who 
took  to  the  woods,  in  passing  which  we  must  have  snfl'ered 
much ;  in  order  to  avoid  this,  Captain  Sandford  inclined  the 
squadron  to  the  left,  as  if  going  through  Brunswick.  To  pre- 
vent our  retreat  that  way,  the  rebels  in  front  pushed  to  their 
right.     We  took  the  advantage,  and  with  a  smart  gallop  gained 

236  DIAET   OF  THE   REVOLUTION.  [1779. 

tlie  left  flank  of  tlie  enemy,  and  passed  tliem  witliout  receiving 
a  single  shot ;  after  which  we  continued  our  retreat  to  South 
River.  In  our  way,  we  fell  in  with  small  parties,  which  we 
either  killed  or  made  prisoners.  A  number  of  rebels  had  been 
purposely  despatched  to  break  up  the  bridge  at  South  Eiver, 
which  would  have  completely  cut  oflT  our  retreat ;  but  fortu- 
nately, tlie  infantry  of  the  rangers  having  got  timely  posses- 
sion of  that  pass,  we  reached  South  Eiver  before  four  o'clock 
in  the  afternoon.  We  did  not  march  less  than  seventy  miles 
through  this  rebellious  province  ;  and  had  it  not  been  for  Col- 
onel Simcoe's  misfortune,  our  loss  would  not  be  worth  men- 
tioning. The  loss  of  the  colonel,  who  was  by  all  supposed  to 
be  dead,  inspired  the  two  troops  with  additional  coiirage ; 
and  to  revenge  this  misfortune,  no  force  the  rebels  could 
have  sent  against  us,  but  would  have  been  bravely  charged 
by  them." ' 


Dii  boni,  boni  quid  porto  ? — Terence. 

Joy  to  great  Congress,  joy  an  hundred  fold, 
The  grand  cajolers  are  themselves  eajol'd  ; 

In  vain  has 's''  artifice  been  tried, 

And  Louis  swell'd  with  treachery  and  pride, 
Who  reigns  supreme  in  heav'n  deception  spurns, 
And  on  the  author's  head  his  mischief  turns ; 
What  pains  were  talien  to  procure  D'Estaing, 
His  fleet's  dispersed,  and  Congress  may  go  hang. 

Joy  to  great  Congress,  joy  an  hundred  fold, 
The  grand  cajolers  are  themselves  eajol'd ; 
Heaven's  King  sends  forth  the  hurricane,  and  strips 
Of  all  their  glory  the  perfidious  ships. 
His  ministers  of  wrath  the  storm  direct, 
Nor  can  the  prince  of  air  his  French  protect. 
St.  George,  St.  David  show'd  themselves  true  hearts, 
Saint  Andrew  and  St.  Patrick  topp'd  their  parts ; 
With  right  Eolian  puBs  the  winds  they  blew, 
Crack  went  the  masts,  the  sails  to  shivers  flew ; 
Such  honest  saints  sliall  never  be  forgot, 
Saint  Denis,  aud  Saint  Tammany,  go  rot. 

'  Rivington's  Gazette,  November  3. 

'  Supposed  to  allude  to  Dr.  Franklin's  services  at  the  Court  of  France. 

1779.]  THE   CONGEATULATION.  237 

Joy  to  great  Congress,  joy  an  hundred  fold, 
The  grand  cojolers  are  themselves  cajol'd; 
Old  Satan  holds  a  council  in  mid-air, 
Hear  the  black  dragon  furious  rage  and  swear; 
Are  these  the  triumphs  of  my  Gallic  friends  ? 
How  will  you  ward  this  blow,  ray  trusty  fiends? 
What  remedy  for  this  unlucky  job? 
What  art  shall  raise  the  spirits  of  the  mob  ? 
Fly  swift,  ye  sure  supporters  of  my  realm, 
E'er  this  iU  news  the  rebels  overwhelm. 
Invent,  say  any  thing  to  make  them  mad ; 

Tell  them  the  King No,  dev'ls  are  not  so  bad  ; 

The  dogs  of  Congress  at  the  King  let  loose. 
But  ye,  brave  dev'ls,  avoid  such  mean  abuse. 

Joy  to  great  Congress,  joy  an  hundred  fold. 
The  grand  cajolers  are  themselves  cajol'd ; 
What  thinks  Sir  Washington  of  this  mischance. 
Blames  he  not  those  who  put  their  trust  in  France  ? 
A  broken  reed  comes  pat  into  his  mind, 
Egypt  and  France  by  rushes  are  defined. 
Basest  of  kingdoms  underneath  the  skies, 
Kingdoms  that  could  not  profit  their  aUies, 
How  could  the  tempest  play  him  such  a  prank? 
Blank  is  his  prospect,  and  his  visage  blank. 
Why  from  West  Point  his  armies  has  he  brought  ? 
Can  nought  be  done  ? — sore  sighs  he  at  the  thought, 
Back  to  his  mountains  Washington  may  trot. 
He  take  this  city  ■ — yes,  when  ice  is  hot. 

Joy  to  great  Congress,  joy  an  hundred  fold, 
The  grand  cajolers  are  themselves  cajol'd ; 
Ah,  poor  mihtia  of  the  Jersey  State, 
Your  hopes  are  bootless,  you  are  come  too  late  ; 
Tour  four  hours'  plunder  of  New  York  is  fled. 
And  grievous  hunger  haunts  you  in  its  stead ; 
Sorrow  and  sighing  seize  the  Yankee  race. 
When  the  brave  Briton  looks  them  in  the  face. 
The  brawny  Hessian,  the  bold  refugee, 
Appear  in  arms,  and  lo!  the  rebels  flee. 
Each  in  his  bowels  griping  spankuo  feels. 
Each  drops  his  haversack,  and  trusts  his  heels, 
Scamp'ring  and  scouring  on  the  fields  they  run. 
And  here  you  find  a  sword,  and  there  a  gun. 

'  It  was  rumored  in  New  York  a  short  time  previous  to  the  publication  of  this 
poem,  that  General  Washington  meditated  an  attack  upon  that  city. — See  Riving- 
twi's  Gazette  and  Gable's  Mercury. 

238  DIAET  OF  THE   EEVOLTJTION.  [1779. 

Joy  to  great  Congress,  joy  an  hundred  fold, 
The  grand  cajolers  are  themselves  cajol'd ; 
The  doleful  tidings  Philadelphia  reach. 
And  Duffield  '  cries, — the  wicked  make  a  breach ; 
Members  of  Congress  in  confusion  meet, 
And  with  pale  countenance  each  other  greet. 
Kg  comfort,  brother  ?  brother,  none  at  all, 
Fall'n  is  our  tow'r,  yea  brok'n  down  our  wall ; 
Oh,  brother,  things  are  at  a  dreadful  pass, 
Brother,  we  sinn'd  in  going  to  the  mass.^ 
The  Lord  who  taught  our  fingers  how  to  fight, 
For  this  denied  to  curb  the  tempest's  might, 
Our  paper  coin  refus'd  for  flour  we  see. 
And  lawyers  will  not  take  it  for  a  fee. 

Joy  to  great  Congress,  joy  an  hundred  fold. 
The  grand  cajolers  are  themselves  cajol'd ; 
What  caus'd  the  French  from  Parker's  fleet  to  steal? 
They  wanted  thirty  thousand  casks  of  meal. 
Where  are  they  now  ?  can  mortal  man  reply  ? 
Who  finds  them  out  must  have  a  lynx's  eye ; 
Some  place  them  in  the  ports  of  Chesapeake, 
Others  account  them  bound  to  Martinique  ; 
Some  think  to  Boston  they  intend  to  go. 
And  some  suppose  them  in  the  deep  below. 
One  thing  is  certain,  be  they  where  they  will. 
They  keep  their  triumphs  most  exceeding  still, 
They  have  not  even  Pantagruel's  luck. 
Who  conquer'd  two  old  women  and  a  duck. 

Joy  to  great  Congress,  joy  an  hundred  fold, 
The  grand  cajolers  are  themselves  cajol'd; 
How  long  shall  the  deluded  people  look 
For  the  French  squadron  moor'd  at  Sandy  Hook ; 
Of  all  their  hopes  the  comfort  and  the  stay, 
This  vile  deceit  at  length  must  pass  away. 
What  imposition  can  be  thought  on  next, 
To  cheer  their  partisans  with  doubts  perplex'd. 
Dollars  on  dollars  heap'd  up  to  the  skies. 
Their  value  sinks  the  more  the  more  they  rise ; 

'  George  Duffield,  P.  D.,  pastor  of  the  Second  Presbyterian  Chm-ch  in  Philadel- 
phia. In  the  struggle  with  Great  Britain  he  was  an  early  and  zealous  friend  of  the 
colonies.     He  wa's  born  in  October,  1732,  and  died  on  the  2d  of  February,  1790. 

^  An  allusion  to  the  celebration  of  the  4th  of  July  at  the  Catholic  Church. 
Sec  page  178,  ante. 

1779.]  THE   CONGEATULATION.  239 

Bank  notes  of  bankrupts  struck  without  a  fund, 
Puff 'd  for  a  season,  will  at  last  be  shunn'd  ; 
Call  forth  invention,  ye  renowu'd  in  guile. 
New  falsehoods  frame  in  matter  and  in  style  ; 
Send  some  enormous  fiction  to  the  press, 
Again  prepare  the  circular  address. 
With  lies,  with  nonsense  keep  the  people  drunk, 
ror  should  they  once  reflect,  your  pow'r  is  sunk. 

Joy  to  great  Congress,  joy  an  hundred  fold, 
The  grand  cajolers  are  themselves  cajol'd. 
The  farce  of  empire  will  be  finish'd  soon. 
And  each  mock  monarch  dwindle  to  a  loon ; 
Mock  money  and  mock  States  shall  melt  away, 
And  the  mock  troops  disljand  for  want  of  pay. 
E'en  now  decisive  ruin  is  prepar'd, 
E'en  now  the  heart  of  Huntington  is  scar'd.' 
Seen  or  unseen,  above,  on  earth,  below. 
All  things  conspire  to  give  the  final  blow ; 
Heav'n  has  ten  thousand  thunderbolts  to  dart, 
From  hell  ten  thousand  livid  flames  will  start, 
Myriads  of  swords  are  ready  for  the  field. 
Myriads  of  lurking  daggers  are  conceal'd. 
In  injur'd  bosoms  dark  revenge  is  nurs'd. 
Yet  but  a  moment  and  the  storm  shall  burst. 

Joy  to  great  Congress,  joy  an  hundred  fold, 
The  grand  cajolers  are  themselves  cajol'd  ; 
Now  war  suspended  by  the  scorching  heat. 
Springs  from  his  tent,  and  shines  in  arms  complete ; 
Now  sickness  that  of  late  made  heroes  pale. 
Flies  from  the  keenness  of  the  northern  gale ; 
Firmness  and  enterprise  united  wait 
The  last  command,  to  strike  the  stroke  of  fate  ; 
Now  Boston  trembles,  Carolina  quakes. 
And  Philadelphia  to  the  centre  shakes ; 
There  is,  whose  councils  the  just  moment  scan. 
Whose  wisdom  meditates  the  mighty  plan. 
He  when  the  season  is  mature  shall  speak, 
(All  heav'n  shall  plaud  him,  and  all  hell  shall  shriek,) 
At  his  dread  fiat  tumult  shall  retire, 
Abhor'd  rebellion  sicken  and  expire. 
The  fall  of  Congress  prove  the  world's  relief. 
And  deathless  glory  crown  the  godlike  chief.^ 

'  Governor  Samuel  Huntington,  of  Connecticut,  at  this  time  the  president  of 
the  Congress.  ^  Sir  Henry  Clinton. 

240  DIAET   OF   THE  KEVOLTJTION.  [1779. 

Joy  to  great  Congress,  joy  an  hundred  fold, 
The  grand  cajolers  are  themselves  cajol'd ; 
What  now  is  left  of  Continental  brags  ? 
Taxes  unpaid,  though  payable  in  rags. 
What  now  remains  of  Continental  force? 
Battalions  mould'ring,  waste  without  resource. 
What  rests  there  yet  of  Continental  sway  ? 
A  ruin'd  people  ripe  to  disobey ; 
Hate  now  of  men,  and  soon  to  be  the  jest, 
Such  is  your  state,  ye  monsters  of  the  West. 
Tet  must  on  every  face  a  smile  be  worn, 
Whilst  every  breast  with  agony  is  torn  ; 
Hopeless  yourselves,  yet  hope  you  must  impart, 
And  comfort  others  with  an  aching  heart. 
Ill  fated  they,  who  lost  at  home,  must  boast 
Of  help  expected  from  a  foreign  coast ; 
Eovf  wretched  is  their  lot  to  France  and  Spain, 
Who  look  for  succor,  but  who  look  in  vain. 

Joy  to  great  Congress,  joy  an  hundred  fold. 
The  grand  cajolers  are  themselves  cajol'd; 
Courage,  ray  boys,  dismiss  your  chilling  fears, 
Attend  to  me,  I'll  put  you  in  your  gears. 
Come,  I'll  instruct  you  how  to  advertise 
Your  missing  friends,  your  hide  and  seek  allies ; 
Otes! — If  any  man  alive  will  bring 
News  of  the  squadron  of  the  Christian  King ; 
If  any  man  will  find  out  Count  D'Estaing, 
With  whose  scrub  actions  both  the  Indies  rang; 
If  any  man  will  ascertain  on  oath, 
AVhat  is  become  of  Monsieur  de  la  Mothe  ; ' 
Whoever  these  important  points  explains. 
Congress  will  nobly  pay  him  for  his  pains. 
Of  pewter  dollars  what  both  hands  can  hold ; 
A  thimble  full  of  plate,  a  mite  of  gold ; 
The  lands  of  some  big  Tory  he  shall  get, 
And  strut  a  famous  col'nel  en  brevet, 
And  last  to  honor  hirn,  (we  scorn  to  bribe,) 
We'll  make  him  chief  of  the  Oneida  tribe." 

NoTEirBEE  4. — A  WRITEE  in  the  ISTew  York  Packet  of  this 
date,  offers  the  following  to  Sir  Henry  Clinton  : —      AiWressto 
"Although  your  military  track   in  America  is  Gonemi ciinton. 
marked  with  a  variety  of  misfortunes,  yet  is  it  no  less  Avorthy 

'  A  commander  of  the  French  fleet.        ^  Kivington's  Gazette,  Nov.  6,  1779. 

1779.]  ADDEESS   TO    CLINTOX.  2-trl 

of  panegyric  than  that  of  yonr  predecessors.  Like  them,  you 
have  adventured  your  character  in  the  execution  of  desultory 
objects  ;  but  lilio  them,  you  may  not  return  to  reap  the  rewards 
of  your  labors. 

"  I  will  presume  that  your  cabinet,  after  four  years'  projec- 
tion, had  conceived  the  idea  of  reducing  the  States  by  the  cap- 
ture of  West  Point ;  or,  if  this  could  not  be  established,  had 
directed  the  establishment  of  a  post  in  its  vicinity.  Could 
these  sages  have  given  jox\  force  and  wisdom  to  have  captured, 
with  "West  Point,  the  American  army,  it  woiild  perhaps  have 
been  doing  something  effectual  towards  their  project.  But  the 
reduction  and  occupancy  of  this  post  on  any  other  condition, 
was  a  mere  sound  ;  a  rattle,  like  all  other  rattles,  only  calcu- 
lated to  please  for  the  moment. 

"  Had  you  arrived  at  West  Point  before  General  "Washing- 
ton could  have  reached  it  from  Middlebrook,  (which  you  might 
have  done  witliout  a  possibility  of  interruption,  from  your 
commanding  the  water,)  and  carried  the  post  by  storm,  it 
must  have  been  at  the  expense  of  all  further  operations,  and 
at  the  certain  risk  of  being  besieged  by  the  American  army. 
Had  you  invested  the  place.  General  "Washington  woiild 
alone,  M'itli  his  forces,  have  been  sufficient  to  liavc  raised  the 
siege,  and  you  might  have  lost  your  heavy  cannon  and  stores, 
if  not  the  greatest  part  of  your  army  ;  or,  had  you  carried  it 
without  any  material  loss,  still  the  object  of  the  ministry  would 
have  been  defeated.  A  new  fort  would  have  instantly  ap- 
peared on  the  Hudson,  capable  of  insulting  West  Point,  and 
of  rendering  its  supposed  advantages  nugatory  and  i-idiculous. 

"  Your  orders  arrived,  and  yon  received  them  with  all  the 
complacency  of  accustomed  submission.  Tlie  caution,  how- 
ever, with  which  you  moved  towards  an  object  considered  as 
the  most  capital  in  America,  at  least  does  credit  to  your  pru- 
dence. You  approached  within  nine  miles  of  West  Point,  and 
halted  before  a  small  work  at  King's  Ferry  that  could  neither 
disturb  the  passage  of  your  shipping,  nor  give  obstruction  to 
the  progress  of  your  army.  Its  design  Avas  merely  to  give  a 
show  of  cover  to  the  ferry  Avay,  and  prevent  the  piracies  of  your 

Vol.  II.— 16 

242  DIAET   OF   THE   EEVOLUTIOJT.  [1T79. 

"  Sir  William  Howe  could  not  have  invested  this  insig- 
nificant place  with  more  unmeaning  formality.  No  display 
of  ostentatious  arrangements  was  overlooked  on  this  occasion ; 
and  Mr.  Andre,  your  aid,  as  if  in  compliance  with  the  taste 
of  his  general,  signed  a  capitulation,  in  all  the  pomp  of  a  vain- 
glorious solemnity,  on  the  very  edge  of  the  glacis,  which  he 
had  gained  under  cover  of  a  flag. 

"  "What,  Sir  Henry,  could  you  intend  by  this  farce  ?  "What 
excuse  will  a  person  of  Mr.  Andre's  reputed  sense  find  for  this 
parade  ?  Was  it  that  you  were  obliged  to  do  something  in 
order  to  avoid  the  scandal  of  doing  nothing  ?  If  you  meant 
to  astonish  all  Europe,  there  is  no  doubt  but  the  intention  has 
been  answered.  The  capture  of  fifty  men  after  a  foolish  vari- 
ety of  movements,  and  under  a  A^ain  pomp  of  capitulation, 
must  appear  to  all  the  world  a  strange  efibrt  towards  the  re- 
duction of  America — -but  a  poor  recompense  for  the  millions 
voted  by  Parliament,  which  you  have  cheerfully  expended  for 
this  single  purpose. 

"  When  you  established  your  garrison  on  each  side  the 
ferry,  and  improved  Stony  Point  till  it  acquired,  in  the  lan- 
guage peculiar  to  your  nation,  the  title  of  the  American  Gib- 
raltar, what  was  the  good  it  comprehended  ?  It  did  not  inter- 
rupt the  provisions  for  the  army  of  your  enemy — their  wagons 
came  and  returned  as  usual.  A  few  dragoons  and  a  company 
or  two  of  light  troops  under  Major  Lee,  circumscribed  you  to 
the  lines  you  had  erected ;  and  the  country  between  Haver- 
straw  and  Powle's  Hook  afforded  its  usual  supplies.  Thus 
your  enemy  experienced  no  injury,  and  you  felt  a  tliousand 
inconveniences  from  your  new  situation. 

"  It  is  a  maxim  in  Eochefoucauld,  '  that  fortune  turns  every 
thing  to  the  advantage  of  her  favorites.'  By  this  rule  it  would 
seem  that  neither  you  nor  your  nation  are  within  her  patron- 
age, for  the  business  of  both,  since  the  beginning  of  this  happy 
contest,  has  been  constantly  going  backwards.  Nay,  as  if  she 
had  placed  you  at  the  extremity  of  her  malice,  she  has  even 
made  tlie  blunders  of  your  directors  serve  as  the  steps  to  your 
ruin  ;  and  to  complete  the  catalogue  of  your  evils,  she  haunts 
your  bewildered  imagination  with  the  fate  of  Burgoyne. 

1779.]  ADDKESS    TO    CLINTON.  248 

"  IIow  often,  Sir  Harry,  in  your  affairs,  has  tlie  song  of  the 
morning  been  closed  with  the  evening  tear  !  You  had  scarce 
finislicd  your  despatches,  which  were  to  flatter  the  hopes  of 
an  all-expecting  ministry,  when  Stony  Point  was  stormed  and 
carried  at  the  bayonet  by  a  body  of  troops  but  little  superior 
in  numbers  to  its  garrison. 

"  In  your  account  of  this  event  (which  holds  so  small  a  cor- 
ner in  the  Gazette,  as  if  wishing  to  escape  the  public  eye,) 
have  yon  told  your  nation  that  the  American  soldiery,  in  the 
full  career  of  their  ardor,  exhibited  a  compassion  and  magna- 
nimity of  which  the  practice  of  their  army  had  not  aflbrded  one 
single  solitary  proof? 

"  As  this  place  was  of  small  moment  to  the  States,  when 
your  stores  and  pi'isoners  were  safely  lodged  you  were  permit- 
ted to  re-possess  it  without  ojjposition.  The  only  circumstance 
that  could  have  added  to  the  entertainment  of  a  re-possession, 
you  happily  adopted.  You  landed  your  disgusted  troops  under 
a  furious  waste  of  ammunition,  directed  from  your  shipping  at 
both  flanks  of  the  rock,  while  the  enemy  at  several  miles'  dis- 
tance, wore  enjoying  their  victory,  and  laughing  at  such  a 
profusion  of  folly.  AYas  it,  Su-  Ilarry,  to  soothe  the  short- 
sighted sagacity  of  a  deluded  people  that  you  again  attempted 
to  hold  what  you  had  so  ostentatiously  acrpiired  and  so  de- 
gradingly  lost?  or  because  the  jninisterial  mist  Avas  not  to  be 
too  rudely  dissipated,  that  yon  were  obliged  to  re-occupy  a  few 
acres  of  improfitable  rock  ? 

"But  scarce  had  you  announced  the  second  solemnity  of 
re-possessing  Stony  Point,  when  the  ministry  were  compelled 
to  shed  fresh  tears  over  the  surprise  of  Powle's  Hook. 

"  The  situation  of  this  post  gave  it  every  possible  seciirity, 
and  you  might  have  laughed  over  the  midnight  bottle  without 
imputation  of  folly.  Formed  on  a  peninsida,  within  protection 
of  jour  shipping,  and  the  instant  support  of  the  city  of  New 
York,  the  approach  hazardous  in  its  nature,  and  rendered  still 
more  so  by  the  difticulty  of  keeping  the  least  movement  of 
your  enemy  from  the  knowledge  of  your  emissaries  that  were 
scattered  for  that  purpose  in  your  neighborhood.  The  retreat 
was  equally  dangerous,  being  conducted  along  several  miles  of 

244  DIAKY   OF  TIIE   EEVOLUTION.  [1779. 

your  flanks,  and  liable  at  every  step  to  intersection.  All  these 
obstacles  -were  surmounted,  and  another  ray  plucked  from  that 
star  whose  lustre  is  nearly  extinguished. 

"  Did  the  tale  end  here,  you  might  have  solaced  yourself  in 
the  full  security  of  reward.  But  the  strength  of  your  army 
was  to  be  worn  do'nai  in  forming  new  works  on  both  sides  of 
King's  Ferry,  and  the  health  of  your  troops  Avasted  in  nightly 
watchings  to  guard  against  a  surprise,  and  to  add  to  the  tri- 
umph of  your  enemy  by  their  evacuation. 

"  How  shall  we  account  for  this  change  m  your  conduct  ? 
"Was  it  the  new  fascines  which  were  ordered  to  be  cut,  and  Gen- 
eral Wayne's  taking  post  on  Ilaverstraw  Heights,  Avithin  five 
miles  of  your  principal  fortress,  the  bringing  of  a  few  boats 
down  the  North  Eiver,  and  the  armies  on  each  side  of  the  ferry 
under  Lord  Stirling  and  General  HoAve,  drawing  nearer  your 
works,  that  forced  jou  from  a  place  Avithout  making  the  small- 
est resistance  ?  It  is,  however,  a  just  punishment,  that  Avhat 
Avas  occupied  from  folly  should  be  CA'acuated  through  fear. 
HoAV  AA-ill  you  explain  to  the  ministry  the  mystery  of  your 
campaign  ;  and  hoAV  Avill  they  explain  to  the  people  its  laby- 
rinth of  absurdities  ?  Hoav  will  they  make  it  appear  that  it 
Avas  proper  to  do  one  day  what  was  improper  the  next — that 
to  concper  America  it  Avas  necessary  to  disgrace  their  arms — 
that  to  hold  King's  Ferry  was  right,  and  that  to  hold  King's 
Ferry  was  wrong  ?  That  it  Avas  expedient,  and  founded  upon 
true  English  policy,  to  expend  several  millions  of  money  to 
bring  an  army  up  the  North  River  and  take  only  a  part  of  it 
back  again,  after  having  lost  in  prisoners,  and  by  deaths,  and 
desertions,  a  tenth  of  the  Avhole ! 

"  Alas,  Sir  Harry  !  in  aiming  at  a  campaign,  you  have  ren- 
dered yourself  ridiculous  to  the  world.  They  Avill  suppose 
that  you  Avanted  either  means  or  capacity ;  or  that,  possessing 
these,  you  mistook  your  enemy  and  ventured  against  your 
superior  in  both.  Tlie  momentary  hopes  you  had  raised,  like 
the  fugitive  gleams  of  a  Avinter's  sun,  have  been  scarcely  felt 
before  they  Avere  succeeded  by  all  the  severity  of  disappoint- 
ment. Even  the  flatterers  your  prospects  had  draAvn  around 
you  Avithhold  their  Avontod  adulation,  and  dispose  of  your  char 


acter,  in  order  to  make  peace  witli  your  supposed  successor. 
You  have  even  dishonored  your  new  formed  acquirements,  in 
tlie  disgrace  of  publisliing  negro  proclamations.'  You  have 
suffered  yourself  to  be  repeatedly  defeated,  by  a  people  boast- 
ingly  called  cowards,  and  ridiculously,  rebels.  You  have 
taken  away  from  your  Prince  the  chief  support  of  his  speeches, 
and  the  courage  and  conduct  of  his  commanders.  To  the  dull 
car  that  the  Dutch  turned  to  Sir  Joseph  Yorke's  plaintive 
memorial,  you  have  added  the  storm  of  Stony  Point,  the  sur- 
prise of  Powle's  Hook,  and  degrading  evacuation  of  King's 
Ferry :  a  campaign  commenced  in  exultation,  and  ended  in 
Backcloth.  You  have  multiplied  the  enemies  of  your  patrons, 
and  opened  against  Lord  North  the  full-mox;tlied  cry  of  his 
antagonist,  Charles  Fox. 

"  But  I  leave  you,  Sir  Henry,  to  your  own  reflections.  I 
cannot  increase  their  severity ;  and  your  present  situation 
needs  not  the  scourge  of  the  satirist."  ' 

ISTovEMBEE  8. — Last  night  Colonel  Armand,  with  one  hun- 
dred infantry  and  about  thirty  horse,  marched  down  as  far  as 
William's,  within  four  miles  of  King's  Bridge, 
near  New  York,  where  he  posted  his  infantry  to  " ' 
cover  his  retreat,  and  with  twenty  dragoons  pushed  for  Major 
Bearmore's  quarters,  at  Alderman  Leggett's,  three  miles  below 
William's  Bridge  ;  where  he  arrived  about  nine  o'clock,  took 
Major  Bearmore  and  five  other  prisoners,  a  number  of  horses 
and  saddles,  and  returned  without  the  loss  of  a  single  man ; 
although  Colonel  Worm,  with  a  body  of  eight  hundred  Ger- 
mans, lay  on  the  north  side  of  King's  Bridge,  and  might  have 
interrupted  his  retreat  at  William's  by  marching  less  than  two 
miles.  Tills  enterprise  not  only  reflects  great  honor  on  Colo- 
nel Armand,  but  renders  the  State  most  essential  service  by 
suppressing  the  exertions  of  one  of  their  most  active  partisan 
officers,  whose  uniform  endeavor  has  been  to  distress  and  injure 
the  inhabitants  of  this  country.' 

'  Sir  Henry  Clinton'3  proclamation  to  sell  negroes  captured  from  the  enemy. 
See  page  176,  ante. 

'  New  Jersey  Gazette,  December  29.        '  Xew  York  Journal,  November  15. 

246  DIARY  OF  THE  EEVOLUTION.  [1779. 

NovEMBEK  9. — ^Tiiis  morning,  the  Honoralile  Henry  Lau- 
rens, Esq.,  set  out  on  his  journey  to  Charleston,  in  South  Car- 
olina, from  whence,  it  is  said,  he  will  embark, 
fnry  aurens.  ^^  executc,  at  oue  of  the  principal  Courts  of  En- 
rope,  an  important  trust  committed  to  him  by  Congress.  The 
great  ability  and  strict  integrity  with  which  this  gentleman 
tilled  the  important  station  of  President  of  Congress,  acquired 
him  universal  esteem  and  respect ; — and  his  truly  patriotic  at- 
tention to  the  rights  of  the  several  States,  gained  him  the  warm- 
est affection  of  all  who  kncAV  him,  and  of  the  people  of  Penn- 
sylvania in  particular.  Several  members  of  Congress,  and  a 
mimber  of  the  principal  officers  of  the  State,  waited  on  him 
as  far  as  the  lower  feriy  on  Schuylkill." 

The  advantage,  says  a  correspondent,  of  the  revolution  that 
has  taken  place  in  America,  to  all  the  lovers  of  liberty  in  Eu- 
The  Artvantn-es  of  ^^P*^'  must  bc  immense.  It  seems  to  be  a  dispen- 
the  nevoiution.  gatiou  of  Heavcn  favorable  to  them,  as  well  as  to 
the  inhabitants  of  the  States.  America  is  now  become  an 
open  asylum  to  all  that  are  oppressed  by  the  old  corrupt  gov- 
ernments in  Europe.  Tlie  subjects  of  the  latter  will  be  dis- 
posed to  emigrate  to  us,  as  they  feel  their  situation  at  home 
groM'ing  uneasy  by  the  weight  of  arbitrary  power,  and  the  ill 
administration  of  government.  "\Ve  shall  afford  a  happy  re- 
lief to  those  who  come  over  to  us,  and  no  inconsiderable  one 
to  those  who  remain  behind,  inasmuch  as  those  governments, 
and  particularly  that  of  England  and  Ireland,  for  fear  of  los- 
ing their  people,  will  relax  the  reins  of  power,  and  invite  their 
remaining  at  home,  by  indulging  their  love  of  liberty  in  some 
instances,  and  lightening  their  burdens.  We  are,  therefore, 
not  only  fighting  for  our  o^vn  cause,  but  for  the  cause  of  human 
kind  in  general,  and  particularly  for  that  of  onr  former  fellow- 
subjects  in  Britain  and  Ireland.  Millions  will  bless  the  wis- 
dom, the  fortitude,  and  perseverance,  that  have  nobly  effected 
this  revolution,  M'ho  will  never  live  in  America ;  at  the  same 
time  it  must  give  a  particular  relief  to  tlic  blessings  of  liberty 

'  rennsylvania  Packet,  November  11. 


enjoyed  by  the  subjects  of  the  United  States,  that  the  pur- 
cliase  of  them  for  ourselves  must  be  of  such  essential  advan- 
tage to  distant  regions.  Tliis,  in  the  impartial  estimation  of 
mankind,  must  give  a  particular  brilliancy  to  the  success  of  our 
arms,  and  enroll  the  names  of  those  men  whose  wisdom  and 
fortitude  have  principally  effected  so  happy  a  change,  among 
tlie  most  illustrious  heroes,  and  the  greatest  benefactors  of 

Decembee  1. — ^Notwithstanding  the  flattering  accounts  of 
the  British  affairs  published  in  some  of  the  late  New  York 
papers,  the  wise  men  of  the  British  Parliament 

,  -,-,-,■  ,>    1  1         .  Lord  Carendish. 

draw  a  most  melancholy  picture  or  the  calamitous 
circumstances  of  this  and  of  their  own  country.  Lord  John 
Cavendish,  in  a  late  debate,  said,  "  He  would  spend  his  for- 
tune and  hazard  his  life  against  the  unnatural  enemies  of  his 
country;  and  he  would  do  as  much  to  bring  ministry,  the 
cause  of  all  the  nation's  calamities,  to  their  deserts  ;  "  declar- 
ing, with  all  the  enthusiasm  of  resolution,  "  that  his  resent- 
ment should  be  found  firm  and  lasting."  He  further  observes, 
"  tliat  nothing  less  than  the  most  exemplary  punishment  ought 
to  be  inflicted  upon  them,  and  their  respective  estates  confis- 
cated, and  applied  towards  the  expenses  of  the  war."  Sir 
George  Saville,  Colonel  Barre,  Mr.  Baker,  Mr.  Burke,  with 
others,  were  tremendously  severe  upon  administration,  the  lat- 
ter declaring  that  he  "  would  oppose  the  gi-anting 

°  .  -t^  .n      1         Edmund  Burko. 

any  money,  or  going  to  any  measures,  till  the 
present  administration  were  dealt  with  as  they  ought  to  be." 
Lord  North  replying  with  sarcastic  wit  and  contemptuous 
pleasantry,  Lord  George  Cavendish  advised  him  "  to  be  sober 
and  serious  that  day,  and  to  throw  his  wit  and  humor  aside,  for 
that  they  would  serve  no  longer."  " 

Decesibee  G. — Advices  from  the  country  are,  that  General 
Washington  and  Mr.  Mead,  his  aide-de-camp,  and  his  adjutant- 
general,  Avere  near  being  drowned  last  Saturday  Aveek  by  the 

'  New  Jersey  Gazette,  December  8.  "  Same. 

24:8  DIAKT    OF   THE   EEVOLUTION.  [1779. 

overtuming  of  a  whale  boat  at  a  place  called  Sandy  Point,  on 
■Washinston  Hudson  Eiver  ;  that  all  the  ai-niy  but  a  gan-ison 
Kscap^s  Drowning,  of  twelvc  hundred  left  at  West  Point,  are  march- 
ing do-wn  the  country  in  divisions  under  their  proper  generals, 
supposed  for  Morris  county ;  and  it  is  conjectured  they  -will 
hut  this  winter  either  in  Morristo\vn,  the  Notch  below  Passaic 
Falls,  or  the  mountain  in  the  rear  of  Mr.  Kemble's.  Tlie  army 
has  been  short  of  flour  for  some  time  past,  on  account  of  the 
dryness  of  the  season.  Mr.  Jacob  Arnold's  house,  in  Morris- 
town,  is  taken  for  General  Sullivan's  head-quarters  for  the 
winter,  as  General  Washington  is  to  reside  at  Philadelphia 
until  spring.  Lord  Stirling  has  declined  going  to  the  south- 
ward, and  it  is  imagined  General  Wayne  Avill  be  appointed  to 
that  command;  and  the  troops  destined  for  South  Carolina  are 
the  Yirgiuia  and  North  Carolina  men,  with  Baylor's  light  horse. 
Colonel  Dayton  will  relieve  Colonel  Seely  at  Elizabethtown  in 
a  few  days  ;  and  Colonel  Spencer  takes  post  at  Woodbridge  ; 
and  General  Washington's  best  train  of  artillery  is  at  Sucesun- 
ney,  above  Morristown.  A  number  of  the  eastern  men  are  to 
be  hiitted  on  the  east  side  of  the  North  Piver,  xmder  the  com- 
mand of  General  Gates.' 

■  Gaine's  Mercury,  December  G. 


Jaiojaet  1. — An  American  gentleman,  now  in  London,  ■who 
is  well  acquainted  with  General  "Washington,  gives  the  follow- 
ing account  of  him  : — "That,  though  advanced  in  g^^^^, 
years,  he  is  remarkably  healthy,  takes  a  great  deal  ■w^'«'ii''ston- 
of  exercise,  and  is  very  fond  of  riding  on  a  favorite  white  horse. 
He  is  very  reserved,  and  loves  retirement ;  when  out  of  camp, 
he  has  only  a  single  servant  attending  him,  and  when  he  re- 
turns within  the  lines,  a  few  of  the  light  horse  escort  him  to 
his  tent.  When  he  has  any  great  object  in  view,  he  sends  for  a 
few  of  those  officers  of  whose  abilities  he  has  a  high  opinion, 
and  states  his  present  plan  among  half  a  dozen  others,  to  all 
which  they  give  their  separate  judgments  ;  by  these  means  he 
gets  all  their  opinions,  without  divulging  his  intentions.  He 
has  no  tincture  of  pride,  and  will  often  converse  with  a  senti- 
nel with  more  freedom  than  he  will  with  a  general  officer.  He 
is  very  shy  and  reserved  to  foreigners,  although  they  have  let- 
ters of  recommendation  from  the  Congress.  He  punishes  neg- 
lect of  duty  with  great  severity,  but  is  very  tender  and  indul- 
gent to  recruits  iimil  they  learn  the  articles  of  war  and  their 
exercise  perfectly.  He  has  a  great  antipathy  to  spies,  although 
he  employs  them  himself,  and  has  an  utter  aversion  to  all  Indi- 
ans. He  regularly  attends  divine  service  in  his  tent  every 
morning  and  evening,  and  seems  very  fervent  in  his  prayers. 
He  is  so  tender-hearted  that  no  soldier  can  be  flogged  nigh  his 
tent ;  or,  if  he  is  walking  in  his  camp  and  sees  a  man  tied  to 
the  halberds,  he  Avill  either  order  him  to  be  taken  down,  or 
walk  another  way  to  avoid  the  sight.  He  has  made  the  art  of 
war  his  particular  study ;  his  plans  are  in  general  good  and 
well  digested ;  he  is  particularly  careful  always  of  securing  a 

250  DIAET  OF  THE  EEVOLUTION.  [1780. 

retreat,  but  liis  cliief  qualifications  are  courage,  steadiness, 
perseverance,  and  secresy.  Any  act  of  bravery  lie  is  sure  to 
reward,  and  make  a  short  eulogium  on  the  occasion  to  the 
person  and  liis  fellow-soldier  (if  it  be  a  soldier)  in  the  ranks. 
He  is  humane  to  the  prisoners  who  fall  into  his  hands,  and  or- 
ders every  thing  necessary  for  their  relief.  He  is  very  temperate 
in  his  diet,  and  the  only  luxury  he  indulges  himself  in,  is  a 
few  glasses  of  punch  after  supper."  ' 

Thieteen  is  a  niimber  peculiarly  belonging  to  the  rebels. 
A  party  of  naval  prisoners  lately  returned  from  Jersey,  say,  that 
Thirteen  n  Rebel  ^^^"^  rations  among  the  rebels  are  thirteen  dried 

Number.  elams  pcr  day  ;  that  the  titular  Lord  Stirling  takes 
thirteen  glasses  of  grog  every  morning,  has  thirteen  enormous 
rum-bunches  on  his  nose,  and  that  (when  duly  impregnated)  he 
always  makes  thirteen  attempts  before  he  can  walk  ;  that  Mr. 
Washington  has  thirteen  toes  on  his  feet,  (the  extra  ones  having 
groM'n  since  the  Declaration  of  Independence,)  and  the  same 
number  of  teeth  in  each  jaw  ;  that  the  Sachem  Schuyler  has  a 
top-knot  of  thirteen  stiff  hairs,  which  erect  themselves  on  the 
crown  of  his  head  when  he  grows  mad  ;  that  Old  Putnam  had 
thirteen  pounds  of  his  posteriors  bit  off  in  an  encounter  with 
a  Connecticut  bear,  ('twas  then  he  lost  the  halance  of  his  mind ;) 
that  it  takes  thirteen  Congress  paper  dollars  to  equal  one  penny 
sterling ;  that  Polly  Wayne  was  just  thirteen  hours  in  subdu- 
ing Stony  Point,  and  as  many  seconds  in  leaving  it ;  that  a 
well-organized  rebel  household  has  thirteen  children,  all  of 
whom  expect  to  be  generals  and  members  of  the  High  and 
Mighty  Congress  of  the  "  thirteen  United  States  "  when  they 
attain  thirteen  years ;  that  Mrs.  Washington  has  a  mottled 
tom-cat,  (which  she  calls,  in  a  complimentary  way,  'Hamilton,') 
with  thirteen  yellow  rings  around  his  tail,  and  that  his  flaunt- 
ing it  suggested  to  the  Congress  the  adoption  of  the  same 
number  of  stripes  for  the  rebel  flag.' 

Januaky  10. — ^The   very  remarkable   and   long-continued 

'  Kcw  namiishirc  Gazette,  March  4.  ''  Smythc's  Journal,  OS. 

1780.]  STANZAS    ON   THE   TKESENT   WAE.  251 

severity  of  tlie  weather  at  ISTew  York,  (the  like  not  having  been 
known,  as  vre  are  informed,  by  the  oldest  man  living,)  has 
stopped  all  the  avennes  of  intelligence,  and  almost         _ 

^  '■  n        />    1         Cold  Weather. 

ent  off  all  social  intercourse  between  people  oi  the 
same  neighborhood.  The  incessant  intenseness  of  the  cold,  the 
great  depth  and  quantity  of  the  snows,  following  in  quick  suc- 
cession one  on  the  back  of  another,  attended  with  violent  tem- 
pests of  wind,  which  for  several  days  made  the  roads  utterly 
impassable,  has  put  a  stop  to  business  of  all  kinds,  except  such 
as  each  family  could  do  within  itself.  And  as  many  were 
slenderly  provided  with  necessaries  for  subsistence,  we  have 
reason  to  apprehend  that  we  shall  shortly  hear  many  melan- 
choly accounts  of  private  distress  in  the  country,  and  that  from 
the  sea-coasts  and  vessels  at  sea,  the  accounts  will  be  dreadful.* 


See  France  and  Spain  to  battle  dare ; 
■  Britons,  haste  !  to  arms  repair. 
Haste  join  tlie  proffered  fight ! 
Deeds  of  glory,  feats  of  arms, 
Death  and  danger,  war's  alarms. 
Sons  of  Britain  all  invite. 

Fame  shall  soon  her  trumpet  sound, 
And  tell  the  nations  all  around 

That  Albion,  though  alone, 
Will  force  the  sl.ives  of  France  and  Spain, 
And  monarchs  who'd  manldnd  enchain. 

To  bow  to  Freedom's  throne. 

Yes,  Bourbon's  King  shall  rue  the  hour 
That  dar'd  provoke  Old  England's  pow'r, 

And  raise  the  storm  of  war. 
Our  martial  bands,  in  days  of  yore. 
Who  fought  at  Cressy,  Agincourt, 

Proclaim  what  Britons  dare.^ 

January  16. — Eaelt  yesterday  morning  about  two  thou- 
sand American  troops  under  the  command  of  Major-Gcneral 

'  Pennsylvania  Packet,  January  27.  Eivington's  Gazette,  January  5. 

252  DLUir  OF  TiiE  EEvoLrnoN.  [1T80. 

Lord  Stirling,  passed  over  the  ice  at  De  JIart's  Point,  in 
Jersey,  and  landed  at  Staten  Island,  near  IvTercerean's  dock- 
Lord  stiriings  yard.  When  they  came  to  the  Elazing  Star  road, 
Staten  isbni  they  divided  into  two  columns,  and  one  proceeded 
by  Dongan's  mills,  the  other  by  the  back  road,  towards  the 
watering  place.  Both  columns  gained  the  heights  above  the 
enemy's  Avorks  about  the  same  time.  On  the  approach  of  the 
Americans,  the  enemy  abandoned  the  strong  fortified  house 
called  Decker's  Fort,  near  which  the  Americans  seized  nine 
sail  of  vessels,  several  of  which  were  laden  with  wood.  Tlic 
enemy  on  all  sides  retu-ed  to  their  works,  which,  in  addition  to 
their  usual  defences,  had  an  abattis  of  snow,  near  ten  feet 
high,  all  around  them.  After  fully  reconnoitring  the  situa- 
tion of  the  enemy,  and  finding  that  nothing  of  advantage  could 
be  done,  the  Americans  began  to  retire  about  sunrise  this 
morning,  and  in  their  way  destroyed  the  vessels  and  works  at 
Decker's  house.  Tlie  enemy  with  horse  and  foot  watched  tlieir 
motions,  but  could  find  no  opportunity  of  attacking  them  with 
advantage.  Tlieir  horse,  indeed,  made  a  charge  on  a  covering 
party  under  the  command  of  Major  Edwards,  and  killed'three 
of  his  men  ;  but  they  were  soon  beat  ofi"  with  a  loss  of  a  ser- 
geant of  dragoons  and  his  horse.  Tlie  rebel  army  arrived  in 
the  highest  good  order  at  De  Hart's,  by  eleven  o'clock  this 
morning,  Avithout  any  loss  except  Avhat  is  before  mentioned. 
In  the  course  of  the  excursion  avc  took  tAvo  sergeants  and  six 
or  eight  privates,  and  several  deserters  came  over  to  us.' 

January  18. — Eaelt  this  morning,  a  detachment  of  rebel 
militia,  collected  from  the  neighborhood  of  Ilorseneck,  under 
Skirmish  in  ^^^'^  command  of  a  Captain  LoclcAvood,  attacked  a 
Eastchester,  N.  T.  j^iqusc  betwccn  Kiug's  Bridge  and  De  Lancey's 
Mills,  in  which  Lieutenant-Colonel  Iletfield,  Major  Ilugger- 
ford.  Captain  Knap,  a  quarter-master  and  ten  private  refugees 
of  the  lieutenant-colonel's  corps,  Avere  quartered ;  the  house 
being  bravely  defended  for  fifteen  minutes,  the  rebels  Avere 
enabled  to  set  fire  to  it,  from  then'  having  gained  possession  of 

'  Kew  Jersey  Journal,  January  18. 

17S0.]  B^VLL   AT   ^"EW    VOIIK.  253 

the  groimd  floor ;  in  consequence  of  wliicli,  this  small  party 
^vere  reduced  to  the  necessity  of  abandoning  their  post,  and 
laying  down  their  arms  ;  they  were,  of  course,  taken  prisoners, 
and  the  enemy  immediately  began  their  retreat. 

Major  Huggerford  soon  after  effected  his  escape,  and  return- 
ing, formed  a  small  body  of  refugees,  consisting  of  thirty-five 
dragoons  and  twenty-eight  infantry,  under  the  command  of 
Captain  Purdy,  instantly  pursuing  the  rebels  with  this  detach- 
ment. Tlie  infantry  took  post  upon  the  heights  beyond  East- 
chester,  and  the  mounted,  consisting  of  Cornet  Ililat,  Adju- 
tant Pugsley,  two  sergeants,  and  twenty-nine  privates,  under 
the  command  of  Lieutenant  Kipp,  continued  the  piu-suit,  and 
came  up  with  their  rear  between  New  Eochelle  and  Mamaro- 
neck,  and  resolutely  closing  with  them,  killed  twenty-three, 
and  took  forty  prisoners,  some  of  whom  are  Avounded. 

Too  much  praise  cannot  be  given  to  this  handful  of  brave 
men,  who  have  set  so  bright  an  example  to  their  injured  coun- 
trymen, and  their  behavior  upon  this  occasion  has  gained  just 
and  universal  applause.  The  only  weapon  used  by  Major 
Huggerford  and  his  determined  band  of  refugees  in  their  at- 
tack and  defeat  of  Captain  Lockwood's  party,  was  the  sabre, 
and  had  not  their  horses  been  jaded  to  a  stand  still,  every  one 
of  tlic  enemy  would  have  fallen  into  their  hands.' 

Jaxuaev  lO. — Yesteeday,  the  anniversary  of  her  Majesty's 
birtliday  was  celebrated  at  Xew  York  with  uncommon  splen- 
dor and  magnificence.  At  noon,  a  royal  salute-  uirthdar  Baii 
was  fired  from  Fort  George,  and  repeated  by  his  '"^''"'  ^'*'''- 
Majesty's  ships-of-war  at  one  o'clock.  Tlie  public  rooms  were, 
on  this  occasion,  entirely  new  painted  and  decorated  in  a  style 
wliich  reflects  honor  on  the  taste  of  the  managers.  A  Doric 
pediment  was  erected  over  the  principal  entrance,  enclosing  a 
transparent  painting  of  their  Majesties,  at  full  length,  in  their 
royal  robes,  over  Avhich  was  an  emblematical  piece,  encircled 
with  the  motto  of  "  Beitons  Strike  Home  " — the  whole  illu- 
minated with  a  beautiful  variety  of  diflercnt  colored  lamps. 

'  Rivington's  Gazette,  January  22. 

254  DIAEY    OF   THE   EEVOLUTION.  [17S0. 

In  tlie  evening,  a  most  splendid  ball  was  given  by  the  general, 
field,  and  stafi-officers  of  the  army,  to  the  garrison  and  prin- 
cipal ladies  and  gentlemen  of  the  city.  The  ball  was  opened 
at  eight  o'clock  by  the  Baroness  de  Riedesel  and  Major-Gen- 
eral  Pattison,  commandant  of  the  city  and  garrison.  Country 
dances  commenced  at  half-past  nine,  and  at  twelve  the  com- 
pany adjourned  to  supper,  prepared  in  the  two  long  rooms. 
The  tables  exhibited  a  most  delightful  appearance,  being  or- 
namented with  parterres  and  arbors,  displaying  an  elegant 
assemblage  of  natural  and  artificial  fiowers,  china  images,  &c. 
The  company  retired  about  three  o'clock  this  morning,  highly 
satisfied  with  the  evening's  entertainment,  which  abounded 
with  so  many  scenes  equally  new  and  agreeable.' 

Januaet  22. — A  WEiTEE  in  the  American  camp  at  Basken- 
ridge,  in  New  Jersey,  in  a  letter  of  this  date,  says : — ''  We 
Famine  in  the  ^^^^'^^  ^^^^  ^  ^^st  lately  in  camp,  by  general  con- 
American  Camp,  gtj-aint,  of  the  wholc  army,  in  which  we  fasted 
more  sincerely  and  truly  for  three  days  than  ever  we  did  from 
all  the  resolutions  of  Congress  piit  together.  Tliis  was  occa- 
sioned by  the  severity  of  the  weather,  and  drifting  of  the  snow, 
whereby  the  roads  were  rendered  impassable,  and  all  supplies 
of  provisions  cut  off,  until  the  ofiicers  were  obliged  to  release 
the  soldiers  from  command,  and  permit  them  to  go  in  great 
numbers  together  into  the  country  to  get  provision  where  they 
could  find  it. 

"The  inhabitants  of  tliis  part  of  the  country  discovered  a 
noble  spirit  in  feeding  the  soldiers  ;  and  to  the  honor  of  the  sol- 
diery, t/u'i/  received  what  they  yot  with  thanJcfulness,  and  did 
little  or  no  damage.  As  soon  as  the  roads  were  broken,  and 
the  brave  fellows  got  their  lellies  fuU,  they  went,  with  amaz- 
ing alacrity,  on  the  Statcn  Island  expedition  ;  but  the  British 
getting  intelligence,  our  people,  after  reconnoitring  their 
strength,  returned  not  a  little  disai^jyoiiited.  They  did  little 
more  than  burn  a  large  fortified  house  and  five  small  vessels, 
after  stripping  them  of  every  thing  valuable."'  ' 

Kivington's  Gazctlo,  January  19.  ^  Maryland  Journal,  February  8. 

1780.]  VAN    BUSKIEk's   visit   to   JERSEY.  255 

January  27. — Last  Tuesday  niglit,  a  party  of  tlio  enemy, 
consisting  of  about  tlirco  hundred  infantry,  under  tlio  command 
of  Colonel  Van  Buskii-k,  of  the  new  levies,  and  Y„nEuEkirk-3 
about  sixty  dragoons,  said  to  be  under  the  com-  ^"" '"  J"'s«y- 
mand  of  Captain  Steward,  of  the  seventeenth  light  dragoons, 
with  several  refugees — ^the  whole  in  number  nearly  four  hun- 
dred— crossed  on  the  ice  from  Staten  Island  toTrembly's  Point, 
about  three  miles  from  Elizabeth  town.  From  thence  they 
were  conducted  by  Cornelius  Iletiield,  Job  Hetfield,  and  Smith 
Hetfield,  their  principal  guides,  by  the  nearest  and  most  re- 
tired route  into  Elizabethtown.  Tliey  entered  the  town  in  two 
divisions,  before  the  alarm  was  sounded.  As  soon  as  the 
troops  that  were  in  the  town  (consisting  of  about  sixty  men) 
perceived  their  danger,  they  retreated ;  however,  they  took 
a  major  who  was  commandant  of  the  place,  two  or  three 
captains  that  lodged  in  the  town  that  night,  and  a  few  troops. 
Tliey  then  set  fire  to  the  Presbyterian  meeting  and  court  house, 
which  were  consumed  ;  plundered,  insulted,  and  took  off  some 
of  the  inhabitants,  and  retreated,  with  great  precipitation,  by 
the  way  of  De  Hart's  Point,  whose  house  they  likewise  burned. 

The  same  night  another  party  of  the  enemy,  consisting  of 
drafts  from  the  difl['erent  regiments  stationed  in  l\ew  York, 
passed. over  the  jSTorth  River  in  sleighs,  to  Powle'sIIook  ;  from 
thence  through  Bergen,  the  nearest  way  to  Xewark.  Tliey 
entered  the  town  in  three  divisions,  and  proceeded  to  the 
academy,  where  they  surprised  and  took  about  fifteen  men, 
being  all  the  troops  that  were  on  duty  in  the  town — a  lieuten- 
ant, notwithstanding  he  was  twice  a  prisoner  with  the  enemy, 
by  his  vigilance,  effected  his  escape.  They  then  set  fire  to 
the  academy,  which  they  consumed,  during  which  time  a  par- 
ty was  detached  to  several  of  the  inhabitants'  houses,  which 
tliey  rifled  of  the  most  valuable  efiects ;  that  Avhich  was  not 
portable  they  destroyed.  They  took  oflf  Justice  Hedden  and 
Robert  ISTeil,  Jun.,  two  of  the  inhabitants.  The  former  gen- 
tleman was  taken  out  of  his  bed,  and  without  any  of  his  clothes 
on  except  his  shirt  and  a  pair  of  stockings,  carried  off,  not- 
withstanding the  strongest  solicitations  of  Mrs.  Ileddcn  to  the 
oflieers,  for  permission  for  her  husband  to  dress  himself.     She 

256  DIAEY    OF   TIIE   EEVOLUTION.  [1780. 

received  t'wo  ■wounds  with  abajonet,  one  in  tlie  face,  the  other 
in  the  breast. 

They  continued  in  town  about  fifteen  or  eighteen  minutes. 
A  few  militia  being  liastily  collected,  pursued  their  rear,  by 
which  means  five  of  the  enemy  fell  into  their  hands.  Two 
of  them  died  a  short  time  after  from  the  intense  cold.  Justice 
Iledden  is  so  frost-bitten,  that  it  is  thought  he  will  lose  both 
his  legs.' 

A  correspondent  of  Eivington's  thus  refers  to  this  affair : — • 

"  Seeing  in  your  last  "Wednesday's  Gazette  an  extract  taken 

from  a  rebel  paper  of  the  second  instant,  giving  an 

Justice  Uedden.  „     ,  i  .  ,    -,     .       .  -r        ■        -r^     , 

account  oi  the  takmg  and  brnignig  J  ustice  Iled- 
den and  Hobert  JSTeil  prisoners  from  Newark  to  this  city,'  treat- 
ing ITr.  Iledden  with  great  cruelty,  and  reflecting  on  the 
officer  who  commanded  that  party,  you  may  inform  the  public 
that  the  apprehending  of  Justice  Iledden  was  no  part  of  the 
oljject  of  the  King's  officers  ;  but  that  one  Walker,  a  volunteer 
■\\'itli  them,  who  with  many  others  had  been  most  inhiimanly 
and  barbarously  treated  by  Justice  ITedden,  went  with  a  few 
of  the  privates  to  his  house  and  took  him,  without  waiting- 
long  for  him  to  put  on  his  clothes,  Avhicli  he  intentionally  de- 
layed ;  when  the  officers  perceived,  on  their  march,  his  want  of 
more  clothing,  they  provided  him  with  some. 

"  If  Mrs.  Iledden  was  wounded,  it  is  what  she  merited,  by 
her  assaulting  and  opposing  all  in  her  power,  the  carrying 
away  her  husband.  There  was  no  intent  to  liiirt  Mrs.  Iledden, 
but  to  make  her  desist  in  her  violence  ;  if  any  harm  hapi:)ened 
to  her,  she  must  blame  her  own  fury.  Mr.  Iledden  and  his 
friends  may,  if  they  have  any  sense  of  justice  remaining,  find 
that  justice  hath  in  part  overtaken  him,  when  they  reflect  on 
the  acts  of  barbarity  he  has  frequently  committed  on  many  of 
his  Majesty's  loyal  subjects  for  not  perjuring  themselves  in 
abjuring  their  lawful  sovereign,  and  swearing  allegiance  to  the 
Congress,  and  to  the  State  of  New  Jersey.  Among  many  of 
his  persecutions  were  imprisonments,  reducing  others  to  bread 
and  water  only,  stripping  many  women  and  children  of  their 

'  New  Jersey  Journal,  Fc)>ruary  2.  '  New  York.    ■ 

1Y80.]  JUSTICE   IIEDDEN.  257 

clotliing,  beds,  and  household  furniture,  and  then  banishing 
them  without  the  necessaries  of  life,  and  seizing  and  selling 
the  estates  of  a  great  number  of  his  Majesty's  subjects,  to  his 
no  small  emolument. 

"  Eobert  ITeil  is  also  notorious  in  his  way.  A  bankrupt  four 
years  past,  since  acting  under  the  pretence  of  a  sub-deputy 
quarter-master  to  the  rebel  army,  made  it  his  constant  practice 
to  take  and  dispose  of,  on  his  own  account,  to  the  Continental 
troops,  the  wheat,  corn,  and  other  grain,  and  also  the  firewood 
he  cut  from  many  valuable  lots  of  land,  belonging  to  those 
he  pleased  to  call  Tories  and  enemies  to  the  State  of  New  Jer- 
sey, whereby  both  Hedden  and  Neil  have  amassed  large  estates 
with  the  properties  of  others.  Common  justice,  it  is  hoped,  will 
prevent  their  discharge,  till  they  have  made  full  satisfaction  to 
his  Majesty's  faithful  subjects  for  the  injuries  they  have  done 
them." ' 

Febeuaet  1. — ^The  sound,  between  Long  Island  and  Con- 
necticut, is  almost  frozen  over  in  the  widest  parts  ;  and  some 
persons  have  passed  over  from  Long  Island  to  j^^^^^  j^,^j^^  g^^^ 
NorwaUc  and  other  parts  in  Connecticut  on  the  Frozen, 
ice.  "Wood  is  broiight  from  Long  Island  to  New  York  on 
sleighs.   It  is  almost  passable  from  Powle's  Hook  to  New  York.' 

Last  Sunday  evening  a  party  consisting  of  thirteen  mounted 
refugees  went  from  Staten  Island,  and  in  the  vicinity  of  Eliza- 
bethtown,  New  Jersey,  surprised  Mr.  "Wynantz,  ■^^_,^^  -n-ynantz 
a  lieutenant  of  the  rebel  militia,  and  eight  private  ^^"^  i'"^''"'^''. 
men  of  Colonel  Jacques'  regiment.  Few  republicans  on  this 
continent  are  more  remarkable  for  their  implacable  opposition 
to  his  Majesty's  government  than  some  of  these  prisoners  ;  they 
were  all  the  same  evening  seciirely  lodged  on  Staten  Island. 
Tliey  were  found  at  a  fandango,  or  merry-making,  with  a 
party  of  lasses,  who  became  planet  struck  at  the  sudden  sep- 
aration from  their  Damons.  The  further  trophies  of  this  suc- 
cessful excursion  are  three  handsome  sleighs,  with  ten  good 

Rivington's  Gazette,  February  16.        '  New  Hampshire  Gazette,  March  4. 
A'oL.  II.— IT 


liorsGS,  all  of  wliicli  vreve  yesterday  driven  to  New  York  over 
the  ice  from  Staten  Island,  an  enterprise  never  yet  attempted 
since  the  first  settlement  of  this  coimtry.' 

A  GENTLEMAN  from  Ncw  Tork  has  favored  us  with  a  speech 
of  Sir  William  Erskine.  He,  Sir  William,  riding  by  a  house  on 
Anecdote  of  Sir  ^^wg  Island,  heard  a  great  racket  made  by  some 
William  Erskine.  goidigi-s  ;  \^q  stoppcd  and  crfed  out,  "  Who  com- 
mands here  ? "  A  soldier  answered,  "  The  Devil !  "  "  A  much 
better  commander,  I  think,"  said  Sir  William,  "  than  Sir  Henry 
Clinton." ' 

Februaet  8. — Last  Saturday  morning  died  in  St.  James' 
Square,  Bristol,  England,  in  the  seventy-ninth  year  of  his  age, 
Henry  cruger  Hcmy  Cruger,  Esq.  Having  been  some  years  in 
'°'"'^-  a  very  ill  state  of  health,  he  left  New  York,  the 
place  of  his  nativity  and  residence  in  America,  where  he  had 
sustained  a  most  respectable  private  character,  and  filled  the 
varioi;s  offices  of  member  of  the  assembly  and  member  of  the 
council,  with  the  highest  reputation.  Tlie  cheerfulness  of  his 
disposition,  and  the  affability  of  his  manners,  endeared  him  to 
all  those  who  had  the  pleasure  of  his  acquaintance.  As  his 
disorder  was  of  a  singular  nature,  (which  occasioned  his  visiting 
England  by  the  advice  of  his  physician,)  his  body  was  opened 
agreeable  to  his  frequent  directions,  dictated  by  the  benevo- 
lent motive  of  promoting  the  good  of  mankind.  His  remains 
were  interred  in  the  cathedral  at  Eristol.^ 

Febeuaet  15. — ^The  following  sketch  of  the  present  situation 

of  affairs  in  Charleston,  South  Carolina,  is  communicated  by 

Affairs  in       Coloucl  Johu  Laurens : — "  Tlio  British  army,  said 

Charleston,  s.  c.  ^q  ■\^q  midcr  the  command  of  Sir  Henry  Clinton,*  are 

distributed  on  PortKoyal  Island,  John's  Island,  Stono  Ferry,  and 

'  Gaino's  Mercury,  February  V.  '  New  Hampshire  Gazette,  February  5. 

'  Eivington's  Gazette,  June  14. 

*  General  Clinton  sailed  from  New  York  on  the  26th  of  December,  1779,  and 
after  a  very  tempestuoua  voyage,  in  which  many  of  his  ships  were  disabled,  and 
most  of  his  cavalry  horses  lost,  ho  landed  on  John's  Island  on  the  13th  of  February. 





oIllKuSIEGt:  oi' 



258  DIAEY  OF   THE  EEVOLUTION.  [1780. 

horses,  all  of  -n-liicli  ^vcre  j'csterday  driven  to  New  York  over 
the  ice  from  Statcn  Idand,  an  enterprise  never  yet  attempted 
since  the  first  settlement  of  this  comitry.' 

A  GENTLEMAN  froni  New  Tork  has  favored  its  with  a  speech 
of  Sir  "William  Erskine.  He,  Sir  "William,  ridmg  by  a  honsc  on 
Anecdote  of  Sir  ^ong  Island,  heard  a  great  racket  made  hy  some 
wiumm Erskine.  goMiers  ;  hc  stoppcd  and  crfed  out,  ""Who  com- 
mands here  ? "  A  soldier  answered,  "  The  Devil !  "  "  A  much 
better  commander,  I  think,"  said  Sir  "William,  "than  Sir  Henry 
Clinton." " 

Febeuaet  S. — Last  Saturday  morning  died  in  St.  James' 
Square,  Bristol,  England,  in  the  seventy-ninth  year  of  his  age, 
Henry  Crnger  Hcury  Crugcr,  Esq.  Having  been  some  years  in 
"'''^-  a  very  ill  state  of  health,  he  left  New  York,  the 
place  of  his  nativity  and  residence  in  America,  where  he  had 
sustained  a  most  respectable  private  character,  and  filled  the 
various  offices  of  member  of  the  assembly  and  member  of  the 
council,  with  the  highest  reputation.  Tlie  cheerfulness  of  his 
disposition,  and  the  affability  of  his  manners,  endeared  him  to 
all  those  who  had  the  pleasure  of  his  acquaintance.  As  his 
disorder  was  of  a  singular  nature,  (which  occasioned  his  visiting 
England  by  the  advice  of  his  physician,)  his  body  was  opened 
agreeable  to  his  frequent  directions,  dictated  by  the  benevo- 
lent motive  of  promoting  the  good  of  mankind.  His  remains 
were  interred  in  the  cathedral  at  Bristol." 

Febeuaet  15. — ^The  following  sketch  of  the  present  situation 

of  affairs  in  Cliarleston,  South  Carolina,  is  communicated  by 

Affairs  in       Colonel  Jolm  Laurens : — "Tlie  British  army,  said 

Charleston,  s.  c.  ^q  j^g  under  the  connnand  of  Sir  Henry  Clinton,*  are 

distributed  on  PortEoyal  Island,  John's  Island,  Stono  Ferry,  and 

'  Gainc's  Mercury,  February  T.  '  New  Hampshire  Gazette,  February  5. 

'  Eivington's  Gazette,  June  14. 

''  General  Clinton  sailed  from  New  York  on  the  26th  of  December,  1779,  and 
after  a  very  tempestuous  Toyage,  in  which  many  of  his  ships  were  disabled,  and 
most  of  his  cavalry  horses  lost,  he  landed  on  John's  Island  on  the  13th  of  February. 

L  „ 


;;  1/  //  s/f>\  ii\i  1  01  It 


/,'  /  1    /    /' 

FT  V\ 

(11  U?Ll<:.sT()N 

SOI  ///    (   Wi  Ol  l\  \ 

1780.]  AFFAIKS   IN   CHAELESTOX.  259 

a  detacliment  last  night  landed  upon  James'  Island.  The 
head-quarters  are  at  Fenwick's  house,  on  John's  Island.  Four 
of  their  galleys  have  been  seen  between  John  and  James'  Isl- 
and. Tlie  number  of  troops  not  known,  supposed  to  be  much 
diminished  since  the  embarkation  at  New  York.  About  twelve 
deserters  from  the  fleet  and  anny  have  come  into  Charleston, 
and  as  many  prisoners  are  taken  by  our  light  horse.  Different 
deserters  from  the  fleet  and  army  agree  m  reporting  very  heavy 
losses  at  sea.  Tliree  ships  foundered,  many  dismasted,  one 
brig,  two  ships  are  taken,  and  brought  into  Charleston ;  a 
brig  is  carried  into  North  Carolina.  One  of  the  deserters  in- 
forms, that  thirteen  sail  were  left  on  the  rocks  of  Bermuda. 
There  is  undoubtedly  some  grand  impediment  to  the  enemy's 
progress.  All  their  horses  perished  at  sea,  and  much  of  their 
furniture  was  captured.  Three  days  ago,  passed  by  Charles- 
ton bar,  in  a  hard  gale  of  wind,  a  sixty-four  gun  ship,  a  frigate, 
and  some  transports.  Tliese  may  be  gone  to  New  York  for 
further  supplies ;  biit  all  is  conjecture.  Near  the  bar  of  Charles- 
ton daily  appears  a  frigate  and  other  ships  of  war,  reconnoi- 
tring and  blocking  up  the  harbor.  "We  have  four  Continental 
frigates,  two  French  armed  ships,  two  State  armed  ships,  six 
other  armed  vessels,  some  of  them  carrying  very  heavy  can- 
non. The  enemy's  delay  has  afforded  an  opportunity  for 
strengthening  the  lines  of  Charleston,  which  wiU  be  in  pretty 
good  order  to-morrow.  The  numher  of  men  within  the  lines 
uncertain  J  'but  hy  far  too  fe^o  for  defending  worTcs  of  near 
three  miles  in  cirmimference,  especially  considering  many  of 
them  to  ie  citizens,  and  unaccustomed  to  the  fatigues  of  a  he- 
sieged  garrison,  and  many  of  the  Continental  troops  half 

Eeinforcements  are  expected — General  Ilogan  is  within  a 
few  miles.  The  Yirgi7iia  troops  are  someichere  ! — assistance 
from  that  sister  State  has  heen  expected  these  eighteen  months. 
General  Moultrie  is  forming  a  camp  at  Bacon  Bridge,  where 
he  has  about  five  hundred  horse  belonging  to  South  Carolina — 
Baylor's  and  Bland's  regiments  of  Virginia.  General  "William- 
son is  encamped  at  Augusta — a  thousand  men  are  expected 
from  his  brigade.    General  Eichardson  and   Colonel  Carlen 

260  DIAET  OF  THE  EEVOLUTIOX.  [1780. 

are  raising  the  militia  at  and  about  Camden.  At  tliis  moment 
the  escape  of  the  Americans  depends  on  further  delay  on  the 
enemy's  part :  two  or  three  weeks  more  will  make  this  gan-ison 
strong.  The  inhabitants  in  general  are  in  good  spirits ;  com- 
petent judges  say  that  Sir  Henry  Clinton  will  then  have  cause 
to  repent  his  enterprise.  This  aifords  encouragement,  but 
events  in  war  are  uncertain ;  and  if  we  do  not  receive  assist- 
ance, the  next  intelligence  may  be  quite  contrary.' 

Maech  5. — ^Tms  day  was  hanged  at  Charleston,  Soiith 
Carolina,  Colonel  Hamilton  Ballendine,  for  making  drafts  of 
the  town  and  fortiiications.  He  was  taken  by  a  picket  guard 
CoioDei  Ballendine  """^li^^^i  General  Lmcoln  had  sent  out  to  Stono,  as 
Hanged.  ]^g  ^^g  making  his  way  to  the  enemy  ;  and  when 
ho  was  hailed  by  the  guard,  his  answer  was,  "  Colonel  Ham- 
ilton Ballendine."  The  guard  told  him  that  would  not  do,  and 
carried  him  to  the  commander  of  the  picket ;  iipon  which  he 
pulled  out  of  his  pockets  the  drafts.  The  officer  told  him 
he  was  mistaken,  and  had  him  carried  to  General  Lincoln, 
who  ordered  him  for  execution." 

Maech  12. — ^Theee  is  nothing  more  ridiculous  than  the  idle 
stories  which  are  daily  told  of  omens  and  forebodings  on  every 
trifling  occasion ;  but,  upon  great  occasions,  all 
ages  have  afforded  such  proofs  of  something  of 
this  kind,  that  the  most  learned  and  candid  have  been  obliged 
to  take  notice  of  them.  How  far  the  folloM'ing  may  be  con- 
sidered of  this  kind,  every  one  will  judge  for  himself.  Of  the 
truth  of  each  there  is  incontestable  evidence  : 

In  the  ceremony  of  coronation  in  England,  there  are  two 
swords  used :  one  representing  justice,  the  other  represent- 
ing mercy.  At  the  coronation  of  Geoi'ge  the  Third,  the  sword 
of  justice  was  brought,  but  the  sword  of  mercy  was  left  at  the 
tower.  To  liave  sent  for  it  would  have  delayed  time;  and 
therefore  the  Lord  Mayor  of  London's  sword  was  borrowed, 
and  iised  in  its  stead.     At  the  same  time  the  great  diamond 

'  Maryland  Journal,  March  21. 

'  Virginia  Gazette,  April  8;  and  Pennsylvania  Packet,  April  18. 

1780.]  LORD   EAWDOn's   KE6IMENT.  261 

fell  from  his  sceptre.  Wlien  the  same  King  reviewed  his  fleet, 
under  Keppel,  in  May,  1778,  the  weather  was  so  fine  that  hun- 
dreds of  small  boats  were  on  the  sea  ;  and  yet,  so  it  was,  that 
at  the  mast-head  of  the  royal  yacht,  on  board  which  the  King 
then  was,  the  great  union  flag  was  rent  from  top  to  bottom,  in 
the  sight  of  twenty  thousand  people.  A  pious  lady  of  New 
York,  having  some  years  ago  been  to  see  the  waxworks  shown 
there,  among  which  was  the  likeness  of  George  the  Third,  she 
dreamed  the  night  following  that  she  saw  that  King  in  his 
great  chair  fast  asleep,  and  his  crown  lying  at  his  feet.  Be- 
yond him  stood  the  devil,  and  after  some  time  he  cried  out 
with  a  strong  and  terrifying  voice,  "  Arouse,  O  Prince,  for  thy 
kingdom  is  departed  from  thee."  Tliis  dream  was  written  and 
sent  to  Mrs.  "Wright,  then  in  London,  with  a  strong  injunction 
to  show  it  to  the  King.  It  was  accordingly  handed  to  Lord 
North,  but  he  did  not  dare  to  show  it  to  his  master.' 

Maech  17. — A  MUNIFICENT  entertainment  was  given  by  Lord 
Eawdon,  colonel  of  the  Yolunteers  of  L'eland,  to  his  regiment, 
quartered  at  Jamaica,  Long  Island,  in  honor  of    1,0^4  Eawdon's 
St.  Patrick,  tutelar  saint  of  tliat  kingdom.     The      Eegiment. 
following  song  was  sung  by  Barney  Thompson,  piper  to  the 
regiment ;  tune  Langolee  : 

Success  to  the  Shamrock,  and  all  those  who  wear  it, 

Be  honor  their  portion  wherever  they  go  : 
May  riches  attend  them,  and  stores  of  good  claret, 

For  how  to  employ  them  sure  none  better  know. 
Every  foe  surveys  them  with  terror, 
But  every  silk  petticoat  wishes  them  nearer ; 
So  Yankee  keep  off,  or  you'll  soon  learn  your  error, 

For  Paddy  shall  prostrate  lay  every  foe. 

This  day,  but  the  year  I  can't  rightly  determine, 
St.  Patrick  the  vipeis  did  chase  from  the  land ; 

Let's  see,  if  like  him,  we  can't  sweep  off  the  vermin 
Who  dare  'gainst  the  sons  of  the  shamrock  to  stand. 

Hand  in  hand !  let's  carol  the  chorus — 

As  long  as  the  blessings  of  Ireland  hang  o'er  us, 

The  crest  of  Rebellion  shall  tremble  before  us, 
Like  brothers,  while  thus  we  march  hand  in  hand. 

'  Pennsylvania  Packet,  March  16. 

262  DIAEY   OF   THE   EEVOLriTOX.  [1780. 

St.  George,  and  St.  Patrick,  St.  Andrew,  St.  David, 

Together  may  laugli  at  all  Europe  in  arms. 
Fair  conquest  her  standard  has  o'er  their  heads  waved, 

And  glory  has  on  them  conferr'd  all  the  charms. 
War's  alarms !  to  us  are  a  pleasure. 
Since  honor  our  danger  repays  iu  full  measure, 
And  all  those  who  join  us  shall  find  we  have  leisure 

To  think  of  our  sport  even  in  war's  alarms." 

Mauch  24. — Day  before  yesterday,  two  detachments  of  the 
British  army  Avere  passed  over  the  Hudson  Kiver  into  Jersey — 
Descent  on  ^^'^  from  King's  Bridge,  consisting  of  tliree  hnn- 
Paramus,  N.  J.  (jj.gjj  mp^  from  tlie  brigade  of  guards,  nnder  tlie 
command  of  Lientenant-Colonel  Howard,  the  other  from  N"ew 
York,  of  equal  force,  composed  of  the  British  and  German 
troops  in  garrison,  under  tlie  command  of  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Macpherson,  of  the  forty-second  regiment.  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Howard's  detachment  landed  at  Kloster,  several  miles  above 
Fort  Lee — the  troops  from  the  city  at  Weehawk,  (Weehawken.) 
The  former  were  to  ]3enetrate  into  the  country  to  the  north- 
ward of  Hopperstown,  and  destined  to  attack  the  rear  of  the 
rebel  cantonments  at  that  place  ;  the  latter  (taking  their  route 
by  the  Little  Ferry  upon  the  Hackensack,  where  boats  were 
sent  to  transport  them  across)  were  to  have  surprised  the  town 
of  Hackensack,  in  which  a  company  of  militia  were  quartered, 
and,  pushing  forwards,  to  have  fallen  upon  the  front  of  the 
Paramus  cantonments.  Tliese  services  were  not  effected,  owing 
to  unavoidable  delays,  till  several  hours  later  than  was  intended. 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Howard  arrived  near  Hopperstown  two 
liours  after  daybreak  yesterday  morning,  and  continuing  liis 
march,  surprised  two  pickets,  and  pressed  one  of  their  can- 
tonments so  closely  as  to  oblige  the  officer  and  his  command 
to  leave  their  arms  behind  them,  which,  to  the  amount  of 
about  thirty  stand,  were  destroyed.  Their  main  body,  consist- 
ing of  between  two  and  three  hundred  men,  made  a  show  of 
defence  at  the  church ;  but,  finding  they  would  be  instantly 
attacked,  they  retired  Avitli  precipitation — were  pursued  for 
aboiat  a  mile,  and  several  prisoners  taken.     Lieutenant-Colonel 

'  Riviugton's  Gazette,  March  18. 

17S0.]  ST.    PATEICk's   DAT.  263 

Macplierson's  detacliment,  at  this  time  on  its  march  tliroiigli 
the  cantonments,  which  were  found  abandoned,  made  its  ap- 
pearance upon  the  road  near  the  chnrch,  having  taken  a  few 

Every  further  attempt  to  come  up  Avith  the  enemy  being 
impracticable,  both  detachments  returned  to  Zabriskie's  Mills, 
where,  being  joined  by  the  party  left  at  Hackensack,  which  had 
taken  several  prisoners,  the  troops  retired  by  ]S"ew  Bridge,  and 
the  English  K'eighborhood  ;  Lieutenant-Colonel  Macpherson's, 
A^dth  the  pi'isoners,  continuing  their  march  to  Weehawk,  where 
boats  were  waiting  to  receive  them. 

One  man  of  the  British  was  killed.  Captain  Ansthruther 
of  the  forty-second  regiment,  and  a  few  men  were  wounded 
upon  the  inarch  towards  the  English  ^Neighborhood,  the  rebels, 
in  loose  parties,  keeping  up  an  irregular  fire  upon  the  rear,  and 
some  men  dropped  behind  from  fatigue.  In  the  course  of  the 
marcli,  a  clergyman,  with  another  iuoifensive  inhabitant,  (taken 
prisoner  by  mistake,)  were  dismissed,  and  are  reported  to  have 
been  accidentally  shot  by  the  rebels.  Sixty-four  prisoners 
were  brought  from  Jersey ;  of  these  twenty-four  belonged  to 
the  Continental  troops,  and  a  captain  and  twenty-three  were 
militia-men.  Thirteen  deserters,  also,  who  were  a  part  of  the 
Paramus  command,  came  oif  with  their  arms.  Tlie  loss  of  the 
rebels  in  killed  and  wounded  cannot  be  ascertained.' 

Apeil  6. —  AuroTfo  the  little  army  of  rebels  at  MoiTistown, 
none  are  so  impatient  under  the  abuse  of  being  forcibly  de- 
tained after  the  expiration  of  the  terms  of  their  -ty^asii^^ton  and 
enlistment,  as  the  sons  of  St.  Patrick  who  have  ^'-  P'"^'*'^  Day. 
been  seduced  into  the  service  of  the  Congress.  Lately  they 
had  resolved  to  do  themselves  justice,  and  go  off  in  a  body, 
and  publicly  announced  that  nothing  should  prevent  it  on  the 
ensuing  annivex-sary  of  the  seventeenth  of  March.  It  was  a 
day  of  apprehension  to  some  who  looked  for  bloodshed  and 
murder,  but  American  policy  outwitted  Irish  good-humor. 

Washington,  on  the  day  before  the  feast,  gave  out  an  order 

'  Game's  Mercury,  April  3. 

2GJ:  DIAET   OF   THE   EEVOLUTION.  [1780. 

for  honoring  the  saint,  and,  for  the  gratification  of  his  vota- 
ries, ■with  a  dispensation  from  labor ;  and  the  next  morning 
was  nshered  in  with  mnsic  and  the  hoisting  of  colors,  exhibit- 
ing the  thirteen  stripes,  the  favorite  harp,  and  an  inscription 
declaring  in  capitals.  The  iNDErENCENCE  of  Ieeland.  To  ex- 
plain the  whole,  amuse  the  discontented,  and  while  away  the 
day.  Governor  Li\-ingston's  Mercuries  reported  that  seventy 
thoiisand  men  in  arms,  nnder  the  Duke  of  Leinstcr  and  Lord 
Shannon,  were  scattered  through  the  camp.  The  simple- 
hearted  Teagues,  charmed  with  the  sight  of  the  harp,  forgot 
their  sufferings,  dropped  their  complaints,  and  seemed  perfectly 
happy  for  the  moment,  though  not  a  drop  of  whiskey  or  taifie 
was  to  be  seen  in  the  camp,  unless  in  the  tents  of  the  contrivers 
of  this  dry  and  unusual  way  of  celebrating  the  tutelar  divinity 
of  England's  fair  and  jolly  sister,  the  Kingdom  of  Ireland. 

Tliis  is  the  account  of  the  deserters,  and  it  is  in  some  meas- 
ure confirmed  by  the  following  genuine  composition,  taken 
from  a  Philadelphia  paper  of  the  thirtieth  of  March.  Surely 
no  man  will  refuse  Mr.  "Washington  the  merit  due  to  liis  piety, 
ingenuity,  and  valor.  It  may  not,  however,  be  advisable  for 
him  in  future  ever  to  be  present  without  all  his  Yankee  life- 
guards at  an  L-ish  wedding  : 

"  Tlie  following  general  orders  lately  issued  by  our  illustri- 
ous general,  the  commander-in-chief  of  the  American  amiy, 
we  hope  will  be  acceptable  to  all  our  readers,  and  in  particular 
to  the  patriotic  and  joyous  sons  of  Saint  Patrick  : 

"General  Okdees. — Tlie  general  congratulates  the  army 
on  the  very  interesting  proceedings  of  the  Parliament  of  L"e- 
land,  and  of  the  inhabitants  of  that  country,  which  have  been 
lately  communicated,  not  only  as  they  ajjpear  calculated  to  re- 
move those  heavy  and  tyrannical  ojjpressions  on  their  trade,  but 
to  restore  to  a  brave  and  generous  people  their  ancient  rights 
and  freedom,  and,  by  their  operation,  promote  the  cause  of 
America.  Desirous  of  impressing  on  the  minds  of  the  anny 
transactions  so  important  in  their  nature,  the  general  directs 
that  all  fatigue  and  working  parties  cease  for  to-morrow,  the 
seventeenth  instant,  a  day  held  in  particular  regai-d  by  the 
people  of  that  nation.     At  the  same  time  he  orders  this  as  a 

1780.]  ATTACK   ON    MAJOE   BOYLES.  265 

mark  of  the  great  pleasure  -which  he  feels  on  the  occasion,  he 
persuades  himself  that  the  celebration  of  the  day  will  be  at- 
tended with  the  least  rioting  or  disorder."  ' 

Apeil  17. — ^Testeedat  morning,  a  detachment  of  two  hun- 
dred Continental  troops,  under  the  command  of  Major  Boyles, 
of  the  Pennsylvania  line,  stationed  at  Paramus,  ^^^^^■^^  „^ 
in  Jersey,  was  suddenly  attacked  by  a  party  of  Major  Eoyies. 
the  enemy,  consisting  of  about  two  hundred  horse,  and  foiu' 
hundred  foot.  Tlie  attack  commenced  a  little  after  sunrise. 
Major  Boyles,  besides  his  usual  patroles,  had  that  morning  sent 
out  two  parties,  each  with  a  commissioned  officer ;  but  such 
is  the  situation  of  that  part  of  the  country,  intersected  with 
roads,  and  inhabited  chiefly  by  disaffected  people,  that  all  pre- 
cautions failed.  His  parties  and  patroles  were  eluded,  and  the 
sentinels  near  his  quarters  were  the  first  that  gave  notice  of 
the  enemy's  approach.  He  had  just  before  paraded  and  dis- 
missed his  men.  The  advance  of  the  horse  was  so  rapid,  that 
no  time  was  left  to  reassemble  them.  Tlie  major  had  no  re- 
source but  the  defence  of  the  house  he  was  in ;  this,  there- 
fore, with  only  a  small  quarter-guard,  he  resolved  to  attempt, 
though  from  the  smallness  of  his  force,  and  its  entire  dispro- 
portion to  the  place  he  was  defending,  he  could  have  no  pros- 
pect of  success ;  but  chose  rather  to  fall  in  a  brave,  though 
hopeless  resistance,  than  to  save  himself  by  a  dishonorable 
surrender.  He  immediately  made  the  best  disposition  the 
hurry  of  the  moment  would  permit,  and  animated  his  men  by 
his  exhortation  and  example.  A  brisk  fire  ensued  on  both 
sides  ;  the  house  was  soon  surroimded  on  every  part,  and  no 
effort  of  the  little  party  seemed  caj^able  of  hindering  the  ene- 
my from  forcing  their  way.  Some  of  the  men,  intimidated  by 
so  threatening  a  scene,  began  to  cry  for  quarter ;  others,  obey- 
ing the  commands  of  their  officers,  continued  to  fire  from  the 
windows.  The  enemy  without,  upbraided  them  with  the  per- 
fidy of  asking  quarter  and  persisting  in  resistance,  desiring 
them  to  come  out  and  they  would  quarter  them.    Major  Boyles, 

'  Gaine's  Mercury,  April  24. 

266  DIABT   OF   THE   EEVOLTJTION.  [1780. 

exclaiming  in  a  determined  tone,  denied  his  haying  called  for 
quarter ;  but  his  resolution  could  not  avail,  a  surrender  took 
place,  and,  in  the  act,  the  major  received  a  mortal  wound  in 
the  left  breast,  with  Avhich  he  expired,  a  victim  to  his  gallantry 
and  refined  sense  of  duty.  So  distinguished  and  en\-iable  a 
fall  must  endear  his  memory  to  his  fellow-soldiers  and  fellow- 
citizens.  Lieiitenants  Glentworth  and  Sherman  had  thrown 
themselves  into  the  major's  quarters,  and  assisted  in  the  de- 
fence. They  displayed  great  activity  and  bravery.  The  latter 
was  wounded. 

Such  part  of  the  detachment  as  could  be  collected  together, 
aided  by  a  few  spirited  militia,  hung  close  upon  the  rear  of  the 
enemy  during  their  retreat,  and  harassed  them  with  a  con- 
tinual fire,  re-taking  four  wagons  with  phmder,  and  nineteen 
horses.  Lieutenant  Bryson,  being  a  few  days  before  detached 
by  Major  Boyles  with  a  small  party  to  the  N^ew  Bridge,  de- 
fended that  post  for  some  time  with  great  gallantry  and  cool- 
ness, he  sustaining  in  person,  with  his  espontoon,  the  attack  of 
four  horsemen,  and  receiving  several  wounds  ;  but,  being  over- 
powered with  numbers,  he  surrendered  to  one  of  their  officers. 
It  is  said  he  received  marks  of  politeness  from  them,  on  ac- 
count of  the  great  bravery  and  deliberate  courage  disi^layed 
by  him  during  the  skirmish. 

Tlie  enemy,  agreeable  to  their  usual  mode  of  procedure, 
plundered  and  burnt  the  house  and  mill  of  Mr.  John  Hoj^por, 
and  that  of  his  brothers.  In  the  former  the  family  of  Mr. 
Abraham  Brasher  lived,  who,  with  the  rest,  were  left  almost 
destitute  of  a  second  change  of  clothes.  The  commanding 
officer,  being  requested  by  Mrs.  Brasher  on  her  knees  to  spare 
the  house,  damned  her,  and  bid  her  be  gone,  declaring  they  all 
deserved  to  be  bayoneted.  Tliey  made  their  boasts,  tliat  as 
Major  Boyles  did  not  present  the  hilt  of  his  sword  in  front, 
when  surrendering,  they  shot  him.  Tlius  died  tliis  brave  and 
gallant  ofiicer,  a  victim  to  their  savage  cruelty.  The  loss  of 
the  Americans  killed,  woimded,  and  taken,  was  one  major, 
two  captains,  four  lieutenants,  and  about  forty  rank  and  file. 
Tliat  of  the  enemy,  by  their  own  acknowledgment,  near  as  many.' 

'  Pennsylvaiiia  Packet,  May  23. 

1780.]  DON  JUAN  DE  MIEKALLES.  26T 

Mat  1. — ^It  is  reported  from  Jersey,  tliat  the  minute  gims 
heard  last  Friday  afteriioou  in  the  direction  of  Morristown 
were  in  honor  of  Monsieur  Luzerne,  the  person  Rivington-s 
•who  succeeded  Gerard,  and  passing  under  the  ap-  Eumors. 
pellation  of  the  French  Amhassador,  and  that  he  died  suddenly 
at  the  rebel  camp  in  the  mountains  by  the  hand  of  violence  ; 
others  say  that  the  explosions  were  at  the  interment  of  another 
adventurer  called  the  Spanish  Amhassador.  "What  seems  to 
be  certain  is  this — that  Luzerne  had  rendered  himself  obnox- 
ious to  the  cits  of  Philadelphia,  by  an  incautious  dose  of 
French  politics,  in  advice  to  the  Congress  on  the  means  of  thick- 
ening the  lean  ranks  of  the  rebel  army — "  Press  your  people 
hard  with  taxes :  the  more  heggars,  the  more  soldiers  ;  "  that  the 
populace  threatened  to  lay  hands  upon  him,  and  that  it  was 
thought  advisable  for  son  Excellence  to  quit  the  town,  till  the 
Congress  could  find  means  to  pacify  the  unruly  multitude ; 
that  on  this  he  applied  to  the  army  for  protection,  and  was 
lately  escorted  by  Mr.  Washington  on  a  secret  visit  to  Eliza- 
bethtown,  for  a  peep  at  Staten  Island.  It  is  added  that  there 
has  been  a  great  waste  of  white  and  black  powder  at  Morris- 
town,  towards  recovering  the  credit  of  the  ambassador.  Fifty 
females,  'tis  said,  were  picked  up  for  a  dance,  and  'tis  supposed 
his  departure  will  scarce  leave  a  gill  of  taffie  in  the  whole 
camp  of  the  pious  friends  of  St.  Patrick,  whose  general  orders 
of  the  sixteenth  of  March  last,"  wiU  certainly  never  be  forgot- 
ten by  the  true  friends  of  Ireland.^ 

Friday  last,  died  at  Morristown,  in  New  Jersey,  Don  Juan 
de  Mirralles,  a  Sjaanish  gentleman  of  distinction.  His  corpse  is 
to  be  removed  to  Philadelphia,  where  it  is  to  be  interred  with 
those  marks  of  respect  which  are  due  to  gentlemen  of  his  dig- 
nified rank  and  fortune." 

May  4. — This  day,  was  celebrated  at  Philadelphia,  the 
funeral  of  the  Spanish  resident,  who  lately  died  at  Morristown. 

"  See  General  Orders,  April  6,  ante.  '^  Kivington's  Gazette,  May 

°  New  Jersey  Gazette,  May  3. 

268  DIAEY  OF  THE  REVOLUTION.  [1780. 

The  following  was  the  order  of  the  procession : — ^The  bier, 
covered  with  black  cloth  ;  Monsieur  Luzerne,  the  French  res- 
Mirraiies-  Funemi  "^"^^^  ;  the  CongrGss  ;  the  general  officers  ;  the 
at  Phiiiideiphia.  citizens.  When  the  procession  arrived  at  the  Eo- 
man  Catholic  Chapel,  the  priest  presented  the  holy  water  to 
Monsieur  Luzerne,  who,  after  sprinkling  himself,  presented  it 
to  Mr.  Huntington,  President  of  the  Congress.  The  Calvinist 
paused  a  considerable  time,  (near  a  minute,)  but  at  length  his 
affection  for  the  great  and  good  allj  conquered  all  scruples  of 
conscience,  and  he  too  besprinkled  and  sanctified  himself  with 
all  the  adroitness  of  a  veteran  Catholic ;  which  his  brethren 
of  the  Congress  perceiving,  they  all,  without  hesitation,  fol- 
lowed the  righteous  example  of  their  proselyted  president. 
Before  the  company,  which  were  extremely  numerous,  left  the 
chapel,  curiosity  induced  some  persons  to  \mcover  the  bier, 
when  they  were  highly  enraged  at  finding  the  whole  a  sham, 
tliere  being  no  corpse  under  the  cloth,  the  body  of  the  Spanish 
gentleman  having  been  several  days  before  interred  at  Morris- 
town.  The  bier  was  surrounded  with  wax  candles,  and  every 
member  of  the  egregious  Congress,  now  reconciled  to  the 
Popish  communion,  carried  a  taper  in  his  hand.' 

May  8. — ^This  year's  campaign  seems  to  be  fraught  with 
interesting  events.  "When  we  look  to  Europe,  we  there  behold 
state  of  Forei"!!  ^^"^  Contending  parties  becoming  more  and  more 
Affairs.  serioiis  in  their  determinations  :  formidable  prep- 
arations are  making,  equally  so  by  Britain  as  well  as  all  the 
other  belligerent  powers.  When  we  turn  our  eyes  to  the 
"West  India  Islands,  we  there  see  the  same  dexterous  game 
playing.  Again,  when  we  look  to  Gibraltar,  we  find  that 
Britain  intends  to  use  her  most  strenuous  efforts  in  keejiing 
possession  of  tliat  very  important  fortress  ;  and,  on  the  other 
hand,  Spain  seems  to  be  determined  to  reduce  it  imder  her  do- 
minions. The  United  Provinces,  during  the  contest,  have  all 
along  signified  their  neutrality,  thereby  tacitly  manifesting  a 
friendly  disposition  to  the  United  States.      On  viewing  the 

'  Kivington's  Gazette,  May  20. 

1780.]  SIEGE   OF   CHAELESTON.  269 

obligations  tliey  are  under  to  the  English  nation,  and  tlie  terms 
of  the  treaty  entered  into  at  the  last  peace,  the  inference  is 
plain  that  they  do  not  mean  to  take  an  active  part  in  favor  of 
Britain,  else  they  would  have  done  it  before  this  time.  Tlie 
taking  of  sundry  Dutch  vessels  by  the  Enghsh,  of  late,  will,  it 
is  thought,  pave  the  way  to  some  happy  overture.  The  capital 
power  of  Kussia  (notwithstanding  the  boasts  of  Britain  that 
she  would  at  first  asking  lend  her  assistance  to  crush  the  re- 
bellious Americans)  conducts  in  a  manner  highly  foreboding 
a  desire  that  America  may  be  rendered  free  and  independent. 
Nay,  it  is  so  manifestly  the  interest  of  all  the  European  powers 
to  have  such  an  event  take  place,  that  we  may  justly  unite  and 
say  (as  Lord  North  weepingly  confessed  in  the  House  of  Com- 
mons) Britain  is  left  without  an  ally.  "We  have  looked  to  Eu- 
rope and  find  the  prospect  beautiful ;  let  us  turn  and  view  the 
prospect  at  home :  strange  to  tell !  instead  of  a  uniformity, 
we  find  the  contrary.  Nearly  all  in  sentiment  appear  friendly, 
but  in  practice  are  inimical ;  yet,  although  some  part  of  our 
conduct  militates  against  the  cairse,  so  long  as  there  remains  a 
determination  to  maintain  om'selves  inviolate  from  British  invad- 
ers, we  will  not  view  our  situation  as  desperate.  The  Caroli- 
nas,  it  seems  probable,  will  be  the  seat  of  war  on  the  continent 
this  summer.  Perhaps  the  enemy  may  think  it  will  deserve 
the  name  of  an  important  achievement  by  sallying  out  in  par- 
ties upon  our  defenceless  towns  on  the  seacoast ;  bixt  it  would 
be  well  for  them  to  remember  it  is  possible  that  the  expense 
will  more  than  compensate  for  the  advantage  that  they  may 
think  to  gain  thereby.' 

Mat  12. — Tras  morning  the  garrison  of  Charleston,  after 
sustainmg  a  siege  of  over  a  month's  duration,  surrendered  pris- 
oners of  war  to  the  combined  fleet  and  army  of  ,j,^^  gj^.^^  ^^ 
Great  Britain.  The  following  is  a  journal  of  the  ci«"-i'2s°toa. 
siege,  from  the  day  previous  to  the  British  fleet's  crossing  the 
bar,  to  the  present  hour : — "  March  19. — ^The  British,  under 
General  Clinton,  now  encamped  on  James  Island,  seem  to  wait 

'  New  Jersey  Journal,  May  24. 

270  DIAET    OF   TUE   EEVOLrTION.  [1780. 

for  the  shipping  which  lay  off  the  bar,  and  have  been  disap- 
pointed at  the  last  springs  by  sonth-west  winds,  which  kept 
down  the  tides  so  that  they  cannot  get  over.  Tliis  day  the 
springs  are  at  the  highest,  but  the  weatlier  so  hazy  that  they 
will  scarcely  attempt  it,  and  it  will  probably  clear  up  with  un- 
favorable winds.  "\Ve  begin  to  hope  that  Providence  has  in- 
terposed a  second  time  to  prevent  their  getting  over  until  we 
are  ready.  If  they  should  get  over  either  now  or  hereafter, 
there  will  probably  be  the  hottest  contest  that  has  happened 
this  war,  just  oif  Fort  Moultrie.  Tlie  British  ships  destined  to 
come  in  are  said  to  be  the  Eenown,  fifty  guns ;  Eoebuck, 
forty-foiir ;  Blond,  thirty-two ;  Perseus,  twenty,  and  Camilla, 
twenty.  Tliese,  and  some  say  another  frigate  Avith  some  gal- 
leys, are  to  force  their  way  past  the  town,  and  ciit  off  the  com- 
munication between  Charleston  and  the  country.  To  oppose 
their  passing  the  fort,  the  Americans  have  thrown  a  boom  of 
cables  across  the  channel  at  the  fort,  and  stationed  the  Prov- 
idence, of  thirty-two  guns ;  Boston,  twenty-eight ;  Bricole, 
twenty-eight ;  Adventure,  twenty ;  French  vessel,  twenty  ; 
Queen  of  France,  eighteen ;  Truite,  twenty,  and  three  galleys, 
(seven  guns ;)  so  that  either  the  fort  or  they  must  rake  the  ene- 
my as  they  pass,  and  with  the  boom  they  hope  to  detain  them 
so  long  as  to  do  it  effectually. 

"  As  the  enemy's  chance  of  success  depends  entirely  on  get- 
ting up  their  shipping,  and  the  American  hopes  of  defending 
the  town  greatly  depend  on  preventing  it,  they  seem  deter- 
mined to  sell  the  passage  immensely  high.  The  commodore, 
in  sailor  language,  swears  if  he  cannot  defeat  them  he  will  run 
both  them  and  himself  ashore,  and  all  shall  perish  together ; 
and  every  officer  in  the  navy  is  ready  to  second  his  resolution. 
Colonel  Laurens  commands  the  marines  on  board  the  Provi- 

"  March  20. — ^This  morning  the  British  got  their  ships  over 
the  bar.  Tliey  consist  of  ten  vessels  of  force,  from  twenty 
British  Shirs  Cross  S""*'  *«  ^  sixty-four,  as  some  say,  others  a  fifty. 
Charleston  Bar.  jio-^yeyej.^  Qurs  appeared  so  inadequate  to  oppose 
them  by  Fort  Moultrie,  that  they  were  all  ordered  up  to  town. 
On  the  first  alarm  of  the  arrival  of  the  enemy,  the  Eagle  pilot- 

1780.]  SIEGE   OF   CHAELESTOJJ".  271 

boat  was  despatched  to  the  Ilavannali  to  solicit  assistance 
from  Spain.  Colonel  Touant  went  with  the  despatches^ 
and  has  this  evening  returned.  Keport  says  that  he  has  suc- 
ceeded, and  that  we  may  expect  three  seventy-fours  and  thir- 
teen frigates  every  hour,  with  three  thousand  land  forces. 
Nothing  has  yet  transpired  from  authority.  I  am  just  come 
from  the  general's,  but  can  learn  nothing  without  being  too  in- 
quisitive. It  is  now  left  to  a  stand  in  the  town,  which  I  trust 
will  remain  until  "Woodford  arrives  with  the  Virginia  line.  Tlie 
enemy  have  not  yet  summoned  the  town,  nor  made  any  move- 
ment indicating  an  immediate  attack.  It  is  said  that  Lord 
Cornwallis  is  against  it  entirely,  and  that  the  army  seems  much 
dispirited  ;  but  Clinton  is  bent  on  it.  This  is  the  most  of  our 
present  intelligence.  Our  lines  round  the  whole  town  are 
nearly  completed,  except  by  Gadsden's  wharf,  where  the  works 
on  the  bay  should  join  those  on  the  land.  Our  people  are 
hard  at  work  there  now,  as  we  dread  the  enemy's  shipping  on 
that  quarter.  "We  have  on  the  Ashley  Eiver,  or  south  side  of 
the  town,  six  batteries — some  ten  guns,  some  six,  some  four, 
none  less,  so  that  no  vessel  can  lay  before  them.  Four  of  them 
cross-fire  the  only  landing-place  on  that  quarter,  besides  field- 
pieces  at  proper  distances  all  along  the  line.  On  the  bay  side  we 
have  four  batteries  of  Palmetto,  and  a  line  of  Palmetto.  On 
the  Neck  we  have  seven  batteries  along  the  line,  some  redoubts 
to  the  left,  a  regular  fort  to  the  right,  and  a  horn  M^ork  by  the 
gateway.  In  front  of  the  line  is  a  good  line  of  abattis,  a  canal, 
most  of  it  filled  with  water,  and  the  side  of  the  canal  is  abattied 
also.  Only  the  north-east  corner,  rather  than  a  side,  by  Gads- 
den's wharf,  is  unprovided  with  proper  defence.  This,  I  trust, 
Ave  will  have  time  to  fortify.  Four  pieces  of  cannon  scour  the 
canal  in  front  of  the  lines. 

"  March  27. — ^This  morning  Colonel  "Washington,  with  a 
party  of  horse  reconnoitring,  came  up  with  a  light  party  of 
the  British,  on  which  an  engagement  ensued,  coionei  washm»- 
when  the  Americans  took  a  Colonel  Hamilton  of  *""'''  Adventure. 
the  North  Carolina  refugees,  a  Doctor  Smith,  and  seven  pri- 
vates, and  it  is  said  they  had  seven  killed.  The  Americans 
had  only  one  man  badly  wounded.     Tliis   action  happened 

272  DIAKY   OF   THE   EEVOLTJTION.  [1780. 

"vritliin  one  linndred  yards  of  the  British  flying  army,  consisting 
of  light  infantry  and  grenadiers,  whose  marching  across  the 
field  to  get  in  the  rear  of  the  Americans  obliged  Colonel  "Wash- 
ington to  order  a  retreat ;  otherwise  their  whole  party  Avould 
liave  been  cnt  to  pieces.' 

"  March  30. — Yesterday,  a  large  body  of  British  grena- 
diers and  infantry  crossed  Ashley  Kiver,  and  to-day  they  ap- 
Coionci  Lnurens'  pcared  before  the  American  lines,  where  they  are 
Skirmish.  j^Q^y  encamped.  As  the  enemy  approached.  Col- 
onel John  Lanrens,  with  a  small  party,  had  a  brush  with  the 
advance  body,  in  which  Captain  Bowman,  of  the  North  Caroli- 
na forces,  fell,  mnch  lamented ;  Major  Heme  and  two  privates 
were  wonnded.  Tlie  enemy's  loss  is  reported  to  be  from  twelve 
to  sixteen  killed.  A  French  gentleman,  who  was  volunteer  in 
the  action,  says  he  counted  eight  and  a  Highland  deserter  says 
a  Colonel  St.  Clair  was  mortally  woimded." 

^^  April  7. — ^Tliis  afternoon,  about  three  o'clock.  General 
"Woodford  and  his  brigade  arrived  in  town,  after  a  most  rapid 
march  of  five  hundred  miles  in  thii'ty  days,  in  perfect  health, 
and  high  spu-its. 

'^April  8. — ^Tliis  afternoon,  between  three  and  five  o'clock, 
the  British  fleet  passed  Fort  Moultrie,  in  a  heavy  gale,  and 
British  Fleet  off  anchored  between  Fort  Johnson  and  Charleston, 
Fort  Johnson,  j^^gj.  q^^j-  gf  j-eacli  of  the  guns  from  the  town, 
where  they  now  continue.  Tliey  were  so  covered  with  the 
thunder  storm  as  to  be  invisible  near  half  the  time  of  their 
passing.  One  of  their  frigates  had  a  fore-topmast  shot  away 
by  a  camion  at  the  fort,  and  a  store  shij)  was  so  injured,  in  her 
rudder,  as  to  be  incapable  of  working,  and  the  gale  being 
fresh  she  went  on  shore,  under  the  guns  of  our  half-moon  bat- 
tery, on  the  point  of  the  island,  which  obliged  them  to  burn 
her,  to  prevent  her  falling  into  our  hands.  After  burning  a 
while  she  blew  up.  "We  had  not  a  man  hurt  at  the  fort, 
though  they  kept  up  a  brisk  fire  as  they  passed. 

"  Our  garrison  is  in  good  health  and  high  spirits,  the  town 

Pennsylvania  Packet,  April  25  and  May  2. 

Extract  of  a  letter  from  Charleston,  in  the  Pennsylvania  Packet,  April  23. 


1780.]  SIEGE   OF   CHAELESTON.  273 

■well  fortified  and  defended  by  a  nnmerons  artillery ;  Sir  Ilenry 
apjiroacliing  very  slowly,  and  our  men  longing  for  the  hour  in 
wliic'li  lie  may  afford  tliem  the  oiiportimity  of  teaching  the  te- 
merity of  the  present  expedition.' 

^'■Apnl  12. — ^Day  before  yesterday,  the  British  having  com- 
pleted their  first  parallel,  summoned  the  town  to  surrender,  of 
which  General  Lincoln  took  no  notice;  and  to-day  Clinton 
opened  his  batteries,  which  are  answered  by  the  Americans 
with  spirit,  but  not  with  the  effect  that  will  insure  success,  the 
enemy's  fire  being  far  superior  to  ours.  Governor  Eutledge 
has  taken  post  in  the  country  between  the  Cooper  and  Santee 
Elvers.  A  work  is  ordered  to  be  thrown  up  on  the  Wando, 
nine  miles  from  town,  and  another  at  the  pioint  at  Lamprieres, 
to  preserve  the  communication  with  the  country  by  water.' 

'■'■Aiml  18. — ^The  cannonading  on  both  sides  still  continues. 
General  Clinton  received  a  reinforcement  from  New  York  yes- 
terday, and  it  is  probable  he  will  make  a  further  advance  on  us 
soon.  He  is  very  cautious,  and  moves  with  all  the  care  and 
deliberation  of  an  old  Eoman,  which  he  certainly  is  not.  Our 
men  are  in  good  spirits,  although  it  seems  to  be  the  general 
opinion  that  we  must  at  last  succumb  ;  not  without  a  hard 
fight,  however. 

"  Last  Friday,  (lith,)  the  party  of  Americans,  posted  to  pre- 
serve the  communication  between  the  country  and  the  town, 
were  surprised  at  Monk's  Corner  by  a  body  of  British  imder 
the  command  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Tarleton.'  A  negro  slave, 
for  a  sum  of  money,  conducted  the  British  from  Goose  Creek,  in 
the  night,  through  unfrequented  paths.  Although  the  com- 
manding ofiicer  of  the  American  cavalry  had  taken  the  pre- 
caution of  having  his  horses  saddled  and  bridled,  and  the 
alarm  was  given  by  his  videttes,  posted  at  the  distance  of  a 
mile  in  front ;  yet,  being  entirely  unsupported  by  the  infantry, 
the  British  advanced  so  rapidly,  notwithstanding  the  opposi- 
tion of  the  advanced  guard,  that  they  began  their  attack  upon 
the  main  body  before  the  men  could  put  themselves  in  a  pos- 
ture of  defence. 

^  Pennsylvania  Packet,  May  2.  '  Clift's  Diary;  and  Gordon,  iii.  47. 

'  EUiot  Manuscript. 
Vol  II.— 18 

274r  DIAKY  OF   THE   KEVOLrXION.  [1780. 

'■'•April  21. — ^Tlie  Britisli  have  completed  their  second  par- 
allel, which  is  within  three  hundred  yards  of  the  American 
lines.  At  a  council  of  war  held  this  morning,  it  was  decided 
that  offers  of  capitulation  should  be  made  to  the  British  com- 
mander, '  which  may  admit  of  the  army's  withdrawing,  and 
afford  security  to  the  persons  and  property  of  the  inhabitants.' 

'■'■April  21:. — Sir  Hemy  Clinton  rejects  the  American  offers 
of  capitulation,  and  is  actively  pushing  forward  his  third  paral- 
lel, which  is  not  more  than  three  hundred  feet  from  our  lines. 
This  morning  Lieutenant-Colonel  Henderson  led  out  a  party 
of  Americans,  and  attacked  the  advance  working  party  of  the 
British,  killed  several,  took  eleven  prisoners,  and  returned  to 
the  lines  victorious.  In  this  sally,  Captain  Moultrie,  a  brother 
of  the  general,  was  killed." 

"■May  6.— This  afternoon,  the  garrison  at  Fort  IMoultrie 
was  summoned  to  surrender  by  Captain  Charles  Hudson,  com- 
mander of  his  Majesty's  ship  Eichmond.  The  commander  of 
the  fort  answered,  '  it  should  be  defended  to  the  last  extrem- 
ity ; '  but  the  officer  carrying  the  refusal  had  proceeded  but  a 
little  way  on  his  return,  when  he  was  called  back  and  told 
that  the  storm  which  was  threatened  by  Captain  Hudson  must 
prove  a  very  serious  affair,  and  therefore  the  garrison  had 
consented  to  submission." 

"  May  12. — Yesterday  the  Britisli  advanced  within  thirty 
yards  of  the  American  lines,  and  commenced  preparations  for 
^^^  a  combined  assault  by  sea  and  land.    The  reduced 

Capitulation,  g^ate  of  the  garrison,  the  urgent  solicitations  of  the 
inhabitants,  and  the  clamors  of  the  soldiery,  compelled  Gen- 
eral Lincoln  to  renew  negotiations  with  the  British  command- 
ers ;  and  to-day  the  articles  of  capitulation  have  been  signed. 

'  Gordon,  iii.  48. 

'  Kivington's  Gazette,  May  31.  The  same  paper  says :— We  are  informed  a 
great  quantity  of  silver  plate  was  found  in  tlie  fort  on  taking  possession  of  it.  The 
inhabitants  of  Carolina  in  general,  buried  their  plate  in  Charleston,  thinking  it  a 
safer  depositum  than  risking  it  underground  on  their  plantations,  where,  from 
the  curious  and  nefarious  disposition  of  their  negroes,  resident  on  the  spot,  it 
should  be  discovered  and  stolen ;  and  by  preferring  this  method  of  concealment, 
they  have  all  secured  their  effects. 

1780.]  SIEGE   OF  CHARLESTON.  275 

It  is  stipulated  that  tlie  Continental  troops  and  sailors  shall  re- 
main prisoners  of  war  until  exchanged,  and  be  si;pplied  with 
good  and  wholesome  provisions,  in  such  quantity  as  is  served 
out  to  the  British  troops.  Tlie  militia  are  to  return  home  as 
prisoners  on  parole,  which,  as  long  as  they  observe,  is  to  secure 
them  from  being  molested  in  their  property  by  British  troops. 
The  officers  of  the  army  and  navy  are  to  keep  their  swords, 
piistols,  and  baggage,  which  is  not  to  be  searched,  and  are  to  re- 
tain their  servants.  Tlie  garrison,  at  an  appointed  hour,  is  to 
march  out  of  the  town,  to  the  ground  between  the  works  and 
the  canal,  where  they  are  to  deposit  their  arms.  The  drums  are 
not  to  beat  a  British  march,  nor  the  colors  to  be  uncased.  All 
civil  officers  and  citizens  who  have  borne  arms  during  the 
siege,  are  to  be  prisoners  on  parole,  and  with  respect  to  their 
property  within  the  city,  they  are  to  have  the  same  terms  as 
the  militia.  All  persons  in  the  town,  not  described  in  any 
article,  are,  notwithstanding,  to  be  prisoners  on  parole.  It  is 
left  to  future  discussion  whether  or  no  a  year  shall  be  allowed 
to  all  such  as  do  not  choose  to  continue  under  the  British  gov- 
ernment, to  dispose  of  their  effects  real  and  personal,  in  the 
State,  without  any  molestation  whatever,  or  to  remove  such 
part  thereof  as  they  choose,  as  well  as  themselves  and  families, 
and  whether,  during  that  time,  they,  or  any  of  them,  shall 
have  it  in  their  option  to  reside  occasionally  in  town  or  coun- 
try. Tlie  French  consul,  the  subjects  of  France  and  Spain, 
with  their  houses,  papers,  and  otlier  movable  property,  are  to 
be  protected  and  untouched  ;  but  they  are  to  consider  them- 
selves as  prisoners  on  parole."  ' 

Mat  14. — Among  the  many  good  effects  which  daily  arise 
from  General  Sir  Henry  Clinton's  descent  upon  the  Carolina 
Sultans,  we  are  told  the  following:  The  inhab-  The  Effect  of 
itants  of  Hillsborough  county.  North  Carolina,  cunton's  success. 
have  sent  a  deputation  informing  Lieuten ant-General  Earl 
Cornwallis  that  they  have  taken  arms,  declared  for  the  resto- 
ration of  their  old  constitution,  and  are  ready  to  march  on 

'  Gordon's  American  Revolution,  iii.  49. 

276  DIAKT   OF  THE   KEVOLUTION.  [1780. 

receipt  of  his  lordsliip's  commands  for  that  purpose,  and  carry 
his  lordship's  order  into  the  most  perfect  eftect. 

The  rebel  colonels  of  the  South  Carolina  cavalry,  Messieurs 
Uuger  and  Horry,  having  been  sent  to  his  excellency  Gen- 
eral Clinton  with  a  letter,  they  approached  head-quarters, 
preceded  with  a  white  handkerchief  on  a  pole,  by  way  of 
flag,  and  communicated  to  the  gentlemen  in  waiting  their 
orders,  which  implied  a  modest  proposal  of  a  treaty  for  an  ex- 
change of  prisoners,  addressed  by  Mr.  Eutledge,  the  titular 
governor  of  South  Carolina  ;  to  which  answer  was  given  that 
no  such  character  could  be  acknowledged  ;  and,  as  their  mes- 
sengers had  violated  their  parole,  by  venturing  into  Charles- 
ton without  leave  of  absence  from  their  prescribed  limits  first 
obtained,  they  were  immediately  committed  to  the  custody 
of  the  illustrious  Mr.  Cunningham,  provost -marshal ;  where, 
having  remained  a  short  time  as  a  punishment  for  their  pre- 
sumption, they  were  indulged  with  an  order  delivered  by  the 
Honorable  George  Hanger  for  their  enlargement,  and  a  hint 
to  fly  in  the  night,  and  thereby  escape  with  their  lives  from 
the  fury  of  the  inflamed  loyalists,  who  were  already  collected 
in  great  numbers  at  Charleston,  determined  to  seize  the  first 
occasion  of  retaliating  on  the  rebels  the  many  murders  com- 
mitted upon  their  relations  by  their  mock  courts  of  judica- 
ture, Mr.  Kutledge  having  signed  the  death-warrants  of  several 
scores  of  his  Majesty's  liege  subjects  who  were  by  their  juries 
condemned  to  the  cord.  These  gentry  took  the  hint,  and  with 
the  rapidity  of  the  winged  Pegasus,  or  the  fiery -footed  Phle- 
gon,  soon  in  safety  reached  their  appointed  district." 

"When  it  was  found  necessary  to  call  in  the  detachment  of 

American  troops  which  had  been  posted  at  Lampriere's  Ferry," 

Anecdote  of     oppositc  to  Charleston,  South  Carolina,  three  men 

Joseph  wigfaii.   Qf  General  Hogan's  North  Carolina  brigade  were 

by  some  accident  left  behind  ;  who,  being  in  danger  of  falling 

'  Rivington's  Gazette,  June  11. 

'  After  the  British  had  been  strengthened  by  the  reinforcements  from  New 
Tork,  on  the  18th  of. April,  they  toolc  post  on  Haddrcll's  Point,  and  obliged  the 
Americans  to  abandon  their  post  at  Lamprieres. 


into  tlie  enemy's  hands,  took  shelter  in  the  -woods,  and  -were 
travelling  on  towards  Georgetown.  Li  hopes  of  facilitating 
their  march,  and  to  profit  by  misfortune,  one  of  them,  who 
was  clad  in  scai-let,  suggested  a  stratagem  of  which  his  com- 
rades approved,  and  which  he  carried  into  effect.  He  left  his 
anns  and  ammunition  with  the  other  two,  and  went  into  the 
plantation  of  a  poltroon  Tory,  or  one  of  those  mean-spirited 
wretches  who  ought  forever  to  bo  stigmatized  xmder  the  char- 
acter of  property  men,  and  to  be  made  fair  game  to  all  parties. 
These  creatures  were  early  eager  and  noisy  in  fomenting  the 
present  war,  but  withdrew  themselves  the  moment  in  which 
their  feai's  dictated  danger  to  their  persons  or  their  estates. 

The  brave  North  Carolinian  personated  a  messenger  de- 
spatched by  some  of  that  tribe,  and  addressed  the  owner  of 
the  plantation  in  the  following  tenns  :• — "Sir,  I  understand  you 
are  a  friend  to  the  King  and  his  government."  Tlie  property 
man,  not  a  little  alarmed  at  the  sight  of  a  red-coat,  hastily  in- 
terrupted him,  "  Yes,  yes,  sir !  I  am  as  true,  faithful,  and 
loyal  a  subject  as  any  in  his  Majesty's  dominions."  "  I  have 
been  told  so,"  said  the  soldier.  "  I  am  sent  by  some  of  his 
Majesty's  friends  to  inform  Lord  Cornwallis  of  the  approach 
of  a  rebel  army  from  the  nortliward,  which  is  coming  on  very 
rapidly,  and  I  am  afraid  will  surprise  that  pai-t  of  the  King's 
army  which  his  lordship  commands  in  this  qiiarter  of  the  coun- 
try, unless  his  lordship  is  speedily  apprised  of  their  design.  I 
have  travelled  through  swamps  and  thick  woods  to  avoid  be- 
ing stopped  by  the  rebels  ;  and  last  night  liad  the  misfortune 
to  lose  my  horse,  saddle,  &c.,  &c.  "  Sir,"  replied  the  Tory, 
"  you  shall  have  the  best  horse  I  am  master  of,  my  own  riding 
horse,  and  I  beg  you  will  be  expeditioi^s  in  delivering  your 
message ;  for  if  the  rebels  come  here  I  shall  be  ruined,  per- 
haps hanged ;  I  don't  knoAV  what  they'll  do  to  me,  because  I 
am  a  faithful  subject.  Boy  !  saddle  Spider,  and  bring  him  im- 
mediately for  this  gentleman — make  haste."  Spider,  a  fine 
blooded  horse,  was  produced,  with  saddle,  bridle,  holsters  and 
pistols.  This  encouraged  the  soldier  to  intimate  the  loss  of  his 
side-arms.  The  turn-coat,  with  eqiial  haste,  supplied  him  with 
his  own  militia  sword.    "When  the  soldier  was  ready  to  mount, 

278  DIAKT   OF   THE   EEVOLUTION.  [17S0. 

he  remarked  the  -weather  looked  gloomy,  and  threatened  rain, 
and  that,  among  other  articles,  he  had  lost  his  surtout.  "  Sir," 
said  the  apostate,  "  I  have  a  very  fine  roculoe  at  your  service ; 
pray,  make  use  of  it,  and  go  on  as  fast  as  possible,  through 
Avet  and  dry :  your  business  is  of  great  consequence."  Thus 
equipped,  the  soldier  rode  off,  and  presently  rejoined  his  com- 
panions, who  were  waiting  for  him  in  the  bush.  Tlie  three, 
all  armed,  and  one  nioimted,  proceeded  on  their  journey  for 
Georgetown.  "When  they  had  marched  a  few  miles,  they  en- 
countered two  of  the  British  light  horse,  who  had  been  ma- 
rauding and  plundering  helpless  women  of  their  apparel. 
These  fellows  they  took  into  custody,  and  conducted  them 
safely  into  Georgetown,  together  with  Spider  and  his  furni- 
ture, the  captured  cavalry  and  their  accoutrements,  the  sil- 
ver mounted  sword,  and  the  "  very  fine  roculoe,"  splendidly 
marked  on  the  cape,  Joseph  "Wigfall. 

This  genius,  or  a  brother  of  his,  had  been  a  militia  officer 
for  a  while,  and  affected  to  bear  arms  against  the  tyrant,  as  he 
then  called  his  King.  In  a  voyage  which  he  made  some  time 
ago  to  Bermuda,  his  vanity  prompted  to  take  with  him  his 
regimentals,  for  showing  away  among  the  islanders.  On  his 
return,  tlie  A'esscl  in  Avliicli  he  was  passenger,  was  chased  by 
another,  supposed  to  be  a  British  cruiser.  His  apprehensions 
of  being  discovered  in  the  sham  character  of  a  rebel  officer, 
pointed  out  tlie  necessity  of  concealing  the  blue  coat  with 
scarlet  lappels,  which  he  effected  by  putting  it  on  the  body  of 
his  wife,  covered  by  her  stays  and  gown.  These  circumstances 
were  related  on  his  landing  in  North  Carolina,  by  himself,  in 
great  glee,  as  an  instance  of  his  sagacity,  or,  as  he  termed  it, 
"  being  too  cunning  for  the  chaps."  ' 

A  GENTLEMAN  wlio  lately  left  Albany,  says  that  the  chief 
Continental  butcher  there,  is  ordered  to  employ  a  number  of 
The  Continental  ^^^*^  otlicr  butclicrs  iu  catcliiug  fisli,  sucli  as  her- 

Butcber.  j.j,jg  ^^^^  sturgcou,  for  tlic  iisc  of  the  (-ontinental 
army,  as  their  money  is  reduced  to  so  low  an  ebb  that  they 

'  Pennsylvania  Packet,  July  15. 

1780.]  THE   DAEK   DAY.  279 

cannot  afford  beef ;  and  that  they  have  a  guard  at  the  farm 
of  General  Scliuyler,  near  Saratoga,  to  prevent  the  inhabitants 
getting  any  share  of  the  fishing.' 

The  ladies  of  Charleston,  since  the  capture  of  that  place, 
have  uniformly  refused  to  associate  with  the  British  officers,  or 
to  attend  any  of  their  assemblies,  or  places  of  The  Ladies  of 
public  amusement ;  and,  having  been  reduced  to  Charleston. 
the  necessity  of  selling  their  buckles  for  a  subsistence,  they 
now  wear  black  and  white  roses  iu  their  shoes,  in  honor  of  the 

May  20. — Testeeday  we  were  visited  by  a  most  unusual 
and  uncomfortable  phenomenon.  As  early  as  ten  o'clock  in 
the  morning,  a  thick  darkness  came  over  the  face  ^^^ 

of  the  country,  so  that  it  was  impossible  to  move      ^^"''^  °''^- 
about  the  house  M'ithout  the  assistance  of  a  candle.     Many 
persons  were  much  frightened  at  the  sudden  darkness,  and 
some  thought  that  judgment-day  had  come.     The  cause  of  this 
strange  appearance  is  now  explained. 

A  writer  in  the  Boston  Country  Journal  gives  the  follow- 
ing particuhir  account  of  the  phenomenon  : — "As  the  darkness 
which  happened  on  last  Friday  was  imusual,  and  to  many  people 
surprising,  it  will  no  doubt  gratify  the  public  to  liave  the  ob- 
servations which  have  been  made  in  various  parts,  communi- 
cated. In  this  way  we  may  learn  the  extent,  and  perhaps 
ascertain  the  cause,  of  so  remarkable  a  phenomenon.  "With 
these  views  I  send  you  the  enclosed. 

"  The  observations  from  the  first  coming  on  of  the  darkness 
to  four  o'clock  p.  m.,  were  made  by  several  gentlemen  of  lib- 
eral education,  at  the  house  of  the  Eev.  Mr.  Cutler,  of  Ipswich 
Hamlet.  There  are  some  things  worth  noticing  before  and 
after  this  time.  Tlie  hemisphere  for  several  days  had  been 
greatly  obscured  with  smoke  and  vapor,  so  that  the  sun  and 
moon  appeared  unusually  red.     On  Tliursday  afternoon  and 

Rivington's  Gazette,  May  17. 
'Ivania  Packet,  March  ; 

280  DIAET   OF   THE   REVOLUTION.  [1780. 

in  the  evening,  a  thick  cloud  lay  along  at  the  sontli  and  sonth- 
west,  the  wind  small.  Friday  morning  earlj^,  the  sun  appeared 
as  it  had  done  for  several  days  before,  the  wind  about  south- 
west, a  light  breeze,  and  the  clouds  from  the  south-west  came 
over  between  eight  and  nine  o'clock ;  the  sun  was  quite  shut 
in,  and  it  began  to  shower,  the  clouds  continuing  to  rise  from 
the  south-west,  and  thicken  from  the  thickness  of  the  clouds, 
and  the  confusion  which  attended  their  motions.  We  ex- 
pected a  violent  gust  of  wind  and  rain ;  the  wind,  however, 
near  the  earth,  continued  small,  and  it  rained  but  little.  About 
eleven  o'clock  the  darkness  was  such  as  to  demand  our  atten- 
tion, and  put  us  upon  making  observations.  At  half-past  elev- 
en, in  a  room  with  three  windows,  twenty-four  panes  each,  all 
opened  towards  the  south-east  and  south,  large  print  could  not 
be  read  by  persons  of  good  eyes.  About  twelve  o'clock,  the 
windows  being  still  open,  a  candle  cast  a  shade  so  well  defined 
on  the  wall,  as  tliat  profiles  were  taken  with  as  much  ease 
as  they  could  have  been  in  the  night.  About  one  o'clock,  a 
glimpse  of  light  which  had  continued  till  this  time  in  the  east, 
shut  in,  and  the  darkness  was  greater  than  it  had  been  for  any 
time  before.  Between  one  and  two  o'clock,  the  wind  at  the 
west  freshened  a  little,  and  a  glimpse  of  light  appeared  in  that 
quarter.  "We  dined  about  two,  the  windows  all  open,  and  two 
candles  burning  on  the  table.  In  tliis  time  of  tlie  greatest 
darkness,  some  of  the  dunghill  fowls  went  to  their  roost ;  cocks 
crowed  in  answer  to  each  other,  as  they  commonly  do  in  the 
night ;  wood-cocks,  wliich  are  night  birds,  whistled  as  they  do 
only  in  the  dark  ;  frogs  peeped  ;  in  short,  there  was  the  ap- 
pearance of  midnight  at  noon-day.  About  three  o'clock  the 
light  in  the  west  increased,  the  motion  of  the  clouds  more  thick, 
their  color  higher  and  more  brassy  than  at  any  time  before  ; 
there  appeared  to  be  quick  flashes  or  coruscations,  not  unlike  the 
aurora  borealis.  Between  three  and  four  o'clock  we  were  out 
and  perceived  a  strong,  sooty  smell ;  some  of  the  company  were 
confident  a  cliimncy  in  the  neighborliood  must  be  burning  ;  oth- 
ers conjectured  the  smell  was  more  like  that  of  burned  leaves. 
Aboiit  half-past  four,  our  company,  which  had  passed  an  unex- 
pected night  very  cheerfully  together,  broke  up.     I  will  noAv 

1T80.]  ATTACK  ON  UOESE  NECK.  281 

give  you  wliat  I  noticed  afterwards.  I  found  tlie  people  at  tlie 
taveru  near  by  much  agitated.  Among  other  things  which  gave 
them  much  surprise,  they  mentioned  the  strange  appearance  and 
smell  of  the  rain  water,  which  they  had  saved  in  tubs.  Upon 
examining  the  water,  I  found  a  slight  scum  over  it,  which,  rub- 
bing between  my  thumb  and  finger,  I  found  to  be  nothing  but  the 
black  ashes  of  burnt  leaves.  The  water  gave  the  same  black, 
sooty  smell  which  we  had  observed  in  the  air,  and  confirmed 
me  m  my  opinion  that  the  smell  mentioned  above  was  occa- 
sioned by  the  smoke,  or  very  small  particles  of  burnt  leaves, 
which  had  obscured  the  hemisphere  for  several  days  past,  and 
were  now  brought  down  by  the  rain.  The  appearance  last 
mentioned  served  to  confirm  the  hj'pothesis  on  which  we  had 
endeavored  to  account  for  the  unusual  darkness.  The  vast 
body  of  smoke  from  the  woods,  which  had  been  burning  for 
many  days,  mixing  with  the  common  exhalations  from  the  earth 
and  water,  and  condensed  by  the  action  of  winds  from  oppo- 
site points,  may  perhaps  be  sufiicient  causes  to  produce  the 
surprising  darkness. 

"The  wind  in  the  evening  passed  round  further  north,  where 
a  black  cloud  lay,  and  gave  us  reason  to  expect  a  sudden  gust 
from  that  quarter.  Tlie  wind  brought  that  body  of  smoke  and 
vapor  over  us  in  the  evening,  (at  Salem,  Massachusetts,)  and 
perhaps  it  never  was  darker  since  the  children  of  Israel  left 
the  house  of  bondage.  This  gross  darkness  held  till  about  one 
o'clock,  although  the  moon  had  fulled  but  the  day  before. 

"  Between  one  and  two,  the  wind  freshened  up  at  north-east, 
and  drove  the  smoke  and  clouds  away,  which  had  given  dis- 
tress to  thousands,  and  alarmed  the  brute  creation."  ' 

Mat  23. — ^Yesterday  afternoon.  Colonel  Delanccy,  with  a 
party  of  his  loyal  refugees,  made  an  incursion  of  about  thirty 
miles  into  the  enemy's  country.  The  foot  took  Doiancey-s  Attack 
post  at  Byram  Bridge,  while  the  horse  passed  on  uorse  Neck. 
Sherwood's  Bridge,  and  proceeded  to  Horse  Neck,  where  a 
party  of  rebels  were  stationed.     They  immediately  attacked 

'  "  Viator,"  in  the  Country  Journal,  May  29,  and  New  Jersey  Gazette,  June  21 

282  DIAET   OF   THE   EEVOLUTIOX.  [1780. 

tliem,  killed  eight,  took  prisoners  a  lieiitenant,  a  commissary, 
a  Mr.  Knap,  a  Presbyterian  parson,  and  thirty-six  rank  and 
file ;  also  took  and  destroyed  a  pieoe  of  cannon,  which  the 
Jonathans  in  vain  endeavored  to  defend.  The  loyalists  were 
so  quick  upon  them  that  they  coidd  not  discharge  it  more  than 
twice  before  it  was  taken  possession  of.  Lieutenant  Kipp,  with 
a  small  detachment  under  his  command,  took  six  prisoners  at 
another  place.  The  loss  of  the  rebels  woirld  have  been  much 
greater  liad  it  not  been  for  a  wood  near  where  they  lay,  in 
which  they  took  shelter,  and  where  it  was  impossible  for  Col- 
onel Delancey's  horse  to  act.  Tlie  only  loss  the  refugees  sus- 
tained, was  Captain  Fowler,  a  brave  and  gallant  officer,  who 
Avas  unfortunately  killed  from  a  window  of  the  house  where 
the  picket  guard  was  posted.' 

June  1. — ^The  love  and  attachment  of  the  French  nation 
for  America,  is  carried  at  this  time  to  such  a  degree  of  en- 
Doctor  Fmnkiin  thusiasm  as  is  difficult  to  be  conceived.  Tliere 
and  the  French,  j^j.^  ^^^^  pcrsouages  that  have  borne  an  interest- 
ing part  in  this  contest,  but  have  emi)loyed  the  hands  of  the 
most  famous  artists,  and  the  pens  of  the  brightest  geniuses  of 
that  nation.  But  among  so  many  illustrious  characters,  tlic 
celebrated  Dr.  Franklin  is  distinguished  in  a  particular  man- 
ner ;  and  of  the  several  homages  that  are  incessantly  offered 
to  his  merit,  none  must  ever  have  been  more  flattering  to  him 
than  the  provinces  of  France  contending  with  each  other  for 
having  given  birth  to  some  of  his  ancestors,  and  endeavoring 
to  prove  by  similarity  of  names  that  this  great  man  derives 
his  descent  from  among  them — an  honor  of  which,  since  the 
days  of  Homer,  (who  excited  a  like  dispute  among  seven  of 
the  most  flourishing  cities  of  Greece,)  nobody  lias  ever  been 
thought  worthy. 

The  following  extract  from  the  Gazette  of  Amiens,  the  cap- 
ital of  Picardy,  in  France,  is  the  most  convincing  proof  of 
what  has  been  just  now  advanced  : 

"  Mr.  Fkagonaed,  the  King's  painter  at  Paris,  has  lately 

■  Rivington's  Gazette,  May  27. 

1780.]  FEAIsKLIN    AlfD   TILE   FRENCU.  283 

displayed  the  utmost  efforts  of  his  genius  in  an  elegant  picture 
dedicated  to  the  genius  of  Franklin.  Mr.  Franklin  is  repre- 
sented in  it,  opposing  with  one  hand  the  regis  of  Minerva  to 
the  thunderbolt,  which  he  first  knew  how  to  fix  by  his  con- 
ductors, and  with  the  other  commanding  the  god  of  war  to 
fight  against  avarice  and  tyranny  ;  whilst  America,  nobly  re- 
clining upon  him,  and  holding  in  her  hand  the  fasces,  a  true 
emblem  of  the  union  of  the  American  States,  looks  down  with 
tranquillity  on  her  defeated  enemies.  Tlie  painter,  in  this 
picture,  most  beautifully  expressed  the  idea  of  the  Latin  verse, 
which  has  been  so  justly  applied  to  Mr.  Franklin : 

'  Eripuit  CcpIo  fulmen,  sccptrumque  Tyrannis.' 
'  He  snatched  the  thunderbolt  from  Heaven, 
And  the  scepter  from  the  hands  of  Tyrants.' 

"  Tlie  name  of  Franklin  is  sufiiciently  celebrated  that  one 
may  glory  in  beai-ing  it ;  and  a  nation  prides  herself  in  having 
given  birth  to  the  ancestors  of  a  man  wlio  has  rendered  that 
name  so  famous.  We  think  ourselves  entitled  to  dispute  with 
the  English  nation  an  honor  of  which  they  have  rendered  them- 
selves so  unworthy.  Franklin  appears  rather  to  be  of  a  French 
than  of  an  English  origin.  It  is  certain  that  the  name  of 
Franklin,  or  Franquelin,  is  very  common  in  Picardy,  especially 
in  the  districts  of  Vimeu  and  Ponthieu.  It  is  very  probable 
that  one  of  the  doctor's  ancestors  has  been  an  inhabitant  of 
this  country,  and  has  gone  over  to  England  with  the  fleet  of 
Jean  de  Biencourt,  or  that  which  was  fitted  out  by  the  nobility 
of  this  province.  In  genealogical  matters  there  are  bolder 
conjectures  than  this.  There  was  at  Abbeville,  in  the  fifteenth 
and  sixteenth  centuries,  a  family  of  the  name  of  Franklin.  We 
see  in  the  public  records  of  the  town,  one  John  and  Thomas 
Franquelin,  woollen  drapers  in  1521.  This  family  remained 
at  Abbeville  till  the  year  1600  ;  they  have  since  been  dis- 
persed through  the  country,  and  there  are  still  some  of  their 
descendants  so  far  as  Auz  Ic  Chateau.  Tliese  observations  are 
a  new  homage  which  we  offer  to  the  genius  of  Franklin."  ' 

'  Pennsylvania  Packet,  June  3. 


June  8. — Br  the  latest  intelligence  from  Selieneetadj,  in 
New  York,  we  are  informed  that  Sir  John  Johnson,  (who  styles 
Sir  John  Johnson  ^i"iself  lieutenant-colonel  commanding  the  King's 
at  Johnson  Hall,  j^ojal  Torkcrs,  in  the  paroles  given  to  some  of  the 
prisoners,)  on  Lord's  day  evening,  the  twenty-first  of  last  month, 
(May,)  made  his  first  appearance  at  Johnson  Hall,  undiscov- 
ered by  any  but  his  friends,  who,  no  doubt,  were  in  the  secret. 
On  Monday,  about  daybreak,  they  began  to  burn  all  the  houses 
except  those  of  the  Tories  ;  beginning  at  Aaron  Putnam's,  be- 
low Tripe's  Hill,  and  continued  burning  to  Anthony's  Nose,  or 
Acker's  house,  except  a  few  which,  by  the  vigilance  of  the 
people,  were  put  out  after  the  enemy  had  set  them  on  fire. 
There  are  burnt,  thirty-three  houses  and  out-houses,  and  a 
mill ;  many  cattle  were  killed  in  the  field,  and  sixty  or  seven- 
ty sheep  burnt  in  a  barn.  Eleven  persons  were  killed.  Colo- 
nel Fisher  and  his  two  brothers  fought  with  great  bravery, 
when  the  two  brothers  were  killed  and  scalped.  The  colonel 
went  up  stairs  and  there  defended  himself ;  but,  being  over- 
powered, was  knocked  down  and  scalped,  on  wliich  they  plun- 
dered the  house,  set  it  on  fire,  and  then  went  off.  Tlie  colonel 
reviving  a  little,  though  he  was  left  by  the  enemy  for  dead, 
pulled  one  of  his  dead  brothers  out  of  the  house,  then  in 
flames  ;  the  other  was  consumed  in  the  house.  It  is  said  the 
motlier  had  a  narrow  escape  for  her  life,  being  knocked  on  the 
head  by  an  Indian  ;  but  she  is  like  to  do  well.  Captain  Han- 
sen was  killed  by  an  Indian,  who  had  formerly  been  used  by 
him  with  kindness,  and  professed  much  gratitude.  Old  Mr. 
Fonda  was  .cut  in  several  parts  of  his  head  Avith  a  tomahawk. 
Had  it  not  been  for  the  alertness  of  Mr.  Van  Vrank,  probably 
more  would  have  been  butchered  by  their  savage  hands.  He 
alarmed  the  people  along  the  way  to  Caughnawaga,  who,  by 
crossing  the  river,  saved  their  lives.  Having  done  all  the  mis- 
chief to  the  distressed  inhabitants  they  possibly  could,  they  re- 
turned to  Jolmson  Hall  in  the  afternoon,  when  Johnson  dug  up 
his  plate,  and  about  sundown  marched  for  the  Scotch  Bush, 
about  foiir  miles,  that  evening.  He  took  with  him  fifteen  or 
twenty  of  his  negroes,  who  had  been  sold.  Several  of  his  tenants 
and  others,  are  gone  with  him.     He  has  permitted  some  of  his 


prisoners  to  return  on  parole.  His  wliole  force  when  he  laud- 
ed at  Cro-^vn  Point,  is  said  to  be  about  live  hundred  men — Uxo 
hundred  of  them  British,  part  of  his  oavu  regiment,  and  Indi- 
ans. Captain  Putnam  and  four  men  followed  them  in  their 
retreat  four  days,  on  their  way  to  Lake  Champlain.  He  saw 
him  twenty-four  miles  from  Johnson  Hall.  Some  think  they 
will  take  their  route  to  Oswagatchie  ;  but  this  seems  improba- 
ble, as  they  have  not  provisions  sufficient  with  them.  His 
excellency  the  governor  has  collected  a  body  of  militia  to  in- 
tercept their  way  to  Lake  Champlain  ;  a  number  have  also 
marched  from  JSTew  Hampshire  Grants  (Vermont)  for  the  pur- 
pose. Colonel  Yan  Schaick,  with  eight  himdred  men,  is  in 
pursuit  of  hun  by  the  way  of  Johnstown.  "We  hear  the  ene- 
my had  their  feet  much  swelled  by  their  long  march ;  and 
being  greatly  fatigued,  it  is  hoped  our  people  may  come  up 
and  give  a  good  account  of  the  lieutenant-colonel  and  his  mur- 
dering banditti.' 

June  9. — Last  Tuesday  night,  (6th,)  between  eleven  and 
twelve  o'clock,  a  body  of  the  British,  commanded  by  General 
Ejiyphausen  in  person,  landed  at  Elizabethtown    Knyphanscr-s 

T-..  .T  IT.  .IT  T1       Attick  on  Connec- 

Pomt,  m  Jersey,  who,  bemg  tnnely  discovered  by  tiout  Farms. 
the  American  guards,  gave  the  troops  that  were  in  town,  com- 
manded by  Colonel  Dayton,  an  opportunity  to  assemble  ;  but, 
on  reconnoitring  them,  their  force  was  found  inadequate  for  an 
attack.  Of  course  a  retreat  became  indispensable,  which  was 
performed  in  good  order,  with  the  enemy  in  their  rear,  until 
they  arrived  at  Connecticut  Fanns,  where  they  fell  in  with  the 
Jersey  brigade ;  and  being  joined  by  a  few  militia,  posted 
themselves  on  an  advantageous  piece  of  groimd,  thinking  it 
advisable  to  check  the  advance  of  the  enemy,  which,  with  sin- 
gular bravery,  they  eifectually  did,  and  annoyed  them  consid- 
erably, driving  them  back  some  distance.  The  British  then 
brought  up  some  field-pieces  which  played  briskly,  but  happily 
without  any  effect.  Tlie  Amei-icans  kept  them  here  about  two 
hom-s,  until  they  were  reinforced  by  the  second  division,  which 

■  New  Jersey  Gazette,  June  21. 

286  DIAET    OF   THE    EEVOLUTION.  [1780. 

had  landed  some  time  after  the  first,  and  had  marched  up  has- 
tily. Tliey  tlien  gained  that  ground,  though  not  without  con- 
siderahlc  loss,  and  some  wounded  on  that  of  the  Americans. 
Their  advance  after  that  Avas  very  tardy  ;  yet  they  seemed  to 
show  an  inclination  to  possess  themselves  of  Springfield,  until 
they  received  a  few  shot  from  a  piece  of  cannon,  not  without 
some  efi"ect ;  which  obliged  them  again  to  retreat,  and  the  day 
was  spent  in  continual  skirmishing,  by  Avhich  they  suffered 
amazingly.  Since  their  retreat,  forty  or  fifty  of  their  dead, 
which  they  had  secretly  buried,  have  been  found.  Among 
the  number  it  is  said,  is  a  son  of  Count  Donop,  who  has  met 
the  fate  of  his  hapless  father. 

As  soon  as  they  came  to  Connecticut  Farms,  seven  miles 
from  the  place  of  tlieir  landing,  they  began  the  exercise  of 
tlieir  awful  cruelty.  Although  they  observed  great  discipline 
and  decorum  in  Elizabethtown,  yet  at  the  Farms  every  step  was 
marked  with  wanton  cruelty  and  causeless  devastation.  They 
set  fire  to,  and  entirely  destroyed,  the  Presbyterian  church,  and 
fourteen  dwelling-houses  and  barns,  so  that  there  are  but  two 
dwelling-houses  remaining  in  that  fertile  settlement.  But, 
alas  !  this  is  only  one  part  of  the  horrid  scene. 

In  this  neighborhood  lived  the  Eev.  Mr.  James  Caldwell, 
whose  zeal  and  activity  in  the  caiise  of  his  country  had  ren- 

Mur.i^rnf  dered  him  an  object  wortliy  of  the  enemy's  keen- 
Mrs.  faWweii.  pg|.  1-osentment.  His  vigilance  and  attention  had 
always  evaded  every  attempt  to  injure  liim,  and  therefore  it 
was  now  determined  to  wound  him  in  an  nnguarded  part. 
Following  the  absurd  principles  of  too  many  of  our  incaxitious 
countrymen,  he  left  his  wife  and  family  at  home,  trusting  to 
the  politeness  and  humanity  of  the  enemy  towards  an  amiable 
woman,  and  a  number  of  helpless  and  innocent  children,  tliough 
he  did  not  think  it  prudent  to  trust  them  with  his  own  safety. 
He  liad  been  warned  of  their  utmost  hatred  to  him,  and  there- 
fore dissuaded  from  leaving  his  family  in  their  power ;  but, 
alas !  his  confidence  in  their  benevolence  towards  the  helpless 
has  been  his  destruction. 

Soon  after  their  possessing  themselves  of  the  neighborhood, 
a  soldier  came  to  the  house,  and  putting  his  gmi  to  the  window 

1780.]  MUEDEE   OF   IIKS.    CALDWELL.  287 

of  the  room  where  this  worthy  woman  was  sittinp;,  (with  her 
chihh-en,  and  a  maid  with  an  infant  in  her  arms,  along  side  of 
her,)  lie  shot  her  through  the  Inngs  dead  on  the  spot.  Soon 
after  an  oflicer  with  two  Hessians  came  in,  and  oi'dered  a  hole 
dug  and  her  body  thrown  in,  and  the  house  to  be  set  on  fire. 
At  the  earnest  request  of  an  officer  of  the  new  levies,  and 
with  some  difficulty,  the  body  was  suffered  to  be  carried  to  a 
small  house  in  the  neighborhood,  and  Mr.  Caldwell's  dwelling- 
house  immediately  set  on  fire,  and  every  thing  belonging  to 
liira  consumed  together.  The  only  comfort  arising  to  this 
afflicted  family  is,  that  the  wretch  who  served  as  the  execu- 
tioner of  this  murdered  lady,  (who,  from  her  excellent  charac- 
ter, deserved  a  better  fate,) '  did  his  business  so  effectually  that 
she  lost  her  life  withoiit  distress  or  pain.  Thus  it  is,  that  even 
the  tender  mercies  of  the  wicked  are  cruelty.  This  melan- 
choly affair,  with  their  cruel  burnings,  has  raised  the  resent- 
ment of  the  whole  country  to  the  highest  pitch.  They  are 
ready  almost  to  swear  an  everlasting  enmity  to  the  very  name 
of  a  Briton.  So  fiir  is  this  cruelty  and  devastation  from  terri- 
fying them  to  submission,  that  it  rouses  the  most  timid  to  feats 
of  desperate  heroism.  A  most  worthy  man,  who  has  for  four 
years  past  devoted  himself  to  the  service  of  his  country,  is  thus 
left  Avith  nine  small  children,  destitute  even  of  a  shift  of 
clothes  to  comfort  them.  Many  of  the  inhabitants  arc  in  a 
similar  situation  ;  some  widows,  some  aged,  some  infirm. 

Tlie  British  being  opposed  by  a  regiment  of  Colonel  Day- 
ton's, and  such  militia  as  covdd  be  suddenly  collected,  made  a 
slow  advance  till  they  came  to  a  bridge  at  the  entrance  of 
Springfield,  where  the  militia  had  an  old  iron  four-pound  field- 

'  Never  did  religion  produce  a  more  complete  triumph  than  in  this  virtuous 
woman.  Her  constitution  was  by  nature  feeble  and  delicate,  and  her  mind  orna- 
mented more  with  tender  than  robust  passions ;  yet  such  was  her  confidence  in 
the  unerring  wisdom  and  perfect  rectitude  of  the  divine  conduct — such  the  full 
assurance  of  her  hope,  that  the  approach  of  such  an  enemy,  with  the  terrors  of 
war,  could  neither  cloud  her  countenance  nor  ruffle  her  mind  to  the  last  moment. 
Long  since  had  she  gained  complete  victory  over  the  king  of  terrors  ;  and  only 
wished  to  Uve  for  the  good  of  others,  and  in  particular  that  she  might  impress  her 
image  upon  her  lovely  offspring  as  they  advanced  in  life.  These  benevolent  views 
are  now  terminated  by  the  British  murderers. — New  Jersey  Journal,  June  14. 

288  DIAET   OF   THE   EEYOLUTIOK.  [1Y80. 

piece,  whicli  tliey  used  to  such  pni-pose  tliat  the  enemy  were 
driven  back  for  some  considerable  distance.  Being  thus  en- 
couraged, Colonel  Dayton's  regiment,  and  the  militia  together, 
pressed  upon  them,  and  killed  and  wounded  many  of  them : 
the  general  estimate  is  about  one  hundred.  As  our  people 
were  reinforced  they  gained  firmness,  and  at  night  the  enemy 
had  secured  no  farther  than  Connecticut  Fanns.  In  the  night, 
having  received  an  express  from  General  Clinton  in  South  Car- 
olina, they  immediately  began  a  retreat ;  and  by  ten  o'clock  on 
Thursday,  they  had  gained  Elizabethtown  Point,  from  whence 
they  sent  olf  all  their  wagons,  a  part  of  their  artillery,  and 
some  of  then-  cavalry.  Lord  Stirling,  with  General  Iland's 
brigade,  and  the  militia,  was  detached  close  on  their  rear,  and 
between  Elizabethtown  and  the  Point  had  a  very  severe  skir- 
mish, with  some  loss  on  both  sides.  From  what  we  can  collect 
from  the  inliabitants  of  the  Farms,  many  of  whose  houses  were 
filled  with  their  wounded,  tliey  must  have  suffered  considera- 
bly. General  Stirling  had  his  thigh  broken.  !Never  did  troops 
behave  better  than  the  Americans.  Tlie  militia  behaved  be- 
yond any  thing  tliat  could  have  been  expected.  Tlio  Conti- 
nental ofiicers  gave  them  the  greatest  credit.  It  is  said  the 
enemy  had  been  persuaded  that  after  the  taking  of  Charleston, 
the  militia  would  all  submit,  and  the  Continental  troops  would 
desert.  It  seems  as  if  the  militia  had  kno^-n  these  suggestions. 
Kever  did  they  so  universally  turn  out  on  such  short  notice, 
and  never  with  better  spirits.  Tliis  morning  at  least  two 
thousand  of  them  were  below  the  mountains,  and  more  flock- 
ing down  continually.  Colonel  Dayton  deserves  the  greatest 
credit,  as  do  all  his  officers,  who  behaved  unexceptionably. 

Tlie  British  were  all  day  yesterday  manoeuvring  to  bring  on 
a  general  engagement,  and  General  "Washington  was  trying  to 
draw  them  from  their  strong  position  on  the  Point,  where  it 
was  impossible  to  attack  them  with  advantage.  Both  have 
failed,  and  General  "Washington  hath  drawn  back  the  main 
body  of  the  army  above  Springfield  to  refresh  them,  as  they 
are  exceedingly  fatigued  with  two  days  and  two  nights  lying 
on  their  arms.  Every  thing  has  been  carried  on  with  great 
propriety,  and  we  are  in  liopes  their  gentry  Avill  be  obliged  to 

17S0.]  OPERATIONS    IN   JERSEY.  289 

retire,  notwitlistanding  their  sanguine  expectations.  General 
Knyphausen,  it  is  said,  brought  over  his  carriage,  expecting  to 
have  considerable  use  for  it.  Tliere  is  a  brigade  left  to  watch 
their  motions  at  Elizabethtown,  with  a  number  of  the  militia. 
They  are  in  such  force  that  it  is  supposed  they  intend  to  pene- 
trate the  country,  and  from  some  hints  that  have  dropped,  they 
have  Pennsylvania  in  their  eye,  if  they  can  beat  General 

A  British  officer  gives  the  following  account  of  the  recent 
operations  of  the  royal  army  in  New  Jersey  : — "  On  Tuesday 
night,  (6th,)  the  British  troops  made  their  first  British  Account  of 
landing  upon  Elizabethtown  meadows,  and  were  Jersey. 
crossed  over  by  divisions  in  succession  from  Staten  Island,  with 
some  light  artillery,  taking  their  route  by  Elizabethto%vn  and 
Connecticut  Farms,  towards  Springfield. 

"  Dayton's  regiment  receiving  intimation  of  our  approach, 
retired  with  precipitation,  as  did  also  the  other  Jersey  regi- 
ments which  compose  Maxwell's  brigade,  from  their  position 
near  Camp's.  Tlie  militia  of  the  country,  although  incapable 
of  making  any  fixed  resistance,  did  their  utmost  to  incommode 
the  troops  upon  their  march ;  and  collecting  from  different 
quarters,  they  assembled  in  some  force  in  the  vicinity  of 
Springfield,  forming  a  junction  with  the  Jersey  brigade  at 
tliat  place ;  and  it  is  said  that  in  the  course  of  Wednesday, 
the  seventh  instant,  they  were  supported  by  another  brigade 
detached  from  Morristown. 

"  The  troops  halted  upon  some  heights  beyond  Connecticut 
Farms,  where  they  were  ordered  to  take  post  till  such  time  as 
the  remainder  of  the  artillery,  the  provision  and  other  wagons, 
with  the  corps  which  brought  up  the  rear,  joined  the  army. 
From  this  circumstance  it  is  probable  the  rebels  conceived  that 
•whatever  might  have  been  the  original  plan,  it  was  intended 
to  penetrate  no  farther.  Increasing  in  numbers,  they  used 
every  exertion  in  their  power,  in  flying  parties,  to  fire  upon 
the  advanced  pickets  ;  and  during  the  course  of  the  day  they 

'  Pennsylvania  Packet,  June  13. 

290  DIAEY   OF  THE   EEVOLTJTIQN.  [1780. 

made  different  attacks  upon  a  body  of  Jagers,  wliicli  was  ad- 
vanced upon  tlie  Springfield  road.  This  produced  mucli  firing 
upon  both  sides. 

"  During  the  course  of  the  evening,  it  is  reported  that  infor- 
mation was  received  from  the  southward,  which  rendered  it 
expedient  to  defer  the  object  in  agitation  ;  and  about  two  hours 
afterwards  the  troops  returned  towards  Elizabethtown,  withoiit 
a  single  shot  being  fired,  taking  post  upon  the  heights  near  the 

"  On  Tliursday  the  eighth  instant,  the  rebels  advanced  in 
some  force  to  Elizabethtown,  and  made  an  attack  upon  the 
twenty-second  regiment,  which  was  posted  some  little  distance 
in  front  of  the  line.  This  regiment  was  ordered  to  fall  back, 
and  the  rebels  conceiving  it  was  the  rear  guard  of  the  army, 
they  advanced  mih  some  rapidity,  but  were  soon  checked,  and 
retired  with  precipitation. 

"The  loss  sustained  during  the  course  of  this  service  is  in- 
considerable ;  nor  can  that  of  the  rebels  be  determmed,  as  they 
conceal  it. 

"  Whilst  the  troops  were  advancing  to  Connecticut  Fai-ms, 
the  rebels  fired  out  of  the  houses,  agreeable  to  their  usiial 
British  Account  of  practice,  from  which  circumstance  Mrs.  Caldwell 

Duath.  had  the  misfortune  to  be  shot  by  a  random  ball. 
"What  heightens  the  singularity  of  this  lady's  fate  is,  that  upon 
inquiry,  it  appears  beyond  a  doubt  that  the  shot  was  fired 
by  the  rebels  themselves,  as  it  entered  the  side  of  the  house 
from  their  direction,  and  lodged  in  the  wall  nearest  to  the 
troops,  when  advancing.  Tlie  manner  in  which  the  rebels  ag- 
gi-avate  this  unfortunate  affair  in  their  publications,  is  of  a 
piece  with  their  uniform  conduct — plausible,  but  fallacious ; 
nor  is  it  to  be  wondered  at,  if  a  rebellion  which  originated  in 
falsehood,  is  prosecuted  with  deceit.  The  soldiery  received 
with  smiles  one  moment,  and  the  following  instant  butchered 
(for  in  a  military  view  it  merits  no  other  name)  by  a  set  of 
people,  who,  by  their  clothing  and  appointments,  cannot  be 
distinguished  from  the  quiet  inhabitants  of  the  country,  may 
well  be  supposed  to  be  exasperated  ;  nor  need  Ave  be  surprised 
at  their  using  the  torch  to  dwellings  which  they  find  hom-ly 

17S0.]  EEV.    NATHAN   KKKE.  291 

occupied  by  armed  men,  who  either  want  the  generosity  or  the 
spirit  to  close  the  present  unhappy  contest  by  a  manly,  open, 
soldier-like  decorum.  "Whatever  may  be  the  hmnane  wishes 
of  the  commanders,  human  nature  at  times  steps  over  the  bar- 
rier of  discipline,  and  men  of  judgment  and  wisdom,  in  the 
great  scale  of  political  reasoning,  do  not  wonder  at  occurrences 
which  their  private  feelings  shrink  at ;  such  are  the  eiFects  of 
intestine  divisions.  Miserable  is  the  fate  of  that  country  which 
is  the  theatre  of  such  a  quarrel ;  and  accursed  is  the  man,  or 
the  set  of  naen,  who,  from  motives  of  private  lucre  or  inordi- 
nate ambition,  have  fanned  a  flame  which,  if  they  were  willuag, 
they  are  now,  perhaps,  unable  to  extinguish."  ' 

June  14. — ^ISTathan  Kjeee,  the  pastor  of  Goshen,  in  New 
York,  in  a  sermon  delivered  the  last  shearing  time  to  his  flock, 
previous  to  the  sending  his  deacons  among  them  ^5^.  Nathan 
to  collect  the  fleece,  used  many  curious  and  pa-  ^"'■• 
thetic  arguments  to  induce  them  to  pay  in  their  several  sub- 
scriptions with  a  proper  allowance  for  the  depreciation  of  the 
paper  currency.  lie  complained  much  of  the  injustice  of  a 
contrary  conduct,  and  charged  the  neglect  of  the  ministers  in 
this  respect,  upon  them,  as  one  of  those  crying  sins  which  had 
called  down  so  many  heavy  judgments  on  their  heads.  That 
these  might  be  removed,  he  strongly  recommended  to  them  to 
repent,  particularly  of  the  heinous  sin  of  defrauding  the  min- 
isters. Tlicn,  with  uplifted  eyes  and  hands,  and  plaintive  tone 
of  voice,  addressed  himself  to  the  Almighty  in  nearly  the  fol- 
lowing words :  "  O  God  !  our  com  is  blasted !  our  fruit  is  all 
cut  off !  our  flax  is  caught  under  the  snow,  so  that  we  shall 
soon  have  neither  shirt  nor  shift !  And  what,  oh  God !  dost 
You  intend  to  do  with  thy  people  next  ?  " ' 

June  24. — ^Yesteedat  morning,  the  British  marched  in 
force  from  Elizabethtown,  New  Jersey,  under  command  of 
the  unprincipled,  mercenary  Ivnyphausen.     After      Descent  on 
driving  in  the  American  pickets,  they  reached  springfleid,  n.  j. 
Connecticut  Farms  about  sunrise,  where  a  scatteiing  fire  be- 

'  Kivingtoii's  Gazette,  June  21.  '  Same,  June  14. 

292  DIAEY  OF  THE  KEVOLUTION.  [1780. 

gan  between  them  and  a  few  of  tlie  advanced  troops,  assisted 
hj  part  of  the  militia.  However,  as  the  Americans  had  but 
two  Continental  brigades,  and  two  brigades  of  militia,  and  the 
enemy's  force,  by  estimation,  live  thousand  men  and  six  pieces 
of  artillery,  they  could  give  them  but  little  impediment  until 
they  arrived  at  Springfield  bridge,  where  a  very  obstiuate  re- 
sistance was  made  to  their  passing  it.  After  a  very  consider- 
able loss,  the  British  carried  it  and  entered  the  village.  The 
Amei'icans  retired  to  the  ridge  of  hills  in  rear  of  the  town, 
and  took  their  position,  expecting  them  to  advance  towards 
Morristown  ;  biit  after  recovering  from  their  fatigue,  collecting 
tlieir  killed  and  wounded,  they  began  a  most  distressing  scene. 
They  burned  the  Presbyterian  meeting-house,  and  nineteen 
dwelling-houses,  with  the  chief  of  their  standing  furniture. 
They  then  began  a  most  rapid  retreat,  and  the  Americans  pur- 
sued them  to  their  works,  killing  and  wounding  many  of  them. 
During  their  expedition,  several  of  them  deserted,  both  British 
and  Hessians.  The  American  loss  is  very  small;  only  one 
officer  fell — First  Lieutenant  Thompson,  of  artillery,  a  very 
brave  man. 

This  morning  some  of  the  horsemen  have  been  down  to 
Elizabethtown,  and  find  that  the  British  went  over  to  Staten 
Island  last  night,  took  up  their  bridge,  and  bid  us  farewell. 
Deserters  and  prisoners  agree  that  their  next  expedition  will 
be  carried  on  up  the  North  River.' 

DuEiNG  the  siege  of  Charleston,  parties  were  frequently 
sent  down  to  beat  up  the  British  quarters  about  Savannah 
Colonel  Twisgs'  '"^itli  a  vicw  to  distrcss  the  enemy,  and  to  draw 
Expedient,  troops  from  the  siege.  Colonel  Twiggs,  with  his 
men,  united  with  a  party  of  South  Carolina  militia,  iinder  the 
command  of  Colonel  Pickens,  a  very  gallant,  good  officer,  went 
down  with  respectable  force,  and  drove  the  enemy  within  their 
redoubts.  Tliey  took  post  upon  Ogeechce,  the  latter  at  But- 
ler's jjlantations,  two  miles  from  the  ferry  ;  and  the  former  on 
Governor  "Wright's,  lying  u]ion  the  river.  A  party  of  one 
hundred  men,  draMTi  chiefly  from  the  corps  of  York  volun- 

'  Extract  of  a  letter  from  the  camp,  in  the  New  Jersey  Gazette,  June  28. 

1780.]  COLONEL  TWIGGs'    EXPEDIENT.  293 

teers,  and  a  Hessian  regiment,  was  sent  out  of  Savannali  to 
attack  them,  under  the  conmiand  of  Captain  Conklin,  of  Cruger's 
battalion.  Colonel  Twiggs'  post  being  nearest  the  enemy,  of 
course  had  first  to  engage.  Conklin  planned  the  attack  in  the 
usual  way  of  the  British,  in  front  and  .flank,  which  would  ap- 
pear the  more  distressing  as  the  colonel  had  but  thirty-two 
men  with  him.  He  detached  Captain  Innman  with  eight  men, 
to  check  the  detour  on  his  left,  under  Lieutenant  Supple,  with 
fifteen  men,  while  he  himself,  with  the  remainder,  opposed  the 
enemy's  main  body  under  Captain  Conklin.  The  colonel's  men 
are  celebrated  for  sure  shots ;  and  being  so  much  inferior  in 
numbers,  and  Colonel  Pickens  too  far  distant  to  succor  him  in 
time,  he  had  recourse  to  an  expedient  which,  in  such  cases,  is 
certainly  justifiable.  He  ordered  some  of  his  best  marksmen 
to  rush  up  and  single  out  the  officers,  which  was  executed  in  a 
moment.  Captain  Conklin  fell  by  a  mortal  wound,  as  did  his 
lower  officers ;  and  the  men  being  without  an  officer,  save  a 
corporal,  were  soon  routed ;  eleven  were  killed,  and  more 
wounded.  Captain  Innman,  on  the  left,  was  not  less  successful. 
He  met  Supple  -\vith  half  his  number,  threw  himself  into  a 
barn  he  was  obliged  to  pass,  killed  six  of  his  men,  woimded 
him,  and  obliged  him  to  retire.  Tlie  colonel  and  captain  then 
uniting,  j^ushed  after  the  enemy,  and  took  several  prisoners  ; 
but  having  boats  ready,  they  crossed  the  river,  and  made  good 
their  retreat  to  Savannah,  where  all  the  officers  of  the  party 
have  since  died  of  their  wounds.  Colonel  Twiggs,  upon  this 
occasion,  had  but  one  man  wounded,  who  is  since  well. 

It  is  by  such  exertions  that  Georgia  has  hitherto  maintained 
her  independence.  And  if  these  actions  are  not  great,  they 
are  at  least  brilliant.  JSTor  can  we  fear  that  men  of  such  gal- 
lantry and  good  conduct  will  ever  be  destroyed  by  a  few  cow- 
ardly Tories.' 

July  1. — ^The  Gazette  of  to-day  contains  the  following 
"  Sentiments  of  a  Lady  in  JVew  Jersey:  " — ^Tlie   Sentiments  of  a 
war  carried  on  by  the  British  nation  against  my       woman, 
native  country,  cannot  fail  to  excite  in  the  humane  and  vir- 

'  Pennsylvania  Packet,  August  1. 

29-t  DIAEY    OF   THE   EETOLTJTIOX.  [1780. 

tiious  mind  sentiments  very  unfavorable  to  the  authors  and 
instruments  of  such  a  variety  of  complicated  evils  and  mis- 
fortunes as  we  have  suffered  in  the  course  of  it. 

The  contest  began  on  their  part  without  principle — has 
been  prosecuted  without  humanity.  Devoid  of  those  senti- 
ments and  that  conduct  which  do  so  much  honor  to  the  civil- 
ized nations  of  Europe,  even  in  the  time  of  war,  they  have 
thrown  off  all  restraint,  and  fully  displayed,  in  their  military 
operations  in  this  part  of  the  world,  the  true  characteristics  of 
tlieir  country — a  fierce  and  barbarous  spirit,  resisting,  contrary 
to  the  common  rule,  the  ordinary  effects  which  refinement 
of  manners  and  a  high  degree  of  polish  usually  have  on  the 
minds  of  men  in  softening  them  to  humanity,  constitutes  their 
real  character. 

Were  I  unconnected  with  Americans  by  ties  of  friendship 
or  blood, — were  I  not  attached  by  that  love  of  one's  coiintry 
which  is  inherent  in  some  degree  in  every  breast,  and  partakes 
of  the  nature  of  that  instinctive  affection  which  we  bear  to  our 
parents  and  kindred,  were  I  situated  in  a  distant  part  of  the 
world,  unagitated  by  the  incidents  of  the  day,  which  are  the 
more  interesting  the  nigher  we  are  to  the  scene  of  war,  the 
bare  recital  of  their  vmjust  claims,  their  cruelties,  and  their 
crimes,  would  fill  my  soul  with  horror,  and  I  should  regard 
them  not  only  as  unprovoked  aggressors,  but  as  enemies  by 
principle  and  example  to  mankind  in  general. 

But  as  if  it  were  not  cnougli  unjustly  to  spill  the  blood  of 
our  countrjTuen,  to  lay  waste  the  fields,  to  destroy  our  dwell- 
ings, and  even  the  houses  consecrated  and  set  apart  for  the 
worship  of  the  Supreme  Being,  they  have  desolated  the  aged 
and  unprotected,  and  even  waged  war  against  oiir  sex.  "Wlio 
that  has  heard  of  the  burning  of  Charlestown,  in  New  England 
■ — of  the  wanton  destniction  of  Norfolk  and  Ealmouth — of 
their  wasting  the  fine  improvements  in  the  environs  of  Phila- 
delphia— of  the  tragical  death  of  Miss  M'Crea,  torn  from  her 
house,  murdered  and  scalped  by  a  band  of  savages  hired  and 
set  on  by  British  emissaries — of  the  melancholy  fate  of  Mrs. 
Caldwell,  put  to  death  in  her  own  house  in  the  late  incursion 
of  the  enemy,  and  tlie  general  havoc  which  at  tliis  time  marks 

1780.]  SENTIMENTS   OF  A   NEW   JERSEY   AVOMAN.  295 

their  footsteps  in  tlielr  route  tlirongli  a  part  of  this  State — but 
would  wish  to  avert  from  themselves,  their  kindred,  their  prop- 
erty, and  their  country  in  general,  so  heavy  misfortunes. 

These  are  truths  sufficiently  aflecting  to  touch  with  pity 
and  compassion  even  hearts  hard  as  marble,  and  cannot  fail  to 
make  a  deep  and  lasting  impression  in  the  minds  of  all. 

These  feelings  and  these  sentiments  have  been  particularly 
manifested  by  the  ladies  of  Philadelphia  in  their  liberal  con- 
tributions of  money  towards  rendering  the  situation  of  the  sol- 
diery of  the  Continental  army  more  convenient  and  comforta- 
ble. It  is  to  this  class  of  men  we  more  immediately  owe  our 
defence  and  protection ;  they  have  borne  the  weight  of  the 
war,  and  met  danger  in  every  quarter ;  and  what  is  higher 
praise,  they  have  with  Koman  courage  and  j)erseverance  suf- 
fered the  extremes  of  heat  and  cold,  the  attacks  of  hunger,  and 
the  pain  of  long  and  fatiguing  marches  through  parts  before 
imexplored  by  armies,  and  Avhich  had  scarcely  ever  before 
borne  the  print  of  human  feet. 

It  Avas  enough  for  these  brave  men  to  reflect  they  were  en- 
gaged in  the  best  and  most  glorious  of  all  causes — that  of  de- 
fending the  rights  and  liberties  of  their  country — to  induce 
them  to  behave  with  so  much  resoliition  and  fortitude.  Tlieir 
many  suiferings  so  cheerfully  undergone,  highly  merit  our 
gratitude  and  sincere  thanks,  and  claim  all  the  assistance  we 
can  afford  their  distresses.  If  we  have  it  not  in  our  power  to 
do  from  the  double  motive  of  religion  and  a  love  of  liberty 
what  some  ladies  of  the  highest  rank  in  the  Court  of  France 
every  day  perform  from  motives  of  religion  only,  in  the  hos- 
pitals of  the  sick  and  diseased,  let  us  animate  one  another  to 
contribute  from  our  purses  in  proportion  to  our  circumstances  to- 
wards the  support  and  comfort  of  the  brave  men  who  are  fight- 
ing and  suffering  for  us  on  the  field.  We  ought  to  do  this  if  we 
desire  to  keep  the  enemy  from  onv  borders — if  we  wish  that  there 
may  not  be  occasion  to  call  forth  our  husbands,  our  children, 
and  our  dearest  friends,  to  risk  their  lives  again  in  our  defence. 
I  can  truly  say  that  I  have  experienced  the  most  heart-rending 
anxieties  when  my  friends  and  relations  have  been  called  upon 
as  free  citizens  to  march  against  the  enemy  ;  and  the  pangs  I 

296  DIAKT  OF  THE  EEVOLDTION.  [1780. 

have  suffered  on  sucli  occasions  liave  made  it  easy  for  me  to 
give  credit  to  the  account  we  have  in  the  history  of  ancient 
Eome,  of  the  two  matrons  who  died  for  joy,  one  at  the  gate  of 
the  city,  the  other  at  her  own  house,  at  the  sight  of  their  sons, 
who  returned  in  safety  after  the  battle  at  the  Lake  of  Tlirasy- 
niene.  "When  I  say  this,  I  mean  only  to  express  the  feelings 
of  a  woman,  my  sentiments  being  ever  in  favor  of  that  spirit 
.which  my  countrymen  have  so  often  manifested  when  their 
services  have  been  required.' 

July  4. — ^The  ladies  of  Trenton,  in  New  Jersey,  emulating 

the  noble  example  of  their  patriotic  sisters  of  Pennsylvania,' 

and  being  desirous  of  manifesting  their  zeal  in 

Patriotic  "Women.     ,  ,      .  o      a  •  ?•!  i         • 

the  glorious  cause  ot  American  liberty,  having 
assembled  this  day  for  the  purpose  of  promoting  a  subscrip- 
tion for  the  I'elief  and  encouragement  of  those  brave  men  in 
the  Continental  army,  who,  stimulated  by  example,  and  re- 
gardless of  danger,  have  so  repeatedly  suffered,  fought,  and 
bled  in  the  cause  of  virtue  and  their  oppressed  country ;  and 
taking  into  consideration  the  scattered  situation  of  the  well 
disposed  tlirough  the  State,  who  would  wisli  to  contribute  to 
so  laudable  an  undertaking,  have,  for  the  convenience  of  such, 
and  the  more  effectually  to  carry  their  scheme  into  execution, 
unanimously  appointed  Mrs.  Cox,  Mrs.  Dickinson,  Mrs.  Fur- 
man,  and  Miss  Cadwallader  a  committee,  whose  duty  it  shall 
be  immediately  to  02>en  subscriptions,  and  to  correspond  with 
the  ladies  hereafter  named,  of  the  different  counties  through- 

'  New  Jersey  Gazette,  July  12. 

'  An  officer,  in  a  letter  froin  the  American  camp,  dated  June  29,  says  : — "  The 
patriotism  of  the  women  of  Philadelphia  is  a  subject  of  conversation  with  the 
army.  Had  I  poetic  genius,  I  would  sit  down  and  write  an  ode  in  praise  of  it. 
Burgoyne,  who,  on  his  iirst  appointment  to  America,  boasted  that  ho  would  dance 
with  the  ladies  and  coax  the  men  into  submission,  must  now  have  a  better  under- 
standing of  the  good  sense  and  public  spirit  of  our  females,  as  ho  has  already  had 
of  the  fortitude  and  inflexible  temper  of  our  heroes.  We  do  not  suppose  that  these 
contributions  can  be  any  stable  support  to  the  campaign  for  any  length  of  time ; 
but,  as  it  is  a  mark  of  respect  to  the  army,  it  has  given  particular  satisfiiction,  and 
it  may  be  a  great  temporary  service.  Nothing  has  been  more  discouraging  for 
some  time  past,  than  to  believe  that  we  were  neglected,  or  almost  lost  from  the 
remembrance  of  our  fellow-citizens." — Pennsylvania  Packet,  July  8. 

1780.]  PATRIOTIC   WOMEN.  297 

out  the  State,  requesting  tlieir  aid  and  influence  in  tlie  several 
districts.  And  in  order  tlie  more  expeditiously  to  carry  their 
sclieme  into  execiition,  the  ladies  now  met  have  taken  the  lib- 
erty to  solicit  the  interest  of  the  following  ladies,  in  promoting 
the  said  subscriptions,  viz. :  For  the  County  of  Hunterdon,  Mrs. 
(Vice-President)  Stevens,  Mrs.  (Judge)  Smith,  Mrs.  (Charles) 
Coxe,  Mrs.  E.  Stevens,  Mrs.  Hanna,  Mrs.  T.  Lowrey,  Mrs.  J. 
Sexton,  Mrs.  B.  Van  Cleve,  Mrs.  (Colonel)  Berry,  Mrs.  (Doc- 
tor) Burnet ;  County  of  Sussex,  Mrs.  (Counsellor)  Ogden,  Mrs. 
(Colonel)  Tliomson,  Mrs.  (Major)  Hoops,  Mrs.  T.  Anderson ; 
County  of  Bergen,  Mrs.  (Colonel)  Dey,  Mrs.  Fell,  Mrs.  Kuy- 
per,  Mrs.  Erskine,  Mrs.  (Major)  Dey ;  County  of  Morris,  Mrs. 
(Counsellor)  Condict,  Mrs.  (Parson)  Jones,  Mrs.  (Colonel)  Kem- 
sen,  Mrs.  Vanzant,  Mrs.  Carmichael,  Mrs.  (Colonel)  Cook,  Mrs. 
Faesch;  County  of  Essex,  Mrs.  (Governor)  Livingston,  Mrs. 
C.  Camp,  Mrs.  (Doctor)  Burnet,  Mrs.  (Elisha)  Boudinot,  Mrs. 
HornbloAver ;  County  of  Middlesex,  Mrs.  Neilson,  Mrs.  (Coun- 
sellor) Deare,  Mrs.  (George)  Morgan,  Mrs.  (Colonel)  Neilson, 
Mrs.  Neilson,  Mrs.  (Daniel)  Marsh ;  County  of  Monmouth, 
Mrs.  (General)  Forman,  Mrs.  (Colonel)  Scudder,  Mrs.  Newelh 
Mrs.  (Peter)  Foreman,  Mrs.  (Jacob)  Wickoff,  Mrs.  (Peter) 
Covenhoven ;  County  of  Burlington,  Mrs.  (Colonel)  Cox,  Mrs. 
(Counsellor)  Tallman,  Mrs.  (Colonel)  Borden,  Mrs.  (Secretary) 
Eeed,  Mrs.  (Captain)  Keed ;  County  of  Somerset,  Lady  Stir- 
ling, Mrs.  (General)  Morris,  Mrs.  (Colonel)  Martin,  Mrs.  (At- 
torney-General) Pattison,  Mrs.  K.  Stockton ;  County  of  Glou- 
cester, Mrs.  (Colonel)  Clark,  Mrs.  (Colonel)  Wescott,  Mrs.  (Col- 
onel) Ellis,  Mrs.  (Colonel)  Hugg,  Mrs.  Bloomfield ;  County  of 
Salem,  Mrs.  (Colonel)  Dick,  Mrs.  Mayhew,  Mrs.  Taggart ;  Coun- 
ty of  Cumberland,  Mrs.  (Counsellor)  Buck,  Mrs.  Harris,  Mrs. 
Elmer,  Mrs.  Bowen,  Mrs.  Fitman ;  County  of  Cape  May,  Mrs. 
(Counsellor)  Hand,  Mrs.  "VVliilden,  Mrs.  Townsend,  Mrs.  Hil- 
dreth,  whose  Avell-known  patriotism  leaves  no  room  to  doubt 
of  their  best  exertions  in  the  promotion  of  an  undertaking  so 
humane  and  praiseworthy  ;  and  that  they  will  be  happy  in 
forwarding  the  amount  of  their  several  collections,  either  with 
or  Avithout  the  names  of  the  donors,  which  will  be  immediately 
transmitted  by  Mrs.  (Moore)  Furman,  who  is  hereby  appointed 

298  DIAET   OF   THE   KEyOLUTIOIT.  [1Y80. 

Trcasiiress,  to  be  disposed  of  by  the  commander-in-chief,  agree- 
able to  the  general  plan. 

As  the  ladies  here  TS'onld  -wish  to  expedite  the  good  work 
as  much  as  possible,  they  have  appointed  Miss  Dagworthy  of 
Trenton,  their  Secretary,  who  will  receive  and  answer  all  letters 
that  the  ladies  of  the  different  counties  may  think  proper  to 
favor  her  Avith  on  the  occasion,  and  to  furnish  them  proper 
subscription  papers  as  soon  as  possible.' 

July  10.— On  Tlinrsday  last,  (6th,)  the  brig  Admiral  Eod- 
ney,  of  sixteen  carriage-guns  and  eighty-three  men,  commanded 
seaFi^htoff  ^J  Captain  Daniel  Moore,  sailed  from  Sandy 
New  Jersey.  jjqqJj.  ^j^  ^  cruisc,  and  on  Saturday,  (8th,)  in  lat- 
itude 39°  26',  longitude  74°,  fell  in  with  a  rebel  brig,  (sup- 
posed to  be  the  Kolker,  of  Philadelphia,)  of  sixteen  guns,  two 
cohorns,  and  a  tier  of  swivels,  and  full  of  men.  At  four 
o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  a  very  close  and  furious  engagement 
commenced  between  them,  and  in  about  twenty  minutes  after 
the  action  began,  the  gallant  Captain  Moore  was  mortally 
wounded  in  the  head  by  a  swivel-shot,  while  issuing  his  orders 
with  that  coolness  and  composure  of  mind  which  ever  charac- 
terize the  brave,  and,  by  his  spirited  condiict,  exciting  the 
crew  to  follow  so  good  an  example.  The  action,  wliich  lasted 
three  glasses,  was  continued  with  great  spirit  by  the  officers 
wlio  succeeded  to  the  command,  and  every  individual  on  board 
behaved  with  that  intrepidity  and  valor  which  lias  ever  dis- 
tinguished British  seamen.  So  much  justice  should  be  done 
the  rebel  crew  as  to  say  that,  though  in  an  infanious  cause, 
they  did  not  exhibit  any  symptoms  of  cowardice  imtil  half- 
past  five  o'clock  ;  when,  after  receiving  a  well-directed  broad- 
side from  the  Hodney,  they  uttered  a  dreadful  scream,  made 
sail,  and  ran  off. 

The  Eodney  chased  about  an  hour ;  but  totally  disabled  in 
her  rigging,  her  mainsail  and  boom  overboard,  and  not  a  single 
brace  standing,  she  was  reluctantly  obliged  to  give  over  a  vain 
i:)ursuit  and  makg  the  best  of  her  uay  for  New  York,  where  she 

'  Pennsylvania  Packet,  July  8. 

1780.]  NATHANIEL   FITZ   RANDOLPH.  299 

arrived  the  following  CTeniiig.  Captain  Mooro  expired  at  four 
o'clock  tins  morning,  to  the  inexpressible  grief  of  his  gallant 
crew,  and  deservedly  lamented  by  all  wlio  knew  him.  Tliis 
last  and  melancholy  proof  was  not  wanting  to  evince  his  zeal 
in  the  service  of  his  King  and  coimtry.  He  had  early  taken  an 
active  part  towards  tlie  suppression  of  a  rebellion  which  he 
imiformly  detested,  and  which,  while  he  had  life,  ho  was  de- 
termined to  oppose.  In  a  few  words,  it  may  with  truth  be 
said,  that  he  died  as  he  had  ever  lived — a  faithful  subject,  a 
good  citizen,  an  honest  man. 

His  remains  were  interred  this  evening  in  the  family  vault 
in  Ti-inity  church-yard,  New  York,  attended  by  a  numerous 
and  respectable  company — the  Marine  Society — together  with 
the  owners  and  officers  of  the  brig ;  and  as  many  of  the  gallant 
crew  as  could  be  spared  ashore  showed  their  respect  to  his 
memory  by  attending  the  funeral.' 

July  12. — A  few  days  ago  died,  of  the  wounds  he  re- 
ceived in  nobly  fighting  in  defence  of  his  country,  Nathaniel 
Fitz  Kandolph,  Esq.,  late  of  Woodbridge,  in  Jer-  Nathaniel 
sey.  This  gentleman's  zeal  and  activity,  joined  fs'^  K»'«i°ipi'- 
with  the  most  intrepid  bravery,  had  long  rendered  him  obnox- 
ious to  the  vindictive  rage  and  cruelty  of  a  British  enemy, 
wlio  has  stained  the  pages  of  modern  history  with  indelible 
marks  of  inhuman  barbarity  and  savage  cruelty.  Twice  he 
fell  into  their  ruthless  hands,  and  suffered  all  the  tortures  of 
long  confinement  in  the  provost  guard,  at  New  York,  from 
whence  he  had  lately  been  delivered.'' 

A  French  officer  of  Pulaski's  corps,  being  asked  the  num- 
ber of  wounds  he  received  in  tlio  American  ser- 

1  n  »  1  rt-»  T  An  Anecdote. 

Vice,  answered  lourteen.     Another  officer  standing 

by  observed  he  had  too  many.     "  No,"  replied  the  veteran, 

"  you  surely  will  allow  07ie  for  the  King  of  France." ' 

July  19. — ^Tms  morning,  the  first  and  second  Pennsylvania 

'  Game's  Mercury,  July  17.  '  New  Jersey  Gazette,  July  12. 

°  New  Jersey  Journal,  August  9. 

300  DIAET   OF  THE   KEVOLTJTION.  *  [1780. 

brigades,  commanded  by  Brigadier-General  "WajTie,  marched 
from  tlieir  respective  encampments  for  the  purpose  of  collect- 
Wayne's  Attack  ing  and  bringins;  off  tliose  cattle  in  Bergen  coimtv, 

on  the!  Bergen  °  .,.,  ,, 

Biock-uouse.  JNew  Jersey,  immediately  exposed  to  the  enemy. 
After  executing  the  order,  General  Wayne,  on  his  return, 
visited  a  block-liouse  in  the  vicinity  of  Bergen  town,  built 
and  garrisoned  by  a  number  of  refugees,  to  prevent  the  disa- 
greeable necessity  of  being  forced  into  the  British  sea-service. 
Tlie  work  was  found  jDroof  against  light  artillery,  Avhen  a  part 
of  the  first  and  second  Pennsylvania  regiments  were  ordered 
to  attempt  it  by  assault ;  when,  after  forcing  their  way  through 
the  abattis  and  pickets,  a  retreat  was  indispensably  necessary, 
there  being  no  other  entrance  into  the  block-house  but  a  sub- 
terraneous passage,  sufficient  for  one  man  to  pass.  The 
American  loss  consists  of  sixty-nine,  including  three  officers, 
killed  and  wounded.  Lieutenant  Moody,  and  six  of  his  party, 
were  taken  on  their  return  from  an  excursibn  to  1 

July  22. — A  coeeespondent  of  the  London  Chronicle,  of 
this  date,  gives  the  following  short  sketch  of  the  life  and 
English  Notice  character  of  General  "Washington : — "  As  this  gen- 
of  Washington,  tleman  always  refused  to  accept  of  any  pecuniary 
appointment  for  his  public  services,  no  salary  has  been  appointed 
by  Congress  to  his  important  command,  and  he  only  draws 
weekly  for  the  expenses  of  liis  public  table,  and  other  necessary 

"  General  Washington  having  never  been  in  Europe,  could 
not  possibly  have  seen  much  military  service  when  the  armies 
of  Britain  were  sent  to  subdue  the  Americans  ;  yet  still,  for 
a  variety  of  reasons,  he  was  by  much  the  most  proper  man  on 
the  continent,  and  probably  anywhere  else,  to  be  placed  at 
tlic  head  of  an  American  army.  Tlie  very  liigh  estimation  in 
wliich  he  stood  for  integrity  and  honor,  his  engaging  in  the 
cause  of  his  country  from  sentiment,  and  conviction  of  her 
wrongs,  his  moderation  in  politics,  liis  extensive  property,  and 
his  api^roved  abilities  as  a  commander,  were  motives  which 
necessarily  obliged  the  choice  of  America  to  fall  upon  hun. 

'  Pennsylvania  Packet,  July  25. 

1780.]  ENGLISH   NOTICE   OF   -WASHINGTON.  301 

"  That  nature  has  given  General  Washington  extraordinary 
military  talents,  will  hardly  be  controverted  by  his  most  bitter 
enemies.  Having  been  early  actuated  with  a  warm  passion  to 
serve  his  country  in  the  military  line,  he  has  greatly  improved 
his  talents  by  imwearied  industry,  a  close  application  to  the 
best  writers  upon,  tactics,  and  by  a  more  than  common  method 
and  exactness.  In  reality,  when  it  comes  to  be  considered  that 
at  first  he  only  headed  a  body  of  men  entirely  unacquainted 
with  military  discipline  or  operations,  somewhat  ungovernable 
in  temper,  and  who,  at  best,  could  be  only  styled  an  alert  and 
good  militia ;  acting  under  very  short  enlistments,  imclothed, 
unaccoutred,  and  at  all  times  very  ill  supplied  with  ammuni- 
tion and  artillery  ;  and  that  with  such  an  army  he  withstood 
the  ravages  and  progress  of  near  forty  thousand  veteran  troops, 
plentifully  provided  with  every  necessary  article,  commanded 
by  the  bravest  oificers  in  Europe,  and  supported  by  a  very 
powerful  navy,  which  effectually  prevented  all  movements  by 
water — when  all  this  comes  to  be  impartially  considered,  we 
may  venture  to  pronounce  that  General  AYashington  may  be 
regarded  as  one  of  the  greatest  military  ornaments  of  the 
present  age. 

"  General  Washington  is  now  in  the  forty-eighth  year  of  his 
age.  He  is  a  tall,  well-made  man,  rather  large  boned,  and  has  a 
tolerably  genteel  address,  his  features  are  manly  and  bold,  his 
eyes  of  a  bluish  cast,  and  very  lively  ;  his  hair  a  deep  brown,  his 
face  rather  long,  and  marked  with  the  small-pox ;  his  complexion 
sun-burnt,  and  without  much  color,  and  his  countenance  sensi- 
ble, composed,  and  thoughtful.  There  is  a  remarkable  air  of 
dignity  about  him,  with  a  striking  degree  of  gracefulness ;  he  has 
an  excellent  understanding,  without  much  quickness ;  is  strictly 
just,  vigilant,  and  generous ;  an  afiectionate  husband,  a  faithful 
friend,  a  father  to  the  deserving  soldier,  gentle  in  his  manners,  in 
temper  rather  reserved ;  a  total  stranger  to  religious  prejudices, 
which  have  so  often  excited  Christians  of  one  denomination  to 
cut  the  throats  of  those  of  another.  In  his  morals  he  is  irre- 
proachable, and  was  never  known  to  exceed  the  bounds  of  the 
most  rigid  temperance.  In  a  word,  all  his  friends  and  acquaint- 
ances universally  allow,  that  no  man  ever  united  in  his  own 

302  DIAEY  OF  THE  EETOLUTION.  [1780. 

character  a  more  perfect  alliance  of  tlie  virtues  of  the  philoso- 
pher with  the  talents  of  a  general.  Candor,  sincerity,  affa- 
bility, and  simplicity,  seem  to  be  the  striking  features  of  his 
character,  iintil  an  occasion  offers  of  displaying  the  most  de- 
termined bravery  and  independence  of  spirit."  ' 

'  Kow  Jersey  Gazette,  December  6. 


Attgitst  1. — Aegtjments  at  this  period  of  the  -war  to  pro\'e 
the  justice  of  our  caiise,  or  the  importance  of  the  controversy, 
-would  be  iiseless,  naj,  would  be  insults  to  our 
understandings.  But  our  successes  in  arms  and  in 
gaining  the  powerful  alliances  of  foreign  nations,  have  lulled 
us  into  a  dangerous  security.  We  neither  want  wisdom  to 
conduct,  nor  courage  to  finish,  what  we  have  carried  so  far 
with  unequalled  reputation.  But  as  the  bravest  minds  are  the 
most  tender  and  gentle,  o^ir  soft  feelings  have  betrayed  us  too 
soon  into  a  forgiving  indolence,  and  led  us  to  hope  that  the 
war  may  be  finished  without  those  vigorous  exertions  which 
may  prove  bloody  to  us,  and  must  end  in  the  total  destruction 
of  our  enemies.  Save  Britain  !  has  been  the  common  cry.  It 
was  our  own.  The  Britons  have  schooled  us  out  of  our  error, 
and  taught  us  that  we  must  entirely  put  out  the  flame,  or  lose 
the  building. 

Britain  hath  long  seen  that  the  conquest  of  America,  by 
force  alone,  is  impracticable.  She  has  therefore  had  recourse 
to  stratagems,  by  which  she  hopes  to  gain  an  accommodation, 
if  not  a  victory ;  an  accommodation  that  will  give  such 
power  to  neutrals  and  Tories  as  will  gain  a  slower,  but  not  less 
certain,  nor  less  fatal,  victoiy  in  the  end.  To  accomplish  this 
she  has  too  well  succeeded  in  depreciating  our  money,  by  her 
emissaries  both  without  and  within  our  lines  and  coimcils.  But 
she  can  never  accomplish  her  design  imless  our  zeal  and  vigor 
are  depreciated  with  our  money.  This  is  now  attempted  by 
various  means.     Some  they  endeavor  to  crush  by  making 

304  DIAEY   OF   THE   EEVOLTJTION.  [1780. 

rapid  excursions  and  cruelly  and  totally  divesting  them  of 
their  projjerty  ;  others  are  stolen  from  their  beds  into  captiv- 
ity ;  others  are  allui'ed  by  hopes  and  fears,  to  trade  and  parole 
submission.  By  thus  gradually  removing  from  the  lines  such 
spirits  as  they  cannot  tame,  and  enlarging  their  connections 
among  the  meaner  sort,  they  hope  gradually  to  make  their  way 
into  the  country.  We  are,  therefore,  often  told  by  their  abet- 
tors that  they  can  go  where  they  please,  and  take  whom  they 
will.  One  to  save  his  house  will  declare,  "  That  no  rebel  gun 
was  ever  iired  from  behind  it ;  "  another  to  save  his  person, 
seeks  a  parole,  or  refuses  to  take  any  active  part.  The  calam- 
ities of  war  are  held  up  in  magnified  prospects  on  the  one 
hand,  and  the  mild  terms  offered  by  the  enemy  more  falsely 
trumpeted  upon  the  other.  The  most  horrid  murders,  and 
other  barbarities  committed  by  them,  are  attributed  to  acci- 
dent, or  the  error  of  some  irresponsible  individual.  And  from 
Lord  ITortli  downward,  they  are  all  declaring  they  do  not 
mean  to  injure  America,  but  to  watch  the  favorable  movement 
of  the  war  to  give  the  Americans  peace  and  order.  Tliat  all 
their  barbarity  in  the  field,  the  destruction  of  our  prop- 
erty, and  the  far  more  cruelly  slow  murders  of  thousands  in 
their  prisons,  is  only  designed  for  our  good,  and  to  prepare  us 
for  the  olive  branch.  By  such  pretensions  some  are  imposed 
upon,  and  by  the  same,  our  public  danger  is  increased.  Yet 
how  little  reason  there  is  for  the  imposition,  reflection  will 
soon  convince. 

The  death  of  our  paper  currency  and  the  fall  of  Charleston 
(S.  C.)  happening  near  together,  flushed  the  hopes  of  the  Brit- 
ish, and,  in  their  opinions,  gained  them  the  point  M-hich  Lord 
North  deemed  proper  for  extending  the  olive  branch.  But 
what  was  their  conduct  ?  In  the  south,  their  cruelty,  and  the 
high  demands  of  Clinton's  proclamations,  were  suflicient  to 
draw  the  pale  ghosts  from  the  graves  of  their  former  fears, 
resolved  to  check  the  tyrant  or  deliver  themselves  by  an  hon- 
orable death  in  arms.  And  amongst  us  their  barbarities  rose 
with  their  hopes,  till  they  have  proved  to  us,  by  the  strong 
language  of  plunder,  flames,  and  murder,  that  they  only 
waited  for  power  wholly  to  desolate   the  friends  of  liberty. 

1Y80.]  A  WOED  TO  THE  AMEEICAXS.  305 

Our  dwelling-lioiises  and  temples  in  flames  before  oxir  eyes ; 
the  aged,  the  ■widow,  the  fatherless,  insulted,  beaten,  and  plun- 
dered without  pity,  are  argiimeuts  we  understand  and  feel. 
And  oh  !  that  unequalled  act  of  guilt  and  cruelty  !  We  can- 
not forget  it,  nor  are  we  willing  it  should  be  forgotten.  De- 
fended by  every  personal  charm ;  protected  by  a  complete 
collection  of  the  softest  and  most  charming  virtues ;  guarded 
by  a  sucking  infant  and  a  large  family  of  depending  babes, 
and  who,  sitting  still  in  her  own  house,  might  thereby  claim, 
at  least,  life  from  the  enemy  in  whose  power  she  had  put  hers  ; 
— yet  she'  falls  by  the  deliberate  aim  of  an  instigated  soldier  ! 
What  then  can  we  expect  if  fully  in  their  power  ?  Some  of  the 
enemy  affect  to  say  her  death  was  accidental.  Tliere  is  suffi- 
cient proof  to  the  contrary.  But  suppose  some  of  the  enemy 
thought  so,  did  they  show  one  mark  of  grief,  pity,  or  human- 
ity ?  Did  one  officer,  or  one  soldier,  protect  the  corpse,  or  save 
any  property  for  the  bereaved  babes  ?  Not  one ;  General 
Eobertson's  wagon  was  brought  to  the  door,  and  loaded  by 
his  own  servants  with  the  beds  and  family  goods.  General 
Skinner'  knew  the  lady  and  her  family.  He  had  many  years 
pleaded  at  the  bar  where  her  father  was  judge — ^long  sat  a  fel- 
low-member with  him  in  the  legislature  ;  but  the  plunder  of 
the  house  was  more  in  his  eyes  than  the  murdered  person  of 
his  old  friend's  daughter.  And  her  corpse,  which  was  in  part 
stripped,  must  have  been  consumed  in  the  flames  had  it  not 
been  for  the  humanity  of  some  persons  who  were  not  of  the* 

The  enemy  have  also  insulted  our  understanding  by  assign- 
ing as  a  reason  why  they  burned  our  houses  that  we  fired  out  of 
them.  Had  it  been  convenient  to  have  used  our  houses  as  forts, 
we  should  have  been  justified  in  it,  and  could  the  enemy  have 
fired  them  at  that  time,  they  would  also  have  been  justified. 
But  after  they  were  not,  and  could  not  again  be  used  for  that 
purpose,  the  reason  for  burning  ceases.  But  the  whole  story 
is  false  in  fact.  We  know  but  of  one  house  out  of  which  a 
gun  was  fired  at  the  Connecticut  Farms  or  Springfield.     If 

»  Mrs.  Caldwell.  '■'  See  Vol.  I.,  p.  396. 

Vol.  n.— 20 

306  DIAKY   OF   THE   EEVOLTJTION.  [1780. 

there  are  any  more  instances  they  are  very  fevr.  And  did  not 
the  enemy  avail  themselves  of  our  houses  in  Elizabethtown 
while  they  lay  in  it,  and  fire  upon  lis  out  of  the  windows  ? 

From  every  view,  then,  of  the  enemy's  conduct,  it  is  evi- 
dent we  have  nothing  to  expect  from  them  but  the  effects  of 
pride  and  malice  heightened  by  resistance.  Many  may  now 
be  flattered  by  them,  and  a  few  villains  may  be  finally  pro- 
tected to  answer  their  purposes.  But  if  they  could  conquer 
this  country  for  the  present,  they  could  not  hold  the  conquest 
without  crushing  us.  That  necessity  will  favor  their  disposi- 
tions to  prosecute  the  object.  As  a  warning,  we  give  an  ex- 
tract, which  is  genuine,  from  the  Journal  of  a  principal  ofiicer 
of  their  own  when  speaking  of  a  number  of  persons  of  con- 
siderable note  who  came  into  General  Howe,  from  Philadel- 
phia. He  says,  "  They  are  all  very  politely  received  for  the 
present,  but  their  several  characters  are  particularly  known  to 
the  general,  and  a  day  of  reckoning  is  to  come  hereafter." 

In  these  circumstances,  Divine  Providence  is  rousing  to 
action  by  the  most  favorable  prospects,  our  allies  are  gaining 
the  superiority  by  sea  in  the  different  quarters  of  the  globe, 
and  at  the  same  time  have  sent  a  veiy  powerful  aid  to  us.  Tlie 
remains  of  this  campaign  are  big  with  important  events.  The 
danger  and  expense  of  one  liberal  supply,  of  one  vigorous 
eftbrt,  will  be  much  less  than  a  lingering  war.  While  in  the 
one  case  our  success  is  morally  certain,  and  in  the  other  doubt- 
•ful.  House  then  all  at  once  to  action,  and  flash  the  final  shock 
upon  all  those  who  disgrace  humanity.  Nay,  humanity  cannot 
live  till  they  are  dead.  Give  the  necessary  supjflies,  with  your 
personal  services.  We  shall  either  gain  an  honored  death  or 
secure  a  fine  coimtry  in  circumstances  more  advantageous  to 
posterity  than  our  fathers  found  it  at  first,  even  if  we  lose  our 
movable  property.  Let  us  free  ourselves  from  the  hope  of 
reunion  with  such  men. 

The  Tories  are  now  returning  to  their  original — horse 
thieves,  night  robbers,  and  murderers.  They  are  banding 
themselves  together  for  the  execution  of  their  plan.  Rise,  then, 
to  extirpate  those  wretches,  root  and  branch,  from  this  conti- 
nent, which  was  given  to  freemen !     The  late  militia  law  is 

1780.]  -WILLIAJI   LIvmGSTON.  307 

favorable  beyond  otliers  to  us  who  only  deserve  the  country 
because  we  fight  for  it.  And  as  the  Government  is  fully  in 
our  own  power,  we  need  nothing  but  watchful  zeal  to  have  all 
our  own.  Look  back  on  what  we  have  done  and  gained,  and 
also  consider  what  we  have  at  stake.  Let  not  the  want  of 
a  last  brave  effort  sacrifice  the  whole.  Do  not  so  much  as 
please  the  tories'  ears  by  a  groan  under  the  complicated  diffi- 
culties we  have  to  struggle  with.  Tlie  greater  they  are,  the 
more  honor  we  shall  gain  by  cheerfully  surmounting  them. 
In  a  future  day  we  sliall  enjoy  pleasing  reflections,  and  feel 
rich,  in  proportion  to  the  losses  we  have  sustained  in  preserv- 
ing our  country.  He  that  has  lost  nothing  will  not  dare  to  be 
seen  amongst  freemen.  Let  aff'ection,  strengthened  by  sufi'er- 
ing,  fears  roused  by  dangers,  and  fortitude  supported  by  tlje 
greatest  prospects,  unite  and  invigorate  the  gi'and  struggle,  that 
we  may  soon  be  in  full  liberty  and  peace,  each  enjoying  all  that 
is  contained  in  the  character  of  A  Citizen.^ 

August  2. — Ensign  Moonv,  a  refugee  from  Sussex  to  the 
British  army,  who  was  lately  sent  from  New  York  with  a 
party  of  ruffians  for  the  piirpose  of  burnins;  Sussex 

^      /.       T  e^T-  •       ^-        >i  Ensign  Moody. 

gaol,  m  J  ersey,  ot  takmg,  or  assassmatmg  (govern- 
or Livingston,  and  the  persons  who  were  active  in  apprehend- 
ing the  three  spies  lately  executed,  and  of  enlisting  the  inhab- 
itants in  the  service  of  the  British  tyrant,  has  been  captured 
by  the  vigorous  exertions  of  Captain  Lawrence,  of  the  ISTew 
York  State  levies,  near  the  English  neigliborhood.  Tlie  in- 
structions found  upon  Moody,  in  order  to  give  the  better  color 
to  his  private  directions  for  enlisting  and  assassinating,  and  to 
prevent  his  being  treated  as  a  spy  from  the  military  style,  that 
he  was  to  produce,  in  case  of  his  being  taken  prisoner,  are  in 
the  following  terms : 

Head  Quarters,  May  lOtTi,  New  Torh,  1780. 
SiE, — You  are  hereby  directed  and  authorized  to  proceed 
without  loss  of  time  with  a  small  detachment  into  the  Jerseys 
by  the  most  convenient  route,  in  order  to  carry  off  the  person 

'  New  Jersey  Journal,  August  2. 

308  DIAET   OF  THE   EETOLUTION.  [1780. 

of  Governor  Livingston,  or  any  other  acting  in  public  station 
whom  yon  may  fall  in  with  in  the  course  of  yoiir  march,  or 
any  person  whom  you  may  meet  with,  and  whom  it  may  be 
necessary  to  secure  for  your  own  security,  and  that  of  the 
party  under  your  command.  Should  you  succeed  in  taking 
Governor  Livingston,  you  are  to  treat  him  according  to  his 
station,  as  far  as  lies  in  your  power ;  nor  are  you,  lipon  any 
account,  to  offer  any  violence  to  his  person.  You  will  use 
you]"  endeavors  to  get  possession  of  his  papers,  which  you  will 
take  care  of,  and  upon  your  return,  deliver  at  Head-Quarters. 

By  order  of  his  Excellency,  Lieut.-Gcnl.  Knyphansen. 

Geo.  BECKAvrrn,  Aide-de-Camp. 

Ensign  Moody,  \st  Battalion, 
New  Jersey  Volunteers. 

It  is  said  that  all  of  Moody's  party,  except  one,  (who,  attempt- 
ing to  swim  the  North  River  in  his  flight,  and  is  supposed  to  be 
drowned,)  have  either  been  captured  or  killed  by  the  activity 
of  the  Jerseymen ;  and  as  to  the  famous  or  infamous  ensign 
himself,  the  great  taker  of  governors,  and  general  gaol-deliv- 
erer of  Sussex,  he  is  at  present  safely  lodged  at  West  Point ; 
and  if  he  has  justice  done  him,  it  is  generally  supposed,  as  our 
correspondent  observes,  that  he  will  be  hanged  for  a  spy,  for 
enlisting  American  citizens  in  the  British  army,  and  coming 
with  a  party  so  small  as  nuie,  and  with  weapons  concealed, 
either  of  which  are,  according  to  the  present  constmction  of 
all  the  nations  in  Em-ope,  characteristic  of  a  spy. 

It  is  reported  that  another  party  was  sent  from  Staten  Isl- 
and last  week  for  the  express  pui-pose  of  assassmating  his  ex- 
cellency tlie  governor.  Ought  not  such  bloody  measures  be 
retaliated  upon  the  enemy  ? ' 

August  5. — Certain  intelligence  having  been  received  that 
Clinton  had  embarked  the  principal  part  of  his  force,  at  New 

Clinton  at  York,  and  had  proceeded  to  Huntington  Bay,  on  his 
Huntington  Bay.  ^^.^^  ^^  Ehodc  Island,  to  make  a  combined  attack 
on  the  fleet  and  army  of  our  allies  now  there,  his  Excellency 

'  New  Jersey  Journal,  August  2. 

17S0.]  AXECDOTE   OF  THE   KING   OF   PKrSSIA.  309 

General  "Washington  marched  from  his  camp  at  Prackncss  in 
Jersey,  the  29th  of  July,  and  crossed  the  North  Eiver  on  the 
31st,  when  a  junction  was  formed  with  the  troops  under  the 
command  of  Major-General  Howe.  His  excellency  had  re- 
solved, in  case  the  enemy  should  continue  their  course  to 
Rhode  Island,  to  march  immediately  to  New  York  and  attack 
it.  All  the  necessary  preparations  were  made  for  this  purpose, 
when  intelligence  arrived  that  the  enemy  had  put  back.  It  is 
to  be  regretted  that  they  did  not  go  on  with  their  intended 
expedition,  as  our  allies  were  well  prepared  to  receive  them, 
and  they  could  have  met  with  nothing  but  disgrace  and  defeat 
in  that  quarter  ;  while  in  this  we  had  every  reason  to  expect, 
from  the  number  and  spii-it  of  our  troops,  the  most  decisive 
and  glorious  success.  Sir  Henry  no  doubt  relinquished  his 
project,  in  consequence  of  this  movement  of  our  anny ;  and 
it  must  be  confessed  that  he  abandoned  it  with  much  more 
prudence  than  he  undertook  it.  The  object  for  which  the  army 
crossed  the  river  having  ceased,  the  whole  recrossed  yesterday, 
and  are  marching  towards  Dobb's  Ferry,  in  prosecution  of  the 
original  plan  formed  for  the  campaign.  Tlie  following  are  the 
vessels  that  composed  Admiral  Graves'  squadron,  viz. :  the 
London,  Bedford,  Royal  Oak,  Prudent,  America,  and  Shrews- 
bury, with  the  Amphitrite  frigate.' 

AuGCST  9. — ^The  King  of  Prussia  not  long  since  presented 
his  Excellency  General  "Washington  with  the  picture  of  his 
majesty  taken  to  the  life,  inscribed  imder,  "  From  Anecdote  of  the 
the  oldest  general  in  Europe,  to  the  greatest  gen-  King  of  Prussia. 
oral  on  earth."  A  celebrated  general  of  his  majesty's,  (over 
whom  conquest  never  gained  dominion,)  on  viewing  the  in- 
scription, asks,  "  Why  does  he  stand  higher  in  the  annals  of 
fame  than  myself? "  "  Consider,"  replied  this  illustrious  artist 
in  the  science  of  war,  "  You  never  fought  but  at  the  head  of 
troops  in  number,  discipline,  bravery,  ardor,  and  full  of  hopes, 
vieing  \vith  any  commander ;  but  this  noble  chief  has  encoun- 
tered every  embarrassment,  and  by  his  united  abilities,  (com- 

'  Pennsylvania  Packet,  August  15. 

310  DIAEY   OF  THE   REVOLUTION.  [1780. 

plete  to  constitate  tlie  general  indeed,)  has  snrmonnted  untold 
difficulties;  and  tlierebyjnstly  stands  entitled  to  such  laurels 
as  conquest,  fame,  and  magnanimity  can  only  give." ' 

August  16. — Eauly  this  morning  the  advanced  parties  of 
the  British  under  Cornwallis,  and  the  Americans  under  Gen- 
eral Gates,  met  in  the  woods  near  Camden.  The 
'  result  is  not  altogether  known,  but  from  every 
quarter  we  hear  of  the  total  rout  of  Gates  and  his  ragamuf- 
fins.^ A  correspondent  at  Salisbury,  in  ISTortli  Carolina,  gives 
the  following  accoimt  of  Gates's  defeat,  together  with  a  sketch 
of  the  movements  of  the  American  army  during  the  few  days 
preceding  the  battle :  "  It  is  natural  for  mankind,  who  have 
lost  their  country  and  property,  to  be  too  anxious  in  their  pur- 
suits to  regain  them,  and  while  they  partially  grasp  at  the 
shadow,  lose  the  substance.  Men  of  this  complexion,  con- 
stantly surroimding  the  commander-in-chief,  lessening  his  diffi- 
culties, the  number  of  the  enemy,  and  pointing  out  the  cer- 
tainty of  success,  excite  measures  which  in  the  event  become 
fatal.  We  marched  from  Hillsborough  about  the  1st  of  July, 
without  an  oimce  of  provision  being  laid  in  at  any  one  point, 
often  fasting  for  several  days  together,  and  subsisting  fre- 
quently upon  green  apples  and  peaches  ;  sometimes  by  detach- 
ing parties,  we  thought  ourselves  feasted,  when  by  violence 
they  seized  a  little  fresh  beef,  and  cut,  threshed  out,  and 
ground  a  little  wheat ;  yet,  imder  all  these  difficulties,  we  had 
to  press  forward. 

"Just  before,  and  on  the  arrival  of  General  Gates,  both  he 
and  the  Baron  De  Kalb  seemed  disposed  to  give  the  army  a 
little  respite,  but  General  Caswell,  with  the  North  Carolina 
militia,  having  moved  over  the  Pedee,  we  were  obliged  to  make 
a  six  days'  hard  march,  before  we  could  form  a  junction  with 
him ;  tliis  effected,  our  march  was  rapidly  continued  for  six 
days  longer,  when  we  arrived  at  Clermont,  within  thirteen 
miles  of  Camden,  on  the  13th  instant. 

"  Our  supplies  here  began  to  come  in  more  amply,  and  had 

'  New  Jersey  Jourual,  August  9.  -  Andrew  Helm  to  1'.  Van  Scliaak. 


Tce  -R-aited  a  few  days,  onr  forces  mnst  have  been  considerably 
angmented,  -which  Avould  have  enabled  ns  to  have  harassed  the 
enemy,  and  in  a  great  measure  cvit  oif  their  resoi;rces ;  this 
must  have  effected  onr  purpose  in  the  event  without  risking  a 
general  engagement,  the  last  step  in  my  opinion  to  be  taken, 
where  so  much  was  to  be  risked.  "We  were  ordered  down  on 
the  evening  of  the  15th  to  attack  the  enemy,  and  General 
Sumpter  was  to  proceed  down  to  the  ferry  opposite  to  Cam- 
den, to  create  a  diversion  in  that  quarter,  to  facilitate  our  mak- 
ing an  impression  on  Camden.  Here  the  British  had  collected 
their  whole  force,  and  gaining  intelligence  of  our  position,  moved 
out  at  nine  o'clock  in  the  evening  to  meet  us ;  forming  an  am- 
buscade on  the  road,  they  surprised  us  about  one  o'clock  in  the 
moniing  on  our  march.  Our  advanced  and  flanking  parties 
endeavored  to  resist  the  shock,  but  were  broken,  and  this  threw 
the  continental  brigades  into  disorder ;  but  they  rallying  im- 
mediately, advanced,  engaged  and  forced  the  enemy  to  give 
way  in  turn  ;  this  gave  respite  to  the  troops  to  form,  and  so 
we  remained  in  anxious  expectation  till  near  daybreak,  noth- 
ing material  occurring,  but  partial  firings  from  the  advanced 
and  reconnoitring  parties  of  each  army,  when  the  general 
ordered  the  first  Maryland  brigade  to  form  a  corps  de  reserve, 
about  two  hundred  yards  in  the  rear  of  the  centre  of  the  line ; 
this  was  immediately  eftected,  and  the  troops  rested  upon  their 
arms  till  a  little  after  daybreak,  when  the  action  recommenced. 
"  The  attack  was  made  by  Lord  Comwallis  from  the  right 
and  centre,  on  the  centre  and  left  wing  of  the  front  line  of  the 
Americans,  which  was  altogether  composed  of  militia,  who 
upon  the  first  fire  gave  way,  and  were  pursued  by  the  British. 
Tliis  threw  the  corps  de  reserve  into  disorder  ;  but  they  rally- 
ing immediately  under  a  very  hot  fire,  charged  the  British  so 
warmly,  that  they  entirely  broke  their  centre.  By  this  time 
the  fire  commenced  very  hot  on  the  right,  where  the  second 
Maryland  brigade  behaved  with  great  gallantry  and  firnmess, 
but  the  enemy's  line  of  regular  troops  being  far  more  extensive 
on  the  right  than  the  Americans  on  the  left,  after  the  militia 
had  given  way,  exposed  the  left  flank  and  rear  of  the  first  bri- 
gade, notwithstanding  which  they  manfully  maintained  their 

312  DIAIiY   OF   THE   EEVOLUTIOX.  [1780. 

ground,  till  the  left  wing  was  ordered  to  retreat  to  a  point  in 
Adew,  about  eiglity  yards  in  the  rear,  at  the  extremity  of  the 
flanking  party.  Here  it  instantly  fonned,  renewed,  and  con- 
tinued the  attack  with  great  vigor ;  but  being  again  hard 
pressed  in  front,  flank,  and  rear,  retreated  a  second  time, 
formed,  and  disputed  the  ground  with  great  obstinacy,  till, 
borne  down  by  numbers,  they  were  obliged  generally  to  re- 
treat. At  this  time  the  second  brigade,  which  before  had  not 
been  so  hard  pressed,  was  also  borne  down  by  superior  num- 
bers, after  behaving  with  the  greatest  firmness  and  bravery. 
The  retreat  now  became  general,  and  the  militia  by  this  time 
had  got  six  or  eight  miles  in  the  rear,  some  of  whom,  together 
with  our  camp  women,  wagoners,  and  some  scattering  light 
horse,  plundered  all  our  baggage. 

"  General  Smallwood  endeavored  to  cover  the  retreat,  and  is 
collecting  the  remains  of  our  scattered  troops,  for  which  pur- 
pose he  has  established  posts  at  Salisbury  and  Charlotte,  and 
has  prevailed  on  a  considerable  body,  not  less  than  one  thou- 
sand volunteers,  to  make  a  stand  at  Charlotte.'  The  British 
loss  hath  been  much  more  considerable  than  the  Americans. 
Lord  Cornwallis,  or  some  other  British  General,  it  is  conjec- 
tured, is  amongst  the  slain.  Notwithstanding  this  misfortune, 
General  Gates,  whose  head-quarters  are  at  Hillsborough,  is 
collecting  a  force  miTch  superior  to  his  late  army,  and  appears 
resolved  to  try  the  fortime  of  another  day."  ^ 

'  New  Jersey,  September  17th. 

'  reiinsvlvania  Gazette,  September  C ;  Kivington,  in  his  Gazette  of  September 
13,  says: — "Instead  of  halting  and  collecting  a  force  at  Hillsborough,  in  North 
Carolina,  General  Gates'  flight  was  rapidly  continued  three  days  into  Virginia,  one 
hundred  and  ninety  miles  from  the  field  of  action ;  it  was  effected  upon  a  cele- 
brated horse,  the  son  of  Colonel  Baylor's  Fearnaught,  own  brother  to  his  Grace 
of  Kingston's  famous  Careless,  purchased  of  a  general  officer  of  the  first  distinc- 
tion. All  that  Horatio  Gates  (after  the  defeat  of  his  troops,)  knew  of  the  British 
army  and  its  noble  commander,  was,  their  having  in  a  short  time  become  pre-emi- 
nently triumphant.  Why,  then,  is  it  presumed  to  assert  the  loss  of  the  British  was 
much  more  considerable  than  the  Rebels,  llr.  Gates  declares  (concerning  the  great 
field-day)  that  no  part  nf  his  army  could  be  accounted  for  but  himself,  and  an  Aide- 
de-Camp,  his  attendant. 

"  The  following  dish  has  been  hashed  and  served  up  at  Mr.  Washington's 
head-quarters :  Imprimis — the  killed,  wounded,  and  prisoners  taken  of  the  Conli- 

1780.]  BATTLE   OF   CAimEN.  313 

A  British  -writer  gives  the  following  relation  of  the  rise 
and  progress  of  the  continental  army  under  the  command  of 
General  Gates,  till  the  total  defeat  thereof,  near  Camden : 

"  So  long  ago  as  the  end  of  March,  or  beginning  of  April 
last,  the  continental  regiments  of  Maryland,  Delaware,  and 
Pennsylvania,  consisting  of  about  three  thousand  British  Account 
men,  were  detached  from  "Washington's  array  for  Battle  of  camden. 
South  Carolina.  Tlie  excessive  cold  in  the  early  part  of  their 
march,  and  the  inconveniences  they  suficred  from  the  heat  of 
the  weather  latterly,  had  diminished  their  numbers  by  sickness 
and  desertion  very  considerably.  After  Gates  was  appointed 
to  the  chief  command,  he  sent  Major-Gencral  Baron  De  Ivalb 
forward,  while  he  remained  in  Vii'ginia,  to  invigorate  the 
measures  necessary  for  augmenting  his  army.  There  he  suc- 
ceeded in  procuring  considerable  reinforcements.  Of  the  fif- 
teen hundred  he  collected,  one-half  were  the  flower  of  their 
young  men,  amongst  whom  was  a  corjjs  of  cadets,  consisting 
of  one  hundred  and  fifty  gentlemen.  He  then  pushed  into 
North  Carolina,  where  he  was  joined  by  many  recruits  from 
the  prisoners  tliat  had  made  their  escape  from  Charleston  ;  be- 
sides these,  a  number  of  militia  had  been  collected  under  Gen- 
erals Caswell  and  Kutherford. 

nenials  amount  to  five  hundred:  but  (as  we  have  already  predicted)  no  mention 
is  made  of  a  single  militia-mmi,  or  of  the  missing  of  the  rebel  army.  Four  hun- 
dred hacigage  wagons,  laden  with  every  necessary  for  an  army,  with  a  most  com- 
plete park,  (including  many  of  the  artillery  taken  at  Saratoga,)  with  six  hundred 
stand  of  arms  and  accoutrements  for  as  many  recruits,  are  part  of  the  trophies. 
Forty  of  the  above-mentioned  wagons  had  been  taken  from  the  British  some  time 
before  the  action,  by  the  rebel  Colonel  Sumpter,  with  a  detachment  of  two  or 
three  hundred  Continentals,  but  Colonel  Tarleton's  cavalry  falling  in  with  Mr. 
Sumpter,  (who  with  his  escort  were  amicsing  themselves  in  a  wood  on  a  nutting 
party,')  the  whole  were  retaken,  after  killing  or  securing  most  of  the  enemy's  de- 
tachment. We  are  assured  from  the  rebel  accounts,  that  the  noljle  commander 
of  the  British  troops  had,  from  the  latest  advices,  advanced  a  considerable  way 
into  the  province  of  North  CaroUna,  from  which  every  happy  event  may  be  pre- 

"  Mr.  Gates  was,  at  the  above  disastrous  crisis,  in  .an  indifferent  state  of  health, 
his  complaint  a  diarrhoea ;  his  person  was  disguised  in  the  retreat.  It  Is  said  his 
officers  have  certainly  sent  a  request  to  the  rebel  board  of  war  at  Philadelphia, 
desiring  a  court-martial  may  be  held  upon  their  commanding  ofScer  on  the  ever- 
memorable  but  calamitous  16th  of  August." 

314  DIAEV   OF  THE  EEVOLUTION.  [1780. 

"  Till  the  i-einforcements  from  Virginia  under  Gates  should 
arrive,  notliing  of  consequence  was  attempted.  De  Ivalb  was 
joined  by  Colonel  Sunipter  and  some  other  leading  men  from 
South  Carolina,  and  some  hundred  of  militia  who  were  anxioiis 
to  plunder  the  frontiers,  in  which  they  were  gratified.  Tliey 
made  several  incursions,  and  even  dared  to  attack  some  of  the 
posts  occupied  by  the  king's  forces,  m  which,  however,  they 
were  constantly  repulsed  with  considerable  loss. 

"  On  the  Stli  of  August,  the  rebel  army  took  post  about  six- 
teen miles  from  Camden.  Lord  Kawdon,  who  commanded  in  the 
absence  of  Lord  Cornwallis,  immediately  called  in  all  the  out- 
posts, and  collected  the  whole  force  at  that  place.  Lord  Corn- 
wallis having  received  information  of  Gates'  advancing,  set 
out  for  the  army  the  11th,  and  on  the  14th  at  night  arrived  at 
head-quarters.  It  appears  that  his  lordship  determined  imme- 
diately to  attack  Gates.  On  the  loth,  at  nine  at  night,  the 
army  were  ordered  to  parade,  accoutred  for  action,  at  their 
several  alarm  posts.  Scarce  an  officer  or  soldier  in  the  army 
knew  of  an  action  being  expected.  About  ten  o'clock  two  of 
Burgoyne's  soldiers,  who  had  enlisted  in  the  rebel  army,  came 
in  to  Lord  Cornwallis,  and  informed  him  that  Gates  was  rein- 
forced by  fifteen  hundred  militia  the  night  before,  under  Gen- 
eral Stevens  from  Virginia,  and  that  the  whole  rebel  army  Avas 
then  in  full  march  to  attack  his  lordship.  Notwithstanding 
this,  the  original  plan  was  still  pursued,  the  army  marched  at 
a  little  after  ten,  and  at  about  two,  greatly  to  the  sui"prise  of 
the  enemy,  the  advanced  parties  of  both  corps  met ;  a  little 
skirmish  ensued,  when  each  retreated  to  their  respective 
armies.  By  a  kind  of  mutual  consent,  hostilities  did  not  re- 
commence till  daylight,  when  a  tremendous  discharge  of  artil- 
lery and  musketry  from  the  royal  army,  announced  the  com- 
mencement of  the  most  severe  action  that  has  happened  in  the 
field  during  this  rebellion. 

"  The  firing  was  kept  up  with  mutual  briskness  for  near  an 
hour,  when  orders  were  given  to  charge.  Twice  it  was  at- 
tempted in  vain,  from  the  contimied  fire  of  the  rebels ;  they 
at  last  attempted,  in  their  turn,  something  like  it,  but  the  au- 
dacity of  the  attempt  proved  fatal  to  them  ;  they  fell  into  dis- 

1780.]  BATTLE   OF   CAMDEN.  315 

order,  -^vliicli  gave  the  royal  army  an  opportunity  to  close  in 
■\vitli  tlio  bayonet. 

"  Tarleton  had  now  joined  the  flank,  and  advanced  near  the 
enemy,  who,  in  a  few  minutes,  were  totally  routed,  and  the 
field  left  to  the  royal  army.  The  pursuit  was  more  fatal  to  the 
rebels  than  the  action ;  it  continued  for  twenty  miles  with 
unremitted  ardor,  the  Avhole  of  which  distance  was  strewed 
with  dead  and  woimded  bodies.  Upwards  of  one  thousand 
privates  were  killed  in  the  battle  and  pursuit,  and  ninety 
officers  ;  among  them  three  generals.  Near  one  thousand  were 
taken  prisoners,  great  numbers  of  whom  are  badly  wounded  ; 
their  whole  train  of  artillery,  composed  of  nine  brass  field- 
pieces,  one  hundred  and  fifty-six  wagons,  witli  complete  teams, 
laden  with  many  thousand  stand  of  small  arms,  ammunition, 
provisions,  and  camp  equipage,  grace  the  triumph  of  the  vic- 
tors. Of  the  royal  army  about  three  hundred  privates  were 
killed  and  wounded,  and  twelve  officers,  though  none  of  high 

"  Lord  Cornwallis's  whole  force,  including  Tarleton's  legion, 
did  not  exceed  twenty-four  hundred,  most  of  whom  were  in 
a  low  state  of  health,  which  is  the  only  reason  that  can  be  as- 
cribed for  Gates'  meeting  them  in  the  open  field,  for  it  is  noto- 
rious that  no  other  instance  can  be  adduced  during  the  whole 
course  of  the  wai-,  of  any  of  the  rebel  generals  coming  to  fair 
action  with  the  royalists. 

"  About  five  hundred  of  Burgoyne's  soldiers  that  had  enlisted 
in  the  rebel  service,  were  in  the  action ;  their  superior  disci- 
pline and  bravery  rendered  it  so  obstinate  and  bloody. 

"  Gates  was  so  certain  of  victory,  and  of  Burgoyning  Lord 
Cornwallis,  as  he  termed  it,  that  before  the  disposition  was 
made  for  attack,  he  posted  two  bodies  of  his  army  at  some  dis- 
tance to  the  right  and  left  of  tlie  British  army,  with  orders  to 
close  in  iipon  them  and  cut  off  tlieir  retreat,  while  he  in  person 
attacked  them  in  front  with  the  main  army. 

"TluTs  are  the  two  Southern  provinces,  by  the  kind  interpo- 
sition of  Providence,  happily  saved  from  the  miserable  conse- 
quences of  this  sudden,  unexpected,  and  iaipending  blow. 
Bloody,  dark,  and  deep  plots  and  machinations  were  in  eriibryo, 

316,  DIAET   OF   THE   KEVOLUTION.  [1780. 

by  obdurate  rebels,  in  all  quarters  of  the  town  and  country, 
ready  to  sjiring  forth  into  action,  -svlienever  Gates  should  give 
the  decisive  blow.  Scenes  of  tyranny,  robbery,  jjersecution, 
and  distress,  even  unto  death,  more  intolerable  and  abomina- 
ble, if  possible,  than  ever,  would  have  instantly  followed. 
Cruel  and  relentless  tyrants  of  the  Congress  and  mankind, 
were  in  greedy  expectation,  to  satiate  their  unbounded  malice 
and  resentment,  and  even  imbue  their  wicked  hands  afresh  in 
the  blood  of  the  loyalists,  and  again  to  subject  us  to  the  ac- 
cursed domination  of  the  miso'eant  Congress ;  a  system  so 
abhorredly  infamous,  as  not  to  be  equalled  in  any  age  or  nation 
under  heaven." ' 

August  19. — ^The  following  extract  of  a  letter  from  a  cler- 
gyman at  New  York,  will  convey  a  pretty  lively  idea  of  the 
Affairs  in  joy  which  the  British  in  that  quarter  must  have 
New  Tori;,  fgj^  g^^  -Q^^  news  of  Gatcs's  defeat ;  it  contains 
some  other  more  important  matter,  Avhich  those  who  feel 
themselves  concerned  will  do  well  to  ponder  upon : — "  With 
respect  to  politics,  you  know  you  have  laid  me  under  strong 
injunctions  to  transmit  you  a  faithful  picture  of  them.  I 
shall  therefore  be  all  obedience ;  though  the  shade  will  much 
overpower  the  light  in  my  description.  Know  then  the  storm 
which  hath  long  threatened  us,  hath  at  length  covered  us. 
The  French  force  has  arrived  in  our  neighborhood  ;  and  to  add 
to  its  imjjression,  our  intelligence  from  the  South  is  of  much 
the  same  color  with  that  which,  at  short  intervals,  made  its  way 
to  us  on  the  eve  of  the  miserable  event  at  Saratoga.  Tlie 
enemy  imagine  nothing  but  conquest,  and  God  grant  they 
imagine  a  vain  thing;  but  there  is  something  else  which  sits 
heavy  at  my  heart.  A  lowering  discontent  prevails  in  our 
lines,  which  sometimes  breaks  out  into  murmurs.  I  explained 
to  you  some  time  ago  the  cause  which  began  to  generate  these 
ugly  syinptoms.  The  great  from  whom  countenance,  honors, 
and  presentments  come,  '  Eemember  not  the  former  things, 
neither  consider  the  things  of  old.'     They  have  shown  an  un- 

■  Rivington's  Gazette,  January  3,  1781. 

17S0.]  ATFAIES   IN   NEW   YOEK.  317 

warrantable  predilection  for  those  whose  hearts  have  ever  been 
known  to  be  in  the  enemy's  camp,  and  who,  there  is  too  good 
ground  to  presume,  are  more  occupied  in  inventing  topics  of 
excuse  of  their  present  conduct  to  those  on  whom  they  think 
fortune  noio  smiles,  than  in  preparing  cordials  for  those  who 
liavo  run  their  course  Mith  honor  and  consistency ;  and  who 
must  meet  the  worst  rage  of  the  foe.  I,  you  know,  am  no 
party  man.  I  add  not  one,  therefore,  to  the  number  of  mur- 
murcrs.  On  the  contrary,  I  exert  my  poor  talents  to  assuage 
the  dangeroiis  and  increasing  malady,  but  reason  on  the  other 
side  too  often  reduces  me  to  silence.  I  ventured  to  expostulate 
with  our  friend  S G ,  upon  the  injury  which  this  tem- 
per might  do  to  the  common  cause ;  who,  in  a  rougher  tone 
than  I  had  ever  heard  from  him,  desired  me  to  reserve  my  ser- 
mon for  the  pulpit.  '  You,  sir,  (said  he,)  are  by  accident  tol- 
erably easy  in  your  circumstances  ;  but  before  you  enter  upon 

this  subject  again,  fetch  down  to  a  level  with  me  at  least 

and ,  who  now  soar  so  liigh  above  me  in  all  their  pride  of 

place.  You  know  wliat  I  have  been.  Survey  my  present 
apparel.     I  have   a  family.     You   saw  my  table  to-day.'     I 

have  been  decided,  so  indeed  have and  — — :  'i-for,  they 

against,  my  .sovereign.  I  this  moment  eucoimtered  'two  dark 
Presbyterians  in  close  consultation,  debating,  I  suppose,  upon 
tlie  properest  arts  to  j^ractise  for  their  profit,  and  elevation, 
upon  another  change  of  sides ;  though  the  fliTsh  for  recent 
favors  lavished  upon  them  by  the  royal  hand  was  yet  warm 
upon  their  cheeks.  One  of  them,  doubtless,  hath  laid  his  fin- 
ger upon  the  ofiice  of  lieutenant-governor,  and  the  other  of 
chief  justice,  if  the  rebel  power  prevail.  Let  them  but  attempt 
it,  and  my  word  for  it,  their  subtlety  will  dissolve  every  obsta- 
cle in  their  way ;  and  perhaps  the  time  is  not  very  distant 
when  you  and  I  shall  hold  up  our  hands  before  the  latter  for 
high  treason  against  the  United  States,  and  the  former  will 
sign  our  warrants.  You  will  call  it  policy  perhaps  which  has 
ordered  things  thus.  I  believe,  indeed,  it  is  partly  owing  to 
the  doctrine  of  the  Florentine  school ;  but  I  am  convinced, 
that  it  is  inore  to  be  ascribed  to  the  unfeelingncss  of  men,  new 
to  power,  who  have  thus  trampled  upon  our  services,  and 

318  DIAEY   OF  THE   KEVOLUTION.  [1780. 

aifronted  us.  They  have  provided  for  their  minions  from  con- 
nection or  caprice,  after  the  fashion  of  their  own  conntry,  and 
returned  from  ns  with  scorn,  to  follow  the  pursuits  of  their 
own  pleasure,  their  interest,  or  their  vanity ;  but,  howcA'er, 
though  I  cannot  always  govern  my  own  passion,  I  trust  I  shall 
in  the  worst  of  times,  behave  like  an  honest  man  and  a  faith- 
ful subject.'     Judge,  therefore,  what  I  feel.     "Would  I  had  the 

nerves  of ,  whose  letter  goes  under  cover  with  this  ;  his 

sjpirit  rises  in  proportion  to  our  difficulties  ;  and  he  overwhelms 
any  man  who  doubts  the  ability  of  Cornwallis  to  keep  what  he 
has  got,  if  he  cannot  yet  penetrate  further.  It  is  his  oj)inion 
that  "Washington's  army  of  half-starved  ragamuffins,  who,  in 
the  language  of  Job,  '  Cut  up  mallows  by  the  biishes,  and 
ji;niper  roots  for  their  meat,'  will  melt  before  us  as  the  vapor 
does  before  the  sun ;  and  he  is  preparing  a  suitable  sermon, 
with  the  above  verse  for  his  text.  Something,  however,  must 
happen  in  a  few  days,  in  the  South,  I  mean,  to  end  our  doubts. 
To  that  quarter  our  eyes  are  more  fixed  than  to  what  is  rolling 
to  ourselves.     May  my  next  make  amends  for  this." ' 

ArGTJST  31. — ^In  the  Hoyal  Gazette  Extraordinary  of  this 
day,  is  published  the  following  account  of  the  different  actions 

Operations  in    "^^i^li  have  lately  happened  in  South  Carolina. 

South  Carolina.  Lord  Comwallis  having  received  intelligence  that 
General  Gates  had  arrived  at  Deep  Creek,  in  ISTorth  Carolina, 
the  twenty-fourth  of  July  last,  and  taken  upon  him  the  com- 
mand of  the  troops  which  had  been  collecting  there  since  the 
surrender  of  Charleston,  and  that  he  was  putting  them  in 
motion,  set  out  for  Camden  on  the  evening  of  the  tenth,  and 
arrived  there  early  in  the  morning  of  the  fourteenth  instant. 
General  Gates  had  already  penetrated  into  South  Carolina,  and 
was  advanced  as  far  as  Eugely's,  about  twelve  miles  distance 
from  Camden.  His  lordship  having  informed  himself  of  the 
strength  and  position  of  the  rebels,  resolved  to  attack  them, 
(although  they  had  been  joined  on  the  fifteenth  by  about  fifteen 
hundred  militia,  under  General  Scott,  from  Virginia,)  and  accord- 

ITpcott,  vi.  89. 

1780.]  OPEEATIONS   IN    SOUTH    CAROLINA.  319 

ingly  about  ten  in  the  evening  of  that  day  the  army  began  their 
march,  and  after  they  had  proceeded  about  eight  miles,  the  ad- 
vanced guards  of  both  jiarties  fell  in  with  each  other,  and  a 
skirmish  ensued  in  which  several  were  killed  and  woiinded  on 
both  sides;  Colonel  Porterfield,  of  the  rebels,  had  his  leg 
broken,  and  afterwards  fell  into  oiu-  hands,  as  also  did  an  am- 
munition wagon,  which  they  left  \ipon  the  field.  From  the 
prisoners  and  deserters.  Lord  Cornwallis  was  informed  that  the 
whole  rebel  army  was  upon  the  march  to  attack  him.  In  order 
to  avoid  the  confusion  of  an  action  in  the  night,  his  lordship 
halted  on  ground  which  was  favorable  for  his  small  numbers, 
and  in  the  mean  time  took  measures  to  oblige  the  rebels  to 
fight  him  on  it.  At  daybreak  in  the  morning,  he  formed  his 
army  into  one  line  with  a  reserve,  and  the  cavalry  behind  the 
reserve.  The  line  consisted  of  two  divisions ;  that  on  the  right 
consisted  of  the  light  infantry,  the  twenty-third  and  thirty-third 
regiments,  under  the  command  of  Lieutenant- Colonel  Webster ; 
the  left,  the  volunteers  of  L'eland,  infantry  of  the  legion,  and 
part  of  Colonel  Hamilton's  North  Carolina  corps,  under  Lord 
Rawdon,  with  two  six  and  two  three-pounders ;  the  reserve 
was  composed  of  the  seventy-first  regiment,  and  two  six- 
pounders,  to  whom  the  cavalry  was  ordered  to  keep  close  ;  the 
North  Carolina  refugees  and  militia  were  directed  to  attend 
to  the  rear,  and  a  swamp  upon  the  left. 

About  twenty  minutes  after  day,  finding  the  rebels  formed 
near  him.  Lord  Cornwallis  ordered  their  left  to  be  attacked, 
and  the  action  soon  became  general.  After  a  short  conflict, 
which  was  sustained  about  three-quarters  of  an  hour,  the 
rebels  were  thrown  into  litter  confusion,  and  gave  way,  when 
they  lost  a  great  number  of  men;  the  cavalry  were  ordered 
immediately  to  fall  upon  them,  which  they  did  with  great 
slaughter.  The  pursuit  was  continued  for  upwards  of  twenty- 
two  miles,  and  many  men  were  killed  in  the  course  of  it ;  seven 
pieces  of  brass  cannon  and  all  their  ammunition  were  taken  in 
the  field,  and  the  baggage  of  their  general  officers,  and  all 
their  other  baggage  and  camp  equipage,  were  taken  in  the 
pursuit  by  the  cavalry,  together  with  one  brass  field-piece, 
the  carriage  of  which  was  damaged  in  the  skirmish  in  the 

320  DIAEY    OF   THE   KEYOLTJTION.  [1780. 

night,  and,  Tvitli  the  seven  before  mentioned,  "was  the  "whole 
they  had  "with  thein.  A  General  Gregory  "was  killed  in  the 
field,  and  General  De  Kalb,  "who  is  since  dead  of  his  "wounds," 
and  General  Eiitherford,  "who  is  also  "wounded,  "were  made  pris- 
oners. Up"wards  of  nine  hundred  officers  and  men  "were  killed 
in  the  field,  and  in  the  j^ursuit,  and  about  nine  hundred  were 
prisoners,  many  of  whom  are  wounded.  The  loss  sustamed  by 
the  royal  army  in  killed  and  woimded,  amounts  to  three  him^ 
dred  and  twenty  men,  including  ten  officers,  three  of  which 
were  killed,  and  two  more  dangerously  wounded. 

Some  days  before  the  action.  General  Sumpter  was  de- 
tached over  the  AVateree  Eiver,  with  twelve  or  fifteen  hundred 
men,  to  cut  otf  the  communication  between  Lord  Cornwallis 
and  Charleston,  and  the  Congaree.  lie  fell  in  with,  and 
took  several  wagons  which  were  bringing  flour,  &e.,  to  the 
Eritish  army,  together  with  their  escort  and  some  sick  men. 
On  the  morning  of  the  seventeenth,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Tarle- 

'  Baron  de  Kalb,  while  exerting  himself  ivith  great  bravery  to  prevent  the 
defeat  of  the  day,  received  eleven  wounds.  His  aide-de-camp,  Lieutenant-Colonel 
du  Buysson  embraced  him,  announced  his  rank  and  nation  to  the  surrounding  foe, 
and  begged  that  they  would  spare  his  life.  While  he  generously  exposed  himself 
to  save  his  friend,  he  received  sundry  dangerous  wounds,  and  was  taken  prisoner. 
The  Baron  expired  in  a  short  time,  though  he  received  the  most  particular  assist- 
ance from  the  British.  He  spent  his  last  breath  in  dictating  a  letter,  expressive  of 
the  warmest  affection  for  the  officers  and  men  of  his  division — of  the  greatest  satis- 
faction in  tlie  testimony  given  by  the  British  army  of  the  bravery  of  his  troops — 
of  his  being  charmed  with  the  firm  opposition  they  made  to  superior  force,  when 
abandoned  Ijy  the  rest  of  the  army — of  the  infinite  pleasure  he  received  from  the 
gallant  behavior  of  the  Delaware  regiment,  and  the  companies  of  artillery  at- 
tached to  the  brigades — and  of  the  endearing  sense  he  entertained  of  the  merit 
of  the  whole  division  he  commanded.  The  Congress  resolved  on  the  fourteenth 
of  October  following,  that  a  monument  should  be  erected  to  his  memory  in  An- 
napolis, the  metropolis  of  Maryland,  with  a  very  honorable  inscription. — Oordon, 
iii.,  105. 

De  Kalb  was  a  Prussian  by  birth.  He  bore  a  commission  in  the  French  ser- 
vice, and  came  to  America  three  years  ago  with  the  llarquis  de  la  Fayette,  by 
whom  he  was  considered  as  a  Mentor.  While  native  Americans  in  the  rebel 
army  were  harassing  and  distressing  the  inhabitants  wantonly  and  cruelly  in  North 
and  South  Carolina,  for  their  having  submitted  to  the  British  army,  it  is  said  the 
Baron  constantly  protected  them,  on  the  principle,  that  in  Europe,  particularly  in 
Germany,  it  was  the  practice  not  to  distress  the  inhabitants  more  than  the  service 
required. — Rivington's  Gazette,  January  3, 1781. 

1780.]  SUMTTEE   DEFEATED.  321 

ton  was  detaclied  with  the  cavahy  and  light  infantry  of  the 
legion  to  attack  liim.  He  condncted  his  march  with  so 
iniicli  skill  that  he  surprised  the  Americans  in  the  middle 
of  the  day  on  the  eighteenth,  totally  defeated  them,  killed 
upwards  of  one  hundred  and  fifty,  took  two  pieces  of  brass 
cannon,  and  three  hundred  prisoners ;  he  at  the  same  time 
retook  the  wagons  which  had  been  taken,  and  about  one  hun- 
dred men  who  had  been  made  prisoners,  and  also  relieved  one 
hundred  and  fifty  inhabitants  who  had  been  taken  up  by 
Sumpter.  The  British  loss  on  this  occasion  is  six  men  killed, 
including  Captain  Charles  Campbell  of  the  light  infantry,  and 
eight  or  ten  wounded.' 

After  the  victory,  it  was  discovered  that  amongst  the  pris- 
oners there  were  some  persons  who  had  lately  received  protec- 
tions and  enrolled  themselves  in  the  militia,  to  serve  under  and 
support  his  majesty's  government,  and  one  who  was  a  prisoner 
upon  parole,  notwithstanding  which,  they  were  taken  fighting 
on  the  part  of  the  rebels.  Two  of  them  were  hanged  upon  the 
spot,  and  we  hear  that  wherever  such  instances  of  perfidy  and 
treacheiy  are  discovered,  they  will  constantly  be  punished 
with  the  utmost  severity.  Two  deserters  from  the  royal  army 
were  taken  at  the  same  time  and  executed  in  the  same  manner. 

In  marching  the  prisoners  taken  by  Lord  Cornwallis  and 
Colonel  Tarleton,  from  Camden  to  Charleston,  the  first  divi- 
sion of  them  consisting  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  continentals, 
escorted  by  a  party  of  the  sixty-third  regiment,  were  met  by 
Colonel  Marion,  with  one  hundred  and  fifty  or  two  hundred 
militia.  Our  party  were  made  prisoners,  and  those  they 
were  conducting  were  rescued  ;  but  it  was  an  event  so  little 
agreeable  to  them  that  within  two  days  afterwards  upwards  of 

'  A  writer  in  Cornwallis's  army,  in  recording  an  account  of  this  action,  says : 
"  This  morning  we  overtooli  tlie  rebel  General  Sumpter,  fast  asleep  in  his  camp 
on  the  Creek,  near  the  ford  of  the  Catawba.  A  few  of  the  rebels  made  a  stand, 
but  the  greater  part  of  them  fled  to  the  woods  and  hid  themselves  among  the 
brambles.  The  'plunder'  we  have  taken  is  almost  all  Squire  Sumpter  had,  and  as 
we  have  the  w-arbrobe  of  the  army,  it  is  probable  the  black  flies  and  jiggers  are 
before  this  time  troubling  the  epidermis  of  the  rebel  crew.  The  worst  we  wish 
thera  is  that  they  may  not  be  able  to  scratch." — Letter  from  Seth  Wingard. 
Vol.  II.— 21 

822  DIARY  OF  THE  EEVOLUTION.       ■      [17S0. 

one-half  of  them  came  of  their  own  accord  to  deliver  them- 
selves np ;  and  since  that  time  the  whole  of  them  have  sur- 
rendered themselves  either  to  Lord  Cornwallis  or  our  party  on 
this  side  of  Santee  ;  nor  were  the  rebels  able  to  cany  away 
the  party  of  the  sixty-third,  all  of  whom  are  since  come  in.  So 
the  only  consequence  of  the  insmrection  is  the  discovery  of 
the  perjury  and  perfidy  of  a  set  of  people,  who,  without  hesi- 
tation, have  broken  through  engagements  which  are  always 
deemed  so  sacred  and  inviolable  that  the  most  severe  punish- 
ment for  tlie  breach  of  them  is  not  only  warranted  but  required 
by  the  laws  of  nations  and  of  arms.  Tlie  prisoners,  especially 
those  called  continentals,  appear  to  be  highly  disgusted  with, 
and  disati'ected  to  the  cause  they  have  been  engaged  in,  and 
which  many  of  them  were  obliged  to  enter  into  by  absolute 
necessity,  and  the  persecuting  tyranny  of  a  set  of  men  who, 
without  the  least  remorse  or  scruple,  see  lumdreds  every  day 
sacrificed  to  attain  their  wicked  and  ambitious  purposes.' 

SErTEMBEE  11. — Yesteeday  mornuig,  seventy-two  men, 
composed  of  new  levies,  refugees,  and  negroes,  under  tlie 
Attack  on  Command  of  Liexitenants  Josiah  Parker  and  "Wil- 
captainiiuddy.  i^^^^  Hewlct,  about  an  hour  before  day,  attacked 
the  house  of  Captain  Joshua  Huddy,  of  Monmouth  county, 
New  Jersey,  in  the  following  manner,  viz. :  staving  the  win- 
dows to  pieces,  and  ordering  the  damned  rebels  to  turn  out. 
This  awoke  Captain  Huddy,  who,  having  two  loaded  guns  at 
hand,  made  use  of  them  in  a  proper  manner  through  the  win- 
dows ;  and  by  the  assistance  of  a  girl,  who  carried  him  cart- 
ridges and  rammed,  he  interchanged  his  firing  up  and  down 
stairs,  in  such  a  manner,  that  the  assailants  took  it  for  grant- 
ed a  small  scouting  party  must  be  there ;  by  this  means  he 
rejjulsed  them,  but  on  a  consultation,  they  renewed  the  attack 
again,  and  fired  the  house,  which  induced  Captain  Huddy,  on 
the  entreaty  of  his  wife  and  another  woman,  to  capitulate  on 
honorable  terms,  which  were  granted,  and  he  delivered  himself 
up  a  prisoner.     On  their  entering  the  house,  when  they  found 

'  Game's  Mercury,  September  25. 

1780.]  TREASON  OF  AENOLD.  323 

none  but  himself  had  defended  it,  and  their  brave  negro  Tye, 
(one  of  Lord  Dunmore's  crew)  -wounded,  it  was  with  the  greatest 
difSculty  he  was  prevented  from  being  murdered.  They  broke 
the  honor  they  had  pledged,  by  not  leaving  Captain  Huddy 
and  his  family  a  second  change  of  clothes,  and,  after  near  two 
hours  were  spent  in  taking  this  one  man,  they  made  a  shame- 
ful and  silent  retreat,  loaded  with  disgrace.  A  short  time 
after,  six  militia  men  pursued  them,  and  renewed  the  attack, 
killing  the  refugee  commander.  After  this  they  embarked  in 
their  boats,  and  passing  the  gut  between  Sandy  Hook  and  the 
main,  Ensign  William  Vincent,  with  sixteen  of  the  State  regi- 
ment, Salem  men,  attacked  them  again.  The  first  fire.  Cap- 
tain Huddy,  their  prisoner,  was  wounded,  but  is  like  to  do  well. 
This  threw  them  into  such  confusion,  that  they  overset  their 
boats,  four  in  number,  and  about  twenty  were  killed  and 
drowned.  This  gave  Captain  Huddy  an  opportimity  of  at- 
tempting to  make  his  escape  by  swimming,  which  he  with 
uracil  difBciilty  accomplished.  We  had  but  one  man  slightly 
wounded.     Tliis  account  is  taken  from  Captain  Huddy  himself.' 

SEPTEnrBEE  26. — ^Teeason  of  the  blackest  dye  was  yesterday 
discovered.  General  Arnold,  who  commanded  at  West  Point, 
lost  to  every  sentiment  of  honor,  of  public  and  ^j^^  Treason  of 
private  obligation,  was  about  to  deliver  up  that  Amow. 
important  fort  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy.  Such  an  event 
must  have  given  the  American  cause  a  deadly  wound  if  not  a 
fatal  stab.  Happily  the  scheme  was  timely  discovered  to  pre- 
vent the  fatal  misfortune.  The  jjrovidential  train  of  circum- 
stances which  led  to  it,  affords  the  most  convincing  proofs 
that  the  liberties  of  America  are  the  object  of  divine  protection. 
At  the  same  time  the  treason  is  so  regretted,  the  General  can- 
not help  congratulating  the  army  on  the  happy  discovery. 

Our  enemies,  despairing  of  carrying  their  point  by  force, 
are  practising  every  base  art  to  effect,  by  bribery  and  cor- 
ruption, what  they  cannot  accomplish  in  a  manly  way.  Great 
honor  is  due  to  the  American  army,  that  this  is  the  first  in- 

•ania  Packet,  October  3. 

324  DIAEY  OF  THE  EEVOLUTIOK.  [1780. 

stance  of  treason  of  this  Idnd,  -where  many  \rere  to  be  expected 
from  the  nature  of  tlie  dispute,  and  nothing  is  so  high  an  orna- 
ment to  the  characters  of  the  American  soldiers  as  their  with- 
standing all  the  arts  and  seductions  of  an  insidious  enemy. 

Arnold  the  traitor  has  made  his  escape  to  the  enemy,  but 
Mr.  Andre,  Adjutant-General  to  the  British  army,  who  came 
out  as  a  spy  to  negotiate  the  business,  is  our  prisoner. 

His  Excellency  the  Commander-in-chief  has  arrived  at 
"West  Point,  from  Hartford,  and  is  now  doubtless  taking  proper 
steps  to  unravel  fully  so  hellisli  a  plot.' 

A  gentleman  at  the  American  camp,  in  a  letter  dated  Kob- 
iuson's  House,  gives  the  following  account  of  the  discovery  of 
Arnold's  plot : — "  I  make  use  of  the  present  express  to  ac- 
quaint you  with  a  scene  of  villany  which  happened  in  this 
quarter,  A  very  singular  combination  of  circumstances  has 
l^reserved  to  us  West  Point  and  its  dependencies.  General 
Arnold,  who  was  the  commanding  officer,  has  been  bought 
over  to  the  interest  of  the  enemy,  and  the  place  in  a  few  days 
must  have  become  theirs.  They  had  a  part  of  their  army  in 
readiness  to  act  on  this  occasion,  and  could  not  have  failed  of 
"teuccess  from  the  concert  of  Arnold  within  the  fort. 

"Such  was  the  situation  of  this  important  post,when  a 
providential  event  discovered  the  traitor.  Major  Andre,  the 
British  Adjutant-General,  a  person  of  great  talents,  appears  to 
have  been  the  principal  actor  with  Arnold.  In  his  return  to 
New  York,  after  an  interview  with  Arnold,  he  was  stopped 
near  Tarrytown  by  a  few  militia,  (notwithstanding  a  pass  writ- 
ten and  signed  by  General  Arnold,  by  which  Andre  was  per- 
mitted to  proceed  as  a  John  Anderson,)  and  detained  as  a  spy. 
As  they  were  conducting  him  to  a  party  of  continental  troops, 
he  oifered  them  a  large  sum  of  money  for  his  release,  which 
they  rejected  with  as  much  virtue  as  Arnold  received  his 
with  baseness. 

"  The  state  of  the  garrison,  arrangements  for  its  defence  in 
case  of  attack,  a  coiincil  of  war,  &c.,  were  found  on  Andre,  in 
Arnold's  own  handwriting. 

Extract  from  General  Greene's  orders  tlie  day  after  the  detection  of  Andre, 
published  in  the  Pennsylvania  Packet,  October  10. 

1780.]  TEEASOX  OF  ARNOLD.  325 

"  Colonel  Jameson,  of  the  light  dragoons,  to  wliom  lie  was 
conveyed  in  the  first  instance,  and  before  a  detection  of  these 
papers,  despatched  an  acconnt  to  Arnold  that  he  had  a  spy  in 
his  care,  and  described  him  in  such  a  manner,  that  Arnold 
knew  it  to  be  Andre.  His  Excellency  General  Washington, 
the  Marquis  de  la  Fayette,  General  Knox,  and  their  aids,  were 
within  a  few  miles  of  his  quarters  at  this  juncture.  I  had  pre- 
ceded them  with  a  Major  Shaw,  to  give  notice  of  their  com- 
ing. Arnold,  I  think,  must  have  received  the  advice  while 
we  were  present,  as  I  observed  an  embarrassment,  which  I 
could  not  at  that  time  account  for.  Tlie  approach  of  his  Ex- 
cellency left  him  but  an  instant  to  take  measures  for  his  own 
safety,  or  it  is  likely  he  would  have  attempted  that  of  Andre's, 
and  the  matter  might  have  remained  in  obscurity.  lie  or- 
dered his  barge,  and  passing  King's  Ferry  as  a  flag  boat,  fell 
down  to  the  Yulture  sloop  of  war,  which  lay  below  at  a  short 
distance.  In  the  mean  time,  an  oflicer  arrived  with  the  papers 
which  were  discovered,  and  a  letter  from  Andre  to  his  Excel- 
lency, in  which  he  endeavors  to  show  tliat  he  did  not  come 
under  the  character  of  a  spy.  Upon  this  Colonel  Hamilton 
and  myself  rode  to  King's  Ferry,  but  he  had  before  this  gained 
the  enemy's  vessel. 

"  We  expect  Andre  here  every  minute.  I  lament  Arnold's 
escape,  that  we  might  have  punished  such  a  high  piece  of  per- 
fidiousness,  and  prevented  the  enemy  from  profiting  by  his 
information.  Andre  has  ventured  daringly  for  the  accom- 
plishment of  a  great  end  ;  fortunate  for  us  his  abilities  failed 
him,  as  it  was  on  the  point  of  being  finished,  and  he  must  in 
all  human  probability  si^bmit  to  the  fate  of  a  common  spy."  ' 

Another  correspondent  says  : " — "  I  doubt  not  you  have 
heard,  ere  this  reaches  you,  of  the  most  cursed  plot  ever  formed 
by  man,  for  the  seizing  of  the  person  of  his  Excellency  Gen- 
eral Washington,  with  his  family,  on  their  retiirn  from  the 
eastward,  which  would  have  taken  place  on  the  night  of  the 
25th  instant,  had  it  not  been  providentially  discovered  by  the 

'  Penusylvania  Packet,  October  3. 

'  Extract  of  a  letter  from  a  gentleman  at  the  camp,  dated  Tappan,  Septem- 
ber 28. 

326  DIABY  OF   THE   EEVOLUTION.  [1780. 

taking  of  a  person  who  turns  out  to  be  Major  Andre,  Adjutant- 
General  to  General  Clinton,  who,  it  seems,  has  been  all  through 
our  camp,  disguised  in  the  habit  of  a  servant,  and  acted,  when 
in  camp,  as  waiting  man  to  one  Joseph  Smith,  formerly  of 
New  York,  who  lives  near  King's  Ferr j.  General  Arnold  was 
the  principal  agent  in  caiTying  on  this  diabolical  scheme.  I 
shall  endeavor,  from  the  information  received,  to  give  you  the 
particulars,  viz. : 

"  On  the  25th  of  tliis  instant,  Colonel  Andre  was  stopped 
by  three  of  the  militia,'  at  or  near  Tarrytown,  upon  which  he 
produced  General  Arnold's  pass,  in  the  following  words : 
'  Permit  the  bearer  to  pass  all  guards  and  outposts  of  the  Con- 
tinental army  wheresoever  posted.'  Tlie  pass  being  some- 
what singular,  the  militia  inidertook  to  detain  him,  notwith- 
standing it  was  signed  by  General  Arnold.  "When  Andre  found 
he  could  not  prevail  on  them  to  pass  him,  he  then  offered 
them  one  hundred  guineas,  and  it  is  said,  rose  to  four  hundred 
if  they  would  dismiss  him.  This  convinced  them  that  he  was  a 
person  of  consequence  and  a  spy,  upon  which  they  pinioned 
him  and  conducted  him  to  one  of  their  officers,  who  ordered  him 
stripped,  and  his  boots  being  the  first  articles  taken  off,  they 
therein  discovered  a  plan  of  the  fortifications  at  West  Point 
and  King's  Ferry,  and  our  encampment  at  this  place.  Unfortu- 
nately for  us,  as  they  were  searching  Andre,  a  gentleman 
passed  by,  who  inquired  who  he  was,  and  was  answered  by 
the  militia  that  he  was  a  spy,  and  Adjutant-General  of  the 
British  army ;  upon  wliich  tlie  gentleman,  pleased  no  doubt 
with  the  intelligence,  rode  off  to  West  Point,  and  acquainted 
General  Arnold  with  the  same,  not  suspecting  him  to  be  con- 
cerned in  the  affair.  Arnold  apprehending  the  whole  matter 
was  discovered,  immediately  mounted  his  horse  and  rode  to 
the  water  side,  where  his  barge  lay  ready  to  receive  him,  and 
pushed  off.  Just  at  this  instant  his  Excellenc}'  appeared  in 
sight,  and  being  acquainted  with  the  taking  of  Andre,  and 
Ai-nold's  sudden  flight,  Colonel  Hamilton,  one  of  his  Excel- 
lency's aids,  was  despatched  to  King's  Ferry  with  all  possible 

'  John  Paulding,  David  Williams,  and  Isaac  Van  Wart. 

1780.]  AENOLD   IN   EFFIGY.  327 

speed,  ill  hopes  of  stopping  him,  but  the  barge,  rowed  by  eight 
stout  fellows,  had  passed  by  before  the  colonel's  arrival ;  and 
he  had  the  mortiiication  to  see  the  greatest  villain  on  earth 
go  on  board  a  vessel  prepared  for  the  reception  of  his  Excel- 
lency and  family  ;  on  board  of  which  vessel  Colonel  Beverly 
Robinson  was,  with  a  sufficient  number  of  picked  men,  for 
tlie  purpose  aforesaid. 

"  The  plan  M'as,  to  have  surprised  his  Excellency  and  fam- 
ily, with  the  Marquis  de  la  Lafayette,  in  the  dead  time  of  the 
night,  in  the  above-mentioned  Robinson's  house,  which  was 
the  quarters  of  Arnold,  and  where  his  Excellency  was  to  have 
lodged  that  night,  and  Robinson  was  pitched  upon  to  execute 
it,  as  being  best  acquainted  with  the  avenues  leading  thereto. 
Had  they  succeeded,  the  garrison  at  West  Point  was  next  to 
be  given  up."  ' 

Septembek  30. — ^Tms  afternoon  the  people  of  Philadelphia 
and  vicinity  made  a  demonstration  somewhat  unfavorable  to 
the  late  commander  at  West  Point,  by  carting  ^^^^,^  .^  j.^,^ 
that  notorious  conspirator  through  the  streets  of  "'  Pwiadeiphia. 
the  city.  The  exhibition  was  as  follows  : — A  stage  raised  on 
the  body  of  a  cart,  on  which  was  an  effigy  of  General  Arnold 
sitting ;  this  was  dressed  in  regimentals,  had  two  faces,  em- 
blematical of  his  traitorous  conduct,  a  mask  in  his  left  hand, 
and  a  letter  in  his  right  from  Beelzebub,  telling  him  that  he 
had  done  all  tlie  mischief  he  could  do,  and  now  he  must'  hang 

At  the  back  of  the  general  was  a  figure  of  the  Devil, 
dressed  in  black  robes,  shaking  a  purse  of  money  at  the  gen- 
eral's left  ear,  and  in  his  right  hand  a  pitchfork,  ready  to  drive 
him  into  hell  as  the  reward  due  for  the  many  crimes  which  his 
thirst  for  gold  had  made  him  commit. 

In  the  front  of  the  stage,  and  before  General  Arnold,  was 
placed  a  large  lantern  of  transparent  paper,  with  the  conse- 
quences of  his  crimes  thus  delineated,  i.  e. :  On  one  part  Gen- 
eral Arnold  on  his  knees  before  the  Devil,  Avho  is  pulling  him 

'  Pennsylvania  Packet,  October  S. 

328  DIAET    OF  TIIE   KEVOLUTION.  [1780. 

into  the  flames  ;  a  label  from  the  general's  mouth  with  these 
words,  "  My  dear  sir,  I  have  served  you  faithfully  ;  "  to  which 
the  Devil  replies,  "  And  I'll  reward  you."  On  another  side, 
two  figures  hanguig,  inscribed,  "  The  Ti-aitor's  Eeward,"  and 
written  underneath,  "Tlie  Adjutant-General  of  the  British 
Army,  and  Joe  Smith ;  the  first  hanged  as  a  sjiy,  and  the 
other  as  a  traitor  to  his  country."  And  on  the  front  of  the 
lantern  was  written  the  following  : — ■ 

"  Majok-Geneeal  Benedict  Aenold,  late  Comhandek  of 
THE  FoET  "West  Point.  The  ceime  of  this  man  is  High  Trea- 

"  He  has  deserted  the  important  post  "West  Point,  on  Hud- 
son River,  committed  to  his-  charge  by  his  Excellency  the 
Commander-in-chief,  and  has  gone  off  to  the  enemy  at  Xew 

"  His  design  to  have  given  up  this  fortress  to  our  enemies, 
has  been  discovered  by  the  goodness  of  the  Omiiiscient  Creator, 
who  has  not  only  prevented  him  carrying  it  into  execution, 
but  has  thrown  into  our  hands  Andee,  the  adjutant-general  of 
their  army,  who  was  detected  in  the  infamous  character  of  a  spy. 

"  The  treachery  of  this  ungrateful  general  is  held  up  to  pub- 
lic view,  for  the  exposition  of  infamy,  and  to  proclaim  with 
joyful  acclamation,  another  instance  of  the  interposition  of 
bounteous  Providence. 

"  The  effigy  of  this  ingrate  is  therefore  hanged  (for  want  of 
his  body)  as  a  traitor  to  his  native  country,  and  a  betrayer  of 
the  laws  of  honor." 

Tlie  procession  began  about  four  o'clock  in  the  following 
order  : — Several  gentlemen  mounted  on  horseback  ;  a  line  of 
Continental  officers  ;  sundry  gentlemen  in  a  line  ;  a  guard  of 
the  city  infantry  ;  just  before'  the  cart,  drums  and  fifes  playing 
the  Kogue's  March  ;  guards  on  each  side. 

The  procession  was  attended  with  a  numerous  concourse 
of  people,  who  after  expressing  their  abhorrence  of  the  treason 
and  the  traitor,  committed  him  to  the  flames,  and  left  both  the 
effigy  and  the  original  to  sink  into  ashes  and  oblivion.' 

'  Pennsylvania  Packet,  October  3. 

1780.]  BEELZEBLTJ   TO   AKNOLD.  329 

A  correspondent,  in  a  letter  to  the  printer  of  the  Pennsyl- 
vania Packet,  referring  to  the  foregoing,  says  : — "  I  was  sorry 
to  see  that  in  yoiu-  last  paper,  giving  an  acconnt  jjeeizebubto 
of  the  funeral  of  Benedict  Arnold,  you  take  but  General  Arnold, 
little  notice  of  the  letter  written  to  him  by  his  master.  As  I 
am  very  curious  of  these  original  pieces,  I  took  a  copy  of  it, 
and  I  beg  you  to  publish  it  in  your  next : 

"  '  A  letter  from  his  Infernal  Majesty  Btjelatarea  Beelze- 
bub, to  Alan  Buzeael,  commonly  called  Benedict  Aenold,  a 
true  cojiy  of  the  original  which  he  had  in  his  hand  before  he 
was  burnt,  in  Philadelphia,  September  30,  1Y80. 

" '  Faithful  Buzrael, — You  remember  that  before  we  sent  you 
into  the  woi-ld  to  prepare  the  ruin  of  America,  (the  worthy 
object  of  our  indignation  being  by  its  situation  capable  of 
more  virtue  than  any  country  in  the  world,)  we  ordered  you 
to  begin  by  great  exertions  of  bravery,  to  gain  the  affections 
of  the  inhabitants,  and  bestow  on  yourself  their  confidence  and 
their  friendship.  You  succeeded  very  well  in  this  business, 
and  you  were  even  skilful  enough  to  seduce  and  associate  to 
your  operations  some  powerful  citizens  of  their  country,  Avhom 
we  shall  reward  in  time  for  their  great  achievements.  We 
assure  you  of  our  royal  satisfaction  in  this  particular,  and  we 
are  glad  to  see  that  you  obtained  the  title  of  a  general,  in  which 
dignity  you  may  be  able  to  do  more  mischief  than  in  any 
other.  But  we  cannot  approve  of  the  choice  yoii  made  of 
your  face,  which  has  something  roguish  in  it,  and  does  not 
quite  inspire  all  that  confidence  we  expected.  "We  understand, 
by  some  savages,  both  English  and  Americans,  lately  arrived 
in  our  dominions,  that  Avhat  they  call  the  virtuous  citizens  of 
America  suspect  you  very  much  of  being  an  enemy  to  their 
country.  "We  see  with  great  ablion-ence,  that,  notwithstand- 
ing all  your  secret  intrigues  to  ruin  the  country,  the  independ- 
ence of  America  acquires  every  day  more  strength  and 
solidity  ;  their  commerce  is  jlourishing  more  than  ever,  their 
country  affords  them  every  kind  of  provisions,  their  patriotism 
grows  more  and  more  invincible.  We  deplore  with  our  friends 
in  England  the  good  condition  of  their  army,  and  the  bravery 
of  their  soldiers.     Our  kingdom  trembles  at  the  very  name  of 

330  DIAKT   OF  THE   REVOLUTION.  [1780. 

Wasliington,  and  we  detest  him  as  mueli  as  lie  is  adored  by 
liis  coimtrymen.  We  expect  that  you  will  iind  some  effectual 
means  to  deliver  us  from  this  powerful  enemy,  but  particularly 
to  put  an  end,  by  a  capital  stroke,  to  all  the  pretensions  of  that 
peojile,  and  we  flatter  ourselves  that  after  their  subjection  they 
will  be  in  a  few  years  as  corrupted,  as  wicked,  as  cruel  as 
theii-  mother  country.  We  rely  entirely  upon  your  abilities, 
but  at  the  same  time  we  reqiiire  a  prompt  execution  of  our 
orders  :  your  aflectionate  Kiiig,  Beelzebub.'  " ' 

OcTOBEE  1. — Yesteeday  the  board  of  general  officers  ap- 
pointed by  General  Washington  for  the  trial  of  the  unfortu- 
Anare  Sentenced  ^^^^6  Major  Audro,  haviug  fully  considered  the 
to  be  iiung.  facts  belongiQg  to  his  case,  reported  that  he  "  ought 
to  be  considered  as  a  spy  from  the  enemy,  and  that  agreeably 
to  the  law  and  usage  of  nations,  in  then-  opinion  he  ought  to 
suffer  death."  General  Washington  approved  of  this  opinion, 
and  ordered  the  execution  to  take  place  this  afternoon,  but 
owing  to  the  arrival  of  a  flag  from  the  enemy,  it  is  postponed 
until  to-morrow  at  noon.^ 

Tlie  following  is  a  copy  of  a  letter  from  Major  Andre  to 
his  Excellency  General  Washington,  received  to-day : 

"  Sir  : — Buoyed  above  the  fear  of  death,  by  the  conscious- 
ness of  a  life  spent  in  the  pursuit  of  honor,  and  fully  sensible 
that  it  has  at  no  time  been  stained  by  any  action  which,  at 
this  serious  moment,  could  give  me  remorse,  I  have  to  solicit 
your  Excellency,  if  there  is  any  thing  in  my  character  which 
excites  your  esteem,  if  aught  in  my  circumstances  can  excite 
you  with  compassion,  that  I  may  be  permitted  to  die  the  death 
of  a  soldier  ;  it  is  my  last  request,  and  I  hope  it  will  be  grant- 
ed.    I  have  the  honor  to  be,  &c." ' 

OcTOBEE  2. — Aenold's  conduct  since  he  went  to  New 
York,  is  a  greater  proof  of  his  villany  (if  greater  villany  is 

'  Pennsylvania  Packet,  October  T. 

"  Clift's  Diary ;  and  MS.  letter  from  Charles  Wilson  to  Timothy  Payne. 

"  New  Jersey  Journal,  October  25. 

1780.]  EXECUTION  OF  ANDEE.  331 

possible)  than  his  late  treason.  At  his  an-ival  with  the  British, 
says  a  gentleman  in  the  American  anny,  he  had  npwards  of 
fifty  of  our  warmest  friends  in  New  York  taken       ^^^„,,,  ^^ 



np,  and  put  into  dungeons  and  other  pi 
of  confinement.  But  there  is  a  Providence  attending  the  Tin- 
happy  friends  to  their  country,  that  puts  it  out  of  his  power  to 
injure  tliem,  other  than  imprisonment.  Such  was  the  precipi- 
tate flight  he  made,  to  save  his  neck  from  the  halter,  that  he 
had  no  time  to  move  oft'  a  single  paper,  or  any  other  matter 
which  can  be  a  testimony  against  those  he  would  otherwise 
ruin  in  person  and  estate.' 

General  Eobeetson,  of  the  British  army,  came  up  yester- 
day to  Dobb's  Ferry  with  a  flag,  which  was  soon  dismissed,  it 
being  of  so  trite  a  nature,  viz.,  to  entreat  his  Execution  of 
Excellency  General  Washington,  at  the  request  '^"'*''''- 
of  Sir  Harry  Clinton,  to  use  lenity  to  Major  Andre;  it  had 
the  eftect  to  respite  him  for  some  hours,  as  the  flag  did  not 
return  till  five  o'clock,  which  was  the  hoiir  fixed  in  general 
orders  for  his  execiition.  This  day  at  twelve  o'clock  it  took 
place,  by  hanging  him  by  the  neck.  Perhaps  no  person  (on 
like  occasion)  ever  suffered  the  ignominious  death,  that  was 
more  regretted  by  officers  and  soldiers  of  every  rank  in  our 
army  ;  or  did  I  ever  see  any  person  meet  his  fate  with  more 
fortitude  and  equal  conduct.  "When  he  was  ordered  to  mount 
the  wagon  under  the  gallows,  he  replied  :  "  He  was  ready  to 
die,  but  wished  the  mode  to  have  been  in  some  more  eligible 
way ; "  preferring  to  be  shot.  After  ho  had  opened  his  shirt 
collar,  fixed  the  rope,  and  tied  the  silk  liandkerchief  over  his 
eyes,  he  was  asked  by  the  officer  commanding  the  troops,  if  he 
wished  to  say  any  thing  ?  He  replied :  "I  have  said  all  I  had 
to  say  before,  and  have  only  to  request  the  gentlemen  present, 
to  bear  testimony  that  I  met  death  as  a  brave  man."  ' 

'  Extract  of  a  letter  from  the  camp,  Tappan,  October  2. — Pcnnsyhania  Packet, 
October  10. 

'  He  was  dressed  in  full  uniform,  and  after  the  execution  his  servant  demanded 
his  clothing,  which  he  received.     Ilis  body  was  buried  near  the  gallows. 

333  DIAKY    OF   TUE   EEVOLUTION.  [1780. 

The  flag  mentioned  to  have  come  out  with  General  Hobcrt- 
£on,  was  received  by  General  Greene  and  Colonel  Hamilton  ; 
and  what  is  cnrions,  Arnold  sent  his  resignation,  Avitli  desire 
that  General  "Washington  should  forward  it  to  Congress,  with 
an  insolent  letter,  intimating  he  would  never  serve  Congress  any 
more,  nor  need  they  exjject  it.  And,  moreover,  tliat  if  Major 
Andre  should  be  executed  by  order  of  General  Washington, 
that  he  would  strike  a  blow  on  some  of  his  friends  on  the  con- 
tinent, that  should  sufficiently  retaliate  for  his  loss  to  his 
Prince.  General  Greene,  when  he  read  the  letter,  treated  it 
with  contempt,  and  threw  it  on  the  ground  before  General 
Robertson,  that  lie  might  return  it  to  the  traitor  if  he  thought 
proper.  Tlie  hanging  of  Major  Andre,  one  of  the  most  emi- 
nent officers  and  polite  men  in  the  British  army,  and  the  second 
life  of  Clinton,  shoM's  Ave  are  not  deterred  by  great  menaces, 
but  determined  to  extirpate  our  enemies  one  by  one,  until 
peace  shall  be  restored  to  our  country.' 

OcTOBEE  5. — ^DiED  the  second  instant,  at  his  house  at  Eing- 
wood,  Robert  Erskine,  F.  R.  S.,  and  geographer  to  tlie  army 
Kobert  Erskine  ^^  ^^''^  United  Statos,  in  the  forty-sixth  year  of  his 
Died.  j^gg .  g^  iwiiw  in  Avhom  were  united  the  Christian 
and  the  gentleman.  His  integrity  and  unbounded  benevolence 
have  rendered  his  death  a  loss  to  the  public,  and  a  subject  of 
sincere  regret  to  all  his  acquaintances.     He  made  the  laws  of 

'  Pennsylvania  Packet,  October  10.  General  Arnold,  as  soon  as  ho  heard  of 
the  execution  of  Major  Andre,  struck  with  this  daring  act  of  Washington's,  and 
alarmed  for  the  safety  of  a  beautiful  and  affectionate  wife  and  four  fine  cliildren 
lie  had  left  behind  at  West  Point,  wrote  immediately  the  following  laconic  note  to 
the  rebel  commander : 

"  Sir, — The  wanton  execution  of  a  gallant  Britisli  officer  in  cold  blood,  may 
be  only  the  prelude  to  further  butcheries  on  tlie  same  ill-fated  occasion.  Neces- 
sity compelled  mo  to  leave  behind  mo  in  your  camp,  a  wife  and  offspring,  that  are 
endeared  to  me  by  every  sacred  tie.  If  any  violence  be  offered  to  them,  remem- 
ber I  will  revenge  their  wrongs  in  a  deluge  of  American  blood ! 

"  Yours,  &c., 

"B.  Arnold. 
"New  York,  October  5,  I'iSO. 

"■His  Excellency  General  Washington.''^ 
No  answer  was  received  to  the  above. —  Upcolt,  vi.  C5. 

1780.]  SATAK  AND  AENOLD.  333 

justice  the  invariable  mle  of  liis  conduct,  and  upon  this  prin- 
ciple espoused  tlie  cause  of  America,  in  which  lie  served  his 
country  with  approbation  and  universal  esteem.' 

Geneeai.  Aenold  has  been  hung  in  efhgj,  and  burnt  at 
Boston,  Providence,  and  other  places  in  New  England.  Tlie 
tigurc  was  committed  to  the  flames  in  sight  of  the  famous  Elm 
of  Liberty  in  Providence,  and  several  persons  from  the  neigh- 
boring towns  assisted  at  the  ceremony.^ 


Quoth  Satan  to  Arnold,  My  worthy  good  fellow, 

I  love  you  much  better  than  ever  I  did ; 
You  live  like  a  prince,  with  Hal  may  get  mellow, 

But  mind  that  you  both  do  just  what  I  bid. 

Quoth  Arnold  to  Satan,  My  friend  do  not  doubt  me, 

I  will  strictly  adhere  to  all  your  great  views, 
To  you  I'm  devoted,  with  all  things  about  nie, 

You'll  permit  me,  I  hope,  to  die  in  my  shoes.' 

OcTOBEE  9.- — -"When  avg  sec  a  man  Avho  has  formerly  at- 
tracted esteem,  at  once  falling  into  the  greatest  contempt,  and 
becoming  the  opprobrium  and  shame  of  his  country,  we  feel 
a  mixture  of  passions  in  striking  him  oif  the  list  of  honest  men 
to  degrade  him  with  the  most  infanious.  Tlie  good  citizen  is 
ready  to  reproach  himself  for  having  misplaced  his  esteem,  and 
would  fain  strip  the  -wretch  even  of  those  qualities  that  had 
the  semblance  of  good  and  occasioned  the  error.  It  is  thus 
we  regard  Arnold,  whose  name  must  now  go  down  to  posterity 
;vith  the  epithet  traitoi'.  We  see  the  traitor  Arnold  in  his  deg- 
radation and  misery,  deprived  even  of  the  honor  of  having 
licen  brave.  But  why  should  we  contest  this  advantage? 
Have  not  robbers  and  assassins  who  take  from  the  passenger 
his  purse  and  his  life ;  have  not  incendiaries,  parricides,  and 
traitors,  a  certain  species  of  bravery  ?     We  may  leave,  then,  to 

Pennsylvania  Packet,  October  2S.  "  Upcott,  vi.  151. 

Xew  Jersey  Gazette,  November  1. 

334  DliVET    OF   THE   EEVOLUTION.  [1780. 

the  traitor  Arnold  this  quality,  M-hieh  can  only  serve  to  place 
his  crimes  in  a  stronger  point  of  light.  His  treason,  avarice, 
hypocrisy,  ingratitude,  barbarity,  falsehood,  deception,  pecu- 
lation, and  robbery,  all  these  are  the  base  and  black  ci'inies  of 
this  conspirator. 

1.  Treason.  He  solicited  the  command  of  the  bulwark  of 
America  on  purpose  to  deliver  it,  Avith  his  benefactor  and  gen- 
eral, into  the  hands  of  the  enemy. 

2.  Avarice.  Should  we  give  a  particular  account  of  the 
bargain  he  concluded,  and  the  disputes  about  the  price  at 
which  he  sold  himself  and  country,  even  Britons  themselves 
must  blush  at  the  infamy. 

3.  Hypocrisy.  The  traitor  Arnold  had  the  face  to  speak 
of  religion  in  his  address  to  the  Americans.  He  had  so  totally 
sold  himself  to  the  English,  and  was  so  entirely  lost  to  every 
moral  sentiment,  as  not  to  perceive  tlaat  Providence  itself  had 
patronized  the  cause  of  our  independence,  by  discovering  liis 
plots  in  a  manner  next  to  miraculous. 

4.  IiKjratitude.  He  aimed  to  j)lant  a  dagger  in  tlie  bosom 
of  his  country,  wliich  had  raised  him  from  the  obscurity  in 
which  he  was  born,  to  honor  which  never  could  have  been 
the  object  even  of  his  most  sanguine  hopes. 

5.  Bariarity.  He  intended  to  deliver  up  the  fortress  of 
America  to  the  Britons,  and  at  the  same  time,  to  cover  his  own 
perfidy,  he  designed  there  should  be  all  the  appearance  of  a 
sincere  assault,  in  Avliich  many  brave  men  must  have  fallen 
victims  to  his  treason,  and  only  to  screen  liim  from  the  shame 
of  it.  • 

6.  FalscJiood.  Falsehood  to  his  own  oiheers  and  troops, 
falsehood  to  liis  general,  falsehood  to  liis  country,  false  pass- 
ports, and  false  oaths,  from  the  beginning  to  the  end  of  this 
horrid  business. 

Y.  Mean  deception.  "What  subtleties  and  dissemblings, 
what  evasions  and  lies  did  he  employ  to  conceal  his  jjlot !  A 
villain  who  had  stolen  tlie  purse  of  his  inaster  could  not  be 
reduced  to  so  ignominious  a  situation.  If  the  fortune  of  Avar 
should  ever  throw  him  into  our  poAver,  he  Avould  doubtless 
protest  that  his  design  in  going  OA^er  to  Ncav  York,  Avas  only 

1780.]  eodney's  account  of  andee.  335 

to  deceive  the  Britons,  and  to  obtain  a  command  bj  which  he 
might  better  serve  the  Americans  by  betraying  their  enemies. 

8.  Peculation.  His  papers  contain  the  most  authentic  and 
incontestable  proofs  of  this  crime  ;  and  that  he  never  regarded 
his  important  employments  \>\\t  only  as  power  which  enabled 
him  to  pillage  the  public  with  impunity. 

9.  Bobhenj.  He  robbed  his  country  at  the  time  of  her 
deepest  distress.  He  robbed  his  own  soldiers  when  they 
wanted  necessaries.  He  robbed  a  poor  helpless  woman  of  a 
pittance  she  had  earned  by  service  for  his  army.  He  robbed 
liis  own  friends,  who  trusted  and  had  greatly  served  him. 

Tlais  is  the  man  to  whom  we  are  told  the  Britons  have 
given  the  rank  of  a  general  in  their  army.  Tliis  may  be  true, 
perhaps  they  are  capable  of  such  an  act.  But  if  there  is  an 
officer  of  honor  left  in  the  British  army,  he  will  sooner  resign 
his  commission,  or  die  by  his  own  sword,  than  serve  under,  or 
rank  ■\\ath,  Benedict  Arnold.' 

OcTOBEE  19. — ^The  Governor  of  ISTew  York  hath  issued  a 
proclamation,  recommending  to  the  inhabitants  of  that  State, 
to  observe  Tlinrsday,  the  second  day  of  ISTovem-  Thanksgiving 
ber  next,  as  a  day  of  prayer  and  thanksgiving  to  ^^'^^ 
Almighty  God,  for  the  recent  and  remarkable  deliverance 
wrought  in  behalf  of  the  United  States  hi  general,  and  of  tliis 
State  in  particular,  by  the  discovery  of  the  treasonable  conspi- 
racy for  betraying  the  fortifications  in  the  Highlands  into  the 
hands  of  the  enemy  ;  to  deprecate  his  wrath  for  the  e^^ls  pre- 
valent among  us,  and  humbly  to  implore  a  continuance  of  his 
favor  and  protection." 

OcTOBEE  20. — GovEENOE  Jonis'STONE,  says  a  wi-iter  in 
England,  has  received  a  letter  from  Sir  George  Brydges  Eod- 
ney,  from  New  York,  containing  the  following,  Eodney-s  Account 
amongst  many  other  authentic  particulars,  of  the  Captme  of  Andre, 
late  discovery  of  Arnold's  plot.  He  says  that  the  miscarriage 
of  the  plan  was  owing  entirely  to  delay  ;  for  that  Major  Andre 

'  Boston  Independent  Chronicle,  Dec.  8.        '  Pennsylvania  Packet,  Oct.  24. 


bad  acted  as  valet  de  cliambre  to  Arnold  for  some  time,  and 
had  been  twice  backward  and  forward  from  New  York  to 
Washington's  camp.  His  detention  was  owing  entirely  to  ac- 
cident, and  a  want  of  presence  of  mind  ;  for  after  lie  had  been 
seized  by  the  three  stragglers  who  first  took  him,  they  suffered 
him  to  go ;  bnt  one  of  them  stopped  the  others,  and  insisted 
ujDon  going  after  him  again,  from  a  conviction  that  there  was 
something  suspicious  about  him.  "WTien  they  again  took  him, 
either  from  vv  ant  of  recollection,  or  lest  it  might  occasion  sus- 
picions injurious  to  Arnold,  he  did  not  produce  a  pass  from 
that  general  which  ha  had  in  his  poclcet,  but  imprudently 
offered,  first  his  gold  watch,  and  then  his  purse,  Avhich  con- 
firmed their  suspicions.  As  soon  as  he  was  brought  to  Gen- 
eral Washington,  and  his  person  identified,  the  general,  after 
consulting  with  M.  De  Kochambeau,  sent'  his  compliments  to 
Arnold,  who  had  the  command  of  five  forts,  amongst  which 
were  the  important  ones  of  West  Point  and  Stony  Point,  signi- 
fying their  joint  intention  of  visiting  him  the  next  day,  with  a 
reqiiest  that  his  troops,  consisting  of  twenty -seven  hundred 
men,  might  be  drawn  out.  Arnold  at  that  time  not  suspect- 
ing a  discovery,  returned  a  willing  answer  ;  but  Washington's 
aide-de-camp  unguardedly  dropping  some  expressions  of  a  spy 
being  taken,  and  great  discoveries  being  made  in  the  camp, 
Arnold  took  the  alarm,  and  escaped  precijDitately  in  a  whale- 
boat.  General  Washington,  immediately  on  his  escape,  put 
General  Lord  Stirling,  seven  colonels,  and  two  members  of 
Congress,  under  an  arrest.  As  soon  as  Sir  Henry  Clinton  was 
apprised  of  Major  Andre's  situation,  he  sent  General  Kobert- 
son  with  a  fiag  of  truce,  to  obtain  his  release  on  terms  pro- 
posed by  him,  or  at  least  to  sjjare  his  life  ;  but  General  Wash- 
ington, acting  conformably  to  all  the  rules  of  war,  said  he 
could  consider  him  in  no  other  light  than  a  spy,  and  that  it 
was  impossible  to  relax  from  his  sentence.' 

OcTOBEE  28. — On  Arnold's  amval  in  New  York,  the  saga- 
cious great  ones  supposed,  that  upon  paying  particular  atten- 




1780.]  EPIGEAil   OIT   AKNOLD.  337 

tion  to  the  villain,  tliey  -n-ould  lessen  his  crimes  in  the  ejes 
of  the  -n-orld,  and  introduce  him  to  the  notice  of  their  circle, 
without  -which  they  foresaw  he  must  sink  into  ob-  ^j^^,^  ^^^ 
scurity  and  contemi^t.  He  was  accordingly  in  ap-  ^'"'-  e»*'"'«'>"- 
pcarance  caressed  by  all  in  power,  and  General  Eobertson's 
house  fixed  upon  for  his  residence.  "Wlienever  he  chose  to  ride, 
the  diff'erent  aids  in  rotation  attended  him  in  his  promenade, 
which  gave  rise  to  the  following  anecdote  :  One  morning  when 
it  was  General  Eobertson's  aid's  tour,  he  remonstrated  with  the 
general  against  it,  and  showed  evident  marks  of  reluctance  to 
go  upon  that  piece  of  duty.  The  general  desired  to  know  the 
reason.  Tlie  aid  honestly  confessed,  that  to  be  seen  attending 
such  a  scoundrel  through  the  streets,  very  much  injured  his 
feelings.  To  which  old  Jemmy,  pulling  \ip  his  breeches,  re- 
l^lied,  "  Hut !  hut !  niun,  and  what  think  you  of  my  feelings? " ' 


'Twas  Arnold's  post  Sir  Harry  sought, 
Arnold  ne'er  enter'd  in  his  thought. 
How  ends  the  bargain  ?  let  us  see, 
The  fort  is  safe  as  safe  can  be, 
His  favorite  perforce  must  die, 
His  view's  laid  bare  to  ev'ry  eye ; 
His  money's  gone — and  lo  !  he  gains 
One  scoundrel  more  for  all  his  pains. 
Andre  was  gen'rous,  true,  and  brave, 
And  in  his  room  he  buys  a  knave. 
'Tis  sure  ordain'd  that  Arnold  cheats 
All  those,  of  course,  with  whom  he  treats. 
Now  let  the  Devil  suspect  a  bite. 
Or  Arnold  cheats  him  of  his  right.' 

OcTOBEE  27. — Last  evening,  the  infamous  traitor  Arnold 
was  carried  through  !N"ew  Milford,  Connecticut,  in  effigy.  He 
made  his  appearance  sitting  on  his  coffin,  in  a  ArnoWs  eai^t  at 
horse-cart,  hung  round  with  several  pair  of  splen-  ^'''■''  ""f<"'>'- 
did  lanterns ;  behind  the  traitor  stood  the  Devil,  who  seemed, 
however,  ashamed  of  so  iinprofitable  a  servant.     Tlie  traitor 

New  Jersey  Journal,  Jan.  31,  lYSl.  '  Pennsylvania  Packet,  Oct.  24. 

Vol.  n.— 22 

338  DIAEY   OF   THE   EEVOLUTION.  [1780. 

being  dressed  in  uniform,  pinioned,  and  properly  accoutred 
for  tlic  gallon's,  having  made  tlie  tour  of  tlie  town,  was  brouglit 
under  strong  guard  to  the  place  of  execirtion,  where,  in  the 
view  of  some  hundred  spectators  he  was  formally  hanged,  cut 
down,  and  buried.  Tlie  numerous  populace  expressed  their 
universal  contempt  of  the  traitor,  by  the  hissing  explosion  of 
a  multitude  of  squibs  and  craclcers,  with  which  they  graced 
his  exit,  as  well  as  their  joy  at  the  timely  discovery  of  his  hell- 
ish treason,  by  a  beautiful  illumination  of  tlie  town.  Tlie 
whole  procession  and  execution,  with  all  things  pertaining  to 
the  exhibition,  were  conducted  with  the  greatest  decency  and 
good  order.  Thirteen  volleys  were  fired  by  the  guards,  and 
three  clieers  given  by  the  people  in  testimony  of  their  joy  that 
the  States  were  rid  of  tlie  traitor.  This  closed  the  scene.  On 
the  heart  of  the  traitor  was  fixed  a  label  expressive  of  his  real 
character,  the  justice  of  his  condemnation,  and  a  bequest  of  his 
soul  to  the  Devil.  A  label  from  the  Devil's  mouth  announced 
his  acceptance  of  the  bequest,  in  regard  to  the  traitor's  inten- 
tional service ;  but  on  account  of  his  motley  performance,  as- 
signed him  a  place  below  every  Devil  of  enterprise  and  ^vm- 

It  is  hoped  the  ever  memorable  25th  of  September  (the  day 
when  the  blackest  of  crimes  was  unfolded)  will  be  observed 
yearly  throughout  the  United  States  of  America,  and  handed 
down  to  the  latest  jjosterity,  to  the  eternal  disgrace  of  the 

OcTOBEE  30. — Colonels  Campbell  and  Seviee  have  taken  a 
great  part  of  Cornwallis'  army,  and  a  precious  crew  of  Tones, 
Battle  of  Kin-'-s   ^^  luiig's  Mouutaiu.''    Tlic  battle  took  place  on 
Mountain.  °     ^|jg  ^J^]^  instant,  and  lasted  more  than  an  hour.' 
The  following  is  the  official  account: — "On  receiving  intelli- 
gence that  Major  Ferguson  had  advanced  up  as  high  as  Gil- 

'  Pennsylvania  Packet,  January  16,  1781. 

"  King's  Mountain  is  situated  near  the  Gherolcee  Ford,  in  the  northern  part  of 
South  Carolina.  The  battle  ground  ia  about  one  mile  and  a  half  north  of  the 
South  Carolina  line. 

'  CUft's  Diary. 

1780.]  BATTLE   OF   KINg's   MOITNTAIN.  339 

bert  town,  in  Eutlierford  county,  and  threatened  to  cross  the 
mountains  to  the  western  waters.  Colonel  William  Campbell, 
with  fonr  hnndred  men  from  "Washington  county  in  Virginia, 
Col.  Isaac  Shelby,  with  two  himdred  and  forty  men  from  Sul- 
livan county  in  North  Carolina,  and  Lieut.-Col.  John  Sevier, 
with  two  hundred  and  forty  men  of  "Washington  county,  North 
Carolina,  assembled  at  Wattango,  on  the  25th  of  September, 
where  they  were  joined  by  Col.  Charles  McDowell  with  one 
hundred  and  sixty  men  from  the  counties  of  Burke  and  Eutlier- 
ford, who  had  fled  before  the  enmey  to  the  western  waters. 
"We  began  our  march  on  the  26th,  and  on  the  30th  we  were 
joined  by  Col.  Cleveland,  on  the  Catawba  Kiver,  with 
three  hundred  and  fifty  men  from  the  counties  of  "Wilkes  and 
Surrey.  No  one  officer  having  properly  a  right  to  the  com- 
mand-in-ehief,  on  the  1st  of  October  we  despatched  an  ex- 
press to  Major-General  Gates,  infonning  him  of  our  situation, 
and  requesting  him  to  send  a  general  officer  to  take  command 
of  the  whole.  In  the  mean  time.  Colonel  Campbell  was  chosen 
to  act  as  commandant,  till  such  general  officer  should  arrive. 
"We  marched  to  the  Cowpens  on  Broad  Biver,  in  South  Caro- 
lina, where  we  were  joined  by  Colonel  James  "Williams,  with 
four  hundred  men,  on  the  evening  of  the  6th  of  October.  He 
informed  us  that  the  enemy  lay  encamped  somewhere  near  the 
Cherokee  ford  of  Broad  Eiver,  about  thirty  miles  distant  from 

"  By  a  council  of  the  principal  officers  it  was  there  thought 
advisable  to  pursue  the  enemy  that  night,  with  nine  hundred 
of  the  best  horsemen,  and  leave  the  weak  horse  and  footmen 
to  follow  as  fast  as  possible.  ^Ye  began  our  march  with  nine 
hiindred  of  the  best  men  about  eight  o'clock  the  same  evening, 
and  marching  all  night,  came  up  with  the  enemy  about  three 
o'clock  P.  M.  of  the  Ttli.  They  were  encamped  on  the  top  of 
King's  Moiintain,  twelve  miles  north  of  the  Cherokee  ford,  in 
the  confidence  that  they  could  not  be  forced  from  so  advanta- 
geous a  post.  Previous  to  the  attack,  on  our  march,  the  fol- 
lowing disposition  was  made :  Colonel  Shelby's  regiment 
formed  a  column  in  the  centre  on  the  left ;  Col.  Campbell's 
another   on   the  right;   part  of  Col.    Cleveland's  regiment, 

34:0  DIAEY   OF   THE   KEYOLUTION.  [1780. 

headed  in  front  by  Major  Winston,  and  Colonel  Sevier's, 
formed  a  large  colnmn  on  tlie  right  wing  ;  the  other  part  of 
Cleveland's  regiment,  headed  by  Col.  Cleveland  himself, 
and  Colonel  "Williams's  regiment,  composed  the  left  wing.  Li 
this  order  we  advanced  and  got  within  a  quarter  of  a  mile  of 
the  enemy  before  we  were  discovered.  Col.  Shelby's  and  Col. 
Campbell's  regiments  began  the  attack,  and  kept  up  a  fire  on 
the  enemy,  while  the  right  and  left  wings  were  advancing  to 
snrronnd.them,  which  was  done  in  about  five  miniites,  and  the 
fire  became  general  all  around.  The  engagement  lasted  an 
hour  and  five  minutes,  the  greatest  part  of  which  time  a  heavy 
and  incessant  fire  was  kejat  up  on  both  sides.  Our  men,  in 
some  parts  where  the  regulars  fought,  were  obliged  to  give 
way  a  small  distance  two  or  three  times,  but  rallied  and  re- 
turned, with  additional  ardor  to  the  attack.  Tlie  troops  upon 
the  right  having  gained  the  summit  of  the  eminence,  obliged 
the  enemy  to  retreat  along  the  top  of  the  ridge  to  where  Col. 
Cleveland  commanded,  and  were  there  stopped  by  his  brave 
men ;  a  flag  was  immediately  hoisted  by  Captain  Depeyster, 
the  commanding  officer,  (Major  Ferguson  having  been  killed 
a  little  before,)  for  a  surrender.  Oiu'  fire  immediately  ceased, 
and  the  enemy  laid  down  their  arms,  the  greatest  part  of  them 
loaded,  and  smTendered  themselves  prisoners  to  us  at  discre- 
tion. It  appears  from  their  own  provision  returns  for  that 
day,  foimd  in  their  cam]^,  that  their  whole  force  consisted  of 
eleven  Imndred  and  twenty-five  men,  oiit  of  Avhieh  they  sus- 
tained a  very  heavy  loss.' 

'  Account  of  the  action  given  by  Colonels  Campbell,  Cleveland,  and  Shelby, 
in  the  New  York  Packet,  November  23.  The  following  is  a  statement  of  the  loss 
in  this  battle,  as  given  by  the  above  colonels ; — "  Of  the  regulars,  one  major,  one 
captain,  two  sergeants,  and  fifteen  privates  killed ;  thirty-five  privates  wounded, 
left  on  the  ground  unable  to  march ;  two  captains,  four  heutenants,  three  en- 
signs, one  surgeon,  five  sergeants,  three  corporals,  one  drummer,  and  forty-nine 
privates  taken  prisoners. 

Loss  of  the  Tories,  two  colonels,  three  captains,  and  two  hundred  and  one 
privates  killed ;  one  major  and  one  hundred  and  twenty-seven  privates  wounded, 
and  left  on  the  ground  not  able  to  march ;  one  colonel,  twelve  captains,  eleven 
lieutenants,  two  ensigns,   one  quartermaster,  one   adjutant,  two  commissaries, 

17S0.]  PATRIOTIC   WOMEN.  3-11 

XoTEMEEE  1.  —Me.  "WAsnrsGTON  seems  to  be  playing  the 
royal  game  of  goose  with  Messrs.  Clinton  and  Knyphansen, 
when  by  a  single  shifting  of  his  position,  he  can  oblige  them 
to  begin  the  game  afresh.  Tliese  generals  had  therefore  better 
take  great  care  how  they  attempt  trapping  this  old  fox,  lest 
they  themselves  might  fall  into  the  same  trap.' 

l^oTEiiBEE  4. — Bt  accounts  from  Maryland  we  are  in- 
formed, that  the  like  spirit  of  patriotism  has  been  kindled 
amongst  the  women  of  that  State  as  in  Philadel-  patriotism  of  the 
phia.  Large  sums  have  been  presented  for  the  ^''^y'"""^  ^o™""- 
use  of  the  brave  American  army  ;  part  of  which  has  been  laid 
out  in  linen,  and  in  one  town,  Baltimore,  six  hundred  shirts 
have  beeii  made  for  the  immediate  supply  of  the  troops  in 
that  article  of  clothing. 

Mrs.  Lee,  the  lady  of  his  Excellency,  the  governor  of  the 
State,''  had  early  written  to  women  of  the  several  counties, 
who  readily  engaged,  each  to  be  the  treasurer  of  her  particu- 
lar district.  Eeturns  have  not  yet  been  made  of  the  sums 
presented,  but  in  some  counties,  that  of  Dorset  particularly, 
the  amount  of  thirty  pounds  in  specie,  has  been  presented  by 
some  individuals. 

Li  the  city  of  Annapolis,  notwithstanding  many  of  the 
citizens  had  removed  to  their  country  seats  during  the  sum- 
mer season  of  the  year,  and  made  their  contributions  in  the 
respective  districts  of  their  residence,  yet  there  has  been  col- 

cighteen  sergeants,  and  six  hundred  privates  taken  prisoners.     Total  loss  of  the 
enemy,  eleven  hundred  and  five  men  at  Kiug's  Mountain. 
Given  under  our  hands  at  Camp, 
(Signed)  William  Campbell, 

Isaac  Shelby, 
Benjn.  Cleveland. 
The  loss  on  our  side  ivas,  killed,  one  colonel,  one  major,  one  captain,  two 
lieutenants,  four  ensigns,  nineteen  privates — total,  twenty-eight.     Wounded,  one 
major,  three   captains,   three  lieutenants,   fifty-three  privates.      Total  sixty-four 

'  New  Jersey  Journal,  November  1. 

^  Thomas  Sim  Lee  was  governor  of  Maryland  from  1119  until  IVSS.  He  was 
afterwards  chosen  to  represent  the  State  in  Congress,  and  was  also  a  member  of 
the  convention  which  formed  the  Constitution.     He  died  in  1S19. 

342  DIAET   OF   THE   KEVOLUTIOX.  [1780. 

lected  to  the  amount  of  sixteen  thousand  one  hundred  and 
twenty-three  dollars,  and  one  third  currency ;  some  ■women 
offering  two,  some  five,  and  some  twenty  guineas  in  specie. 

It  is  needless  to  repeat  the  encomiums  that  have  been  al- 
ready given  to  tlie  females  for  then-  exertions.  Every  Whig 
mind  miist  be  sensible  that  they  deserve  the  highest  praise. 
Even  those  who  are  enemies  to  the  cause  must  admit,  that  their 
means  of  serving  it  do  honor  to  the  sex.  The  women  of 
every  part  of  the  globe  are  imder  obligations  to  those  of 
America,  for  having  shown  that  females  are  capable  of  the 
highest  political  virtue.  Those  of  posterity  will  also  acknowl- 
edge that  they  derive  happiness  and  glory  from  them.  "We 
cannot  help  imagining,  what  some  learned  and  elegant  histo- 
rian, the  Hume  of  the  future  America,  when  he '  comes  to 
write  the  affairs  of  these  times,  Avill  say  on  the  siibject. 

In  a  history,  which  we  may  suppose  to  be  published  about 
the  year  1820,  may  befoimd  a  paragraph  to  the  following  pur- 
pose : — "  The  treasury  was  now  exhausted,  and  the  army  in 
want  of  the  necessaries  of  life  and  of  clothing,  when  the  women 
gave  a  respite  to  our  aflau-s,  by  one  of  those  exertions  that 
will  forever  do  honor  to  the  sex.  In  the  state  of  simplicity 
and  plainness  in  which  our  country  then  was,  they  had  not 
earrmgs  and  bracelets  to  give,  in  imitation  of  the  Eoman 
ladies  on  a  like  occasion,  but  they  presented  gold  and  silver, 
and  what  share  of  the  paper  money  had  come  into  their  hands. 
This  was  laid  oiit  in  linens,  and  shirts  were  made  by  their 
hands  for  the  use  of  the  soldiery,  &c.,  etc.,  &c. 

"  Mrs.  Eeed,  of  Pennsylvania,  the  lady  of  the  then  Presi- 
dent, a  most  amiable  woman,  was  the  first  to  patronize  the 
measure.  Mrs.  Lee,  of  Maryland,  lady  of  the  governor  of  that 
State,  a  woman  of  excellent  accomplishments,  was  in  her 
State  the  next  to  receive  the  patriotic  flame,  and  give  it  popii- 
larity  among  her  sex. 

"  Mrs.  Washington,  of  Yirglnia,  lady  of  his  Excellency  the 
Commander-in-chief,  was  equally  favoring  to  it  in  her  State. 
Tlie  Jerseys  had  been  already  warmed  by  the  example  of  the 
virtue  of  Pennsylvania,  and  the  females  of  that  State,  &c., 
&c.,  ifcc.'' ' 

Ivania  Packet,  November  4. 

17S0.]  AilEEICAN  FmANCES.  343 

NoTEJiBEE  6. — A  ■miiTEE  in  London,  says  : — Tlie  incredi- 
ble fall  of  continental  currency  in  America,  may  be  understood 
from  tbe  following  notorious  fact,  viz. :  Ten  thou-  American 
sand  pounds  Maryland  currency  was  worth  six  Finances. 
thousand  sterling  ;  ten  tliousand  pounds  continental  money  is 
worth  one  hundred  pounds.  Tlie  difference  makes  a  loss  of  five 
thousand  nine  hundred  pounds  sterling,  being  as  sixty  to  one. 

Tliis  was  the  exchange  at  Philadelphia  in  Jime  last,  and  as 
they  had  not  then  heard  of  Gates's  defeat,  it  must  be  now 
lower.  Actions  commenced  for  considerable  sums  by  credit- 
ors, have  been  obliged  to  be  withdrawn,  or  a  non-suit  suffered  : 
a  lawyer  of  eminence  not  opening  his  mouth  in  a  trial  of 
consequence,  under  a  fee  oi  one  thousand  pouncls,  though  tlic 
legal  fee  is  about  forty,  and  the  debt,  if  recovered,  being  paid 
in  continental  money,  dollar  for  dollar,  worth  now  but  a  penny, 
the  difference  between  a  penny  and  4,?.  Gd.  sterling,  is  lost  to 
the  receiver.  Tlie  Congress  having  called  in  the  former  emis- 
sions, forty  dollars  for  one,  and  giving  that  one  in  paper,  cuts 
off  every  hope  it  will  hereafter  ajyjyreciate.  Tlie  freight  of  a 
hogshead  of  tobacco  is  three  hundred  pounds,  or  one  hogs- 
head for  the  carriage  of  another ;  instead  of  the  creditor  pur- 
suing the  debtor  with  an  arrest,  the  debtor  pursues  the  cred- 
itor with  a  tender  of  continental  moncj-,  and  forces  the  bond 
out  of  his  hand.  Hence  it  appears  wliat  the  best  fortimes  in 
that  country  arc  reduced  to ;  an  unpleasing  reflection  it  must 
be !  for  time,  which  lightens  all  other  losses,  aggravates  the  loss 
of  fortune.  Every  day  we  feel  it  more,  because  we  stand  more 
in  want  of  the  conveniences  we  have  been  used  to.  On  the  otlier 
hand,  new  fortunes  are  made  on  the  ruin  of  old  ones.  "War. 
which  keeps  the  spirits  in  motion,  has  diffused  a  taste  for 
gayety  and  dissipation.  The  French  Eesident  at  Philadelphia 
gives  a  rout  twice  a  week  to  the  ladies  of  that  city,  amongst 
whom  French  hair-dressers,  milliners,  and  dancers  are  all  the 
ton.  Tlie  Virginia  Jig  has  given  place  to  the  CotiUon,  and 
minuet-de-la-cour.  Tlie  Congress  are  fallen  into  general  con- 
tempt, for  their  want  of  credit  and  power  ;  the  army  is  abso- 
lute, and  has  declared  it  will  not  submit  to  a  peace  made  by 
Congress ;  the  people  grumble,  but  are  obliged  to  surrender 

344  DIAET   OF   THE   EEYOLUTION.  [1780. 

one  piece  of  furniture  after  another,  even  to  tlieir  beds,  to  pay 
tlieir  taxes.  After  all,  a  power  drawn  from  snch  distant  and 
dissonant  parts  cannot  form  a  permanent  union.  Tlie  force  of 
this  kingdom,  moving  uniformly  from  one  centre,  must  in  all 
human  probability  ultimately  prevail ;  or  an  accident  may 
produce,  in  an  instant,  what  the  most  powerful  efforts  require 
time  and  perseverance  to  accomplish. 

November  14. — It  is  reported,  that  when  Sir  Henry  Clin- 
ton lieard  of  the  disgraceful  death  of  his  brave  and  faithful 
aide-de-camp,  Maior  Andre,  he  made  a  solemn 

Clinton's  Threat.     ,_  .  .        ,  1  n    t       -n>    ■    •   , 

declaration  m  the  presence  oi  many  oi  the  liritish 
ofiicers,  that  if  ever  Washington  fell  into  his  hands,  he  would 
hang  him  on  the  instant,  and  bury  him  without  a  coffin. 

General  Arnold  was  one  of  the  principal  partisans  for  the 
American  rebellion,  and  has  distingixished  himself  in  the  field 
more  than  any  other  American.  Tlie  public, 
i-emember  his  exploits  at  Quebec,  Sara- 
toga, the  Lakes,  and  many  other  places.  The  success  of  the 
rebel  arms  over  the  northern  army,  was  principally  owing  to 
liis  bravery  and  judicious  arrangements.  His  acquisition  is 
regarded  at  New  York  as  a  very  fortunate  event,  not  only  on 
account  of  the  merit  of  that  gentleman  in  a  military  capacity, 
and  the  secrets  of  which  he  is  in  possession,  but  as  it  is  an  in- 
dication of  those  discontents  and  murmurings  that  have  been 
said  to  have  distracted,  for  some  time,  the  American  councils. 
It  is  a  common  saying  at  New  York,  that  the  sliij)  must  be 
near  sinking  when  the  rats  are  leaving  it.' 

NoYEsrEEE  23. — This  evening  Major  Tallmadge"  returned 
to  Fairfield,  in  Connecticut,  from  a  very  spirited  and  success- 
Eoductionof  ^"1  enterprise  against  Fort  St.  George  on  Long 
Fort  St.  George,  jgiand  ;  having  destroyed  the  fort  and  such  forage 
and  supplies  as  could  not  be  carried  away  by  his  men,  and 
taken  fifty  prisoners.  Tlie  following  is  the  official  report  made 
by  the  major,  to  General  "Washington : — On  the  sixteenth  of 

'  Upcott,  vi.  14.3,  135,  167.  '  Benjamin  TaUmadge. 

1780.]  CAPTTEE  OF  FOET  ST.  GEORGE.  345 

November,  in  obedience  to  your  Excellency's  orders,  a  de- 
tacliment  of  Colonel  Slieldon's  dismounted  dragoons,  under  the 
command  of  Captain  Edgar,  v^eve  ordered  to  marcb  tlie  next 
day  to  Fairfield,-  to  whicli  place  I  directed  a  niunber  of  boats 
to  repair.  The  troops  arrived  in  the  vicinity  of  Fairfield  on 
the  evening  of  the  18th,  at  Avliich  place,  by  reason  of  a  very 
severe  storm,  we  were  detained  till  the  21st  instant ;  on  the 
evening  of  which,  at  foiu"  o'clock,  I  embarked  the  troops  in 
eight  boats ;  the  whole  in  number,  including  the  crews, 
amounted  to  about  eighty  men.  With  a  favorable  wind  we 
landed  safely  on  Long  Island,  at  a  place  called  the  Old  Man's, 
about  eight  o'clock  the  same  evening.  After  leaving  about 
twenty  men  with  the  boats  in  charge  of  Captain  Sutton,  we 
began  our  march  to  put  your  Excellency's  orders  in  execution, 
but  a  very  severe  storm  coming  on,  however  it  might  have 
favored  an  attack  on  the  fort,  obliged  me  to  postpone  it,  as  I 
was  well  aware  that  attention  must  be  paid  as  well  to  a  favora- 
ble time  for  re-crossing  the  Sound  (which  is  at  this  place  more 
than  twenty  miles  wide)  as  to  attacking  the  fort.  I  accord- 
ingly concealed  the  troops  till  the  evening  of  the  22d,  when, 
at  seven  o'clock,  we  began  our  march  across  Long  Island,  and, 
at  three  o'clock  the  next  morning,  were  within  two  miles  of 
Fort  St.  George,  at  South  Haven.  By  the  most  accurate  in- 
formation, I  found  that  the  fort  and  other  works  had  been  en- 
tirely completed  biit  a  few  days  before,  and  that  the  garrison 
consisted  of  about  fifty  men.  It  may  be  necessary  here  to  ob- 
serve, that  the  works  of  Fort  St.  George  consisted  of  two  large 
strong  houses,  and  a  fort  aboiit  ninety  feet  sqiiare,  connected 
together  by  a  very  strong  stockade  or  line  of  sharpened  pickets 
twelve  feet  long,  the  whole  fomiing  a  triangle,  the  fort  and 
houses  standing  in  the  angles.  The  fort  consisted  of  a  high 
wall  and  a  deep  ditch,  encircled  with  a  strong  abatis,  having 
but  one  gate,  a  sally  port,  which  led  directly  into  the  grand 
parade  within  the  pickets.  Tliis  fort  had  embrasures  for  six 
guns,  though  but  two  were  mounted  ;  the  houses  were  strong- 
ly barricaded.  From  this  description  I  found  it  necessary, 
small  as  my  detachment  was,  to  make  three  different  attacks 
at  the  same  time.     I  accordingly  detached  Lieutenant  Jackson 

346,  DIAET   OF  THE   EEYOLUTIOX.  [1780. 

with  sixteen  men,  with  orders  to  advance  as  near  the  fort  as 
he  conld  undiscovered,  and  tliere  to  halt  till  the  alarm  was 
given  15y  the  advance  of  the  detachment  nnder  my  immediate 
command.  The  van  of  this  detachment,  who  carried  axes  to 
beat  down  obstructions,  was  led  by  Lieutenant  Brewster,  di- 
rectly against  the  new  house,  while  the  remainder,  with  Cap- 
tain Edgar  and  myself  at  their  head,  followed  close  after. 
Another  small  division  was  directed  to  tile  off  and  surround 
the  other  house ;  Mr.  Simmons  bringing  wp  the  rear,  with 
du'ections  to  halt  where  the  breach  might  be  made,  to  prevent 
the  garrison  from  escaping.  Thus  prepared,  the  troops  were 
put  in  motion  precisely  at  four  o'clock,  and,  contrary  to  my 
expectations,  the  j)ioneers  advanced  within  twenty  yards  of 
the  works  before  they  were  discovered.  Tlie  sentinel  firing, 
the  different  detachments  immediately  rushed  on,  and  passing 
all  obstructions,  met  at  the  same  instant  in  the  centre  of  the 
fort,  where  the  watchword  was  given  from  all  quarters  at  the 
same  time.  Tlie  guard  in  the  fort  was  secured,  but  the  two 
houses  contained  the  main  body  of  the  garrison,  who  began  to 
fire  from  the  windows.  I  immediately  ordered  the  troops  to 
enter  the  houses,  the  doors  of  which,  though  strongly  bolted 
and  barred,  were  soon  burst  open,  and  in  less  than  ten  minutes 
the  whole  garrison  were  our  prisoners. 

Being  informed  that  a  vessel  lay  within  view  of  the  fort, 
loaded  with  stores,  rum,  wine,  sugar,  glass,  ifec,  I  detaclied  a 
party  who  boarded  and  took  her.  Thus  masters  of  tlie  whole, 
my  first  object  was  to  demolish,  as  miicli  as  possible,  their 
works,  &c.  "We  accordingly  set  fire  to  the  small  gai-rison, 
buildings,  stockade,  and  abatis,  consuming  at  the  same  time 
the  public  stores  that  could  be  collected,  including  a  consider- 
able quantity  of  ammunition  and  arms,  which  the  troops,  so 
much  fatigued,  and  having  so  long  a  march  to  make  back, 
could  not  carry.  We  remained  at  the  fort  from  four  to  eight 
o'clock  iu  the  morning,  when  having  destroyed  as  much  of  it 
as  possible,  we  began  our  march  back.  The  vessel  being 
aground  was  burnt. 

I  feel  particularly  happy  that  I  can  inform  your  Excel- 
lency, that  we  had  not  a  man  killed  in  this  enterprise,  and 

1780.]  TALLMADGE  AT  C0KA3I.  347 

but  one  wounded ;  liim  we  brought  oif.  Tlie  enemy's  loss 
was  seven  killed  and  wounded,  most  of  the  latter  mortall3^ 
Tlie  surprise  was  so  complete,  that  before  they  could  rally 
they  were  all  prisoners. 

On  our  return,  I  mounted  ten  men  on  the  horses  taken  at 
the  fort,  and,  while  Captain  Edgar  marched  the  detachment 
and  prisoners   across  the  island,  I  filed  oft'  with 

/-^  T  n  1  Coram. 

Lieutenant  Brewster,  to  Coram,  and  set  tire  to  tlie 
whole  magazine  of  the  king's  forage  at  that  place,  supposed  to 
contain  more  than  three  hundred  tons,  and  joined  the  detach- 
ment again  in  less  than  two  hours.  By  this  time  the  militia 
began  to  muster,  but  prudently  avoided  coming  near  us. 
Some  guns  were  fired,  but  no  damage  received.  By  four 
o'clock  in  the  afternoon  of  the  same  day  we  reached  our  boats, 
and  having  embarked  the  troops  and  prisoners,  arrived  safe  at 
this  place  at  eleven  o'clock  on  the  evening  of  the  23d.  Thus, 
in  about  twenty-one  hours,  we  performed  a  march  of  near 
forty  miles,  took  Fort  St.  George,  &c.,  &c.,  and  in  less  than 
six  hours  more  were  landed  at  this  place. 

I  should  be  remiss  in  my  duty,  should  I  omit  to  observe 
that  the  ofiicers  and  soldiers  under  my  command  behaved 
with  the  greatest  fortitude  and  spirit,  both  upon  their  long  and 
fatiguing  march,  and  in  the  moment  of  action.  Mr.  Muirson, 
a  volunteer  upon  the  occasion,  deserves  commendation.  He 
advanced  with  a  part  of  Lieutenant  Jackson's  detachment  over 
the  abatis  and  wall,  into  the  fort.  In  fine,  every  order  that 
was  given  was  executed  with  alacrity  and  precision." 

^  Pennsylvania  Packet,  December  12.  The  following  is  the  return  of  prison- 
ers taken  in  Fort  St.  George : — One  half-pay  lieutenant-colonel,  one  half-pay  cap- 
tain, one  lieutenant,  one  surgeon,  fifty  rank  and  file,  one  garrison  standard.  The 
British  account  of  this  expedition  is  as  follows : — "  A  party  of  rebels,  about  eighty 
in  number,  headed,  it  is  said,  by  a  rebel  Major  Tallniadge,  assisted  by  a  certain 
Heathcot,  Muirson,  Bcnajah  Strong,  Thomas  Jackson,  and  Caleb  Brewster,  officers 
belonging  to  the  said  party,  all  formerly  of  Long  Island,  came  across  in  eight  whale 
boats  from  somewhere  about  New  Haven  on  the  Connecticut  shore,  and  landed 
between  the  Wading  River  and  the  Old  Man's,  and  are  supposed  to  have  been 
concealed  two  or  three  days  on  the  island  by  their  old  friends,  the  rclx'Is.  On 
Thursday  morning,  the  23d  instant,  about  fifty  of  them  marched  across  the 
island,  the  remainder  being  left  to  guard  the  boats,  and  just  after  daylight  ar- 
rived at  Smith's  Point,  St.  George's  Manor,  south  side  Long  Island,  where  they 

348  DIAET    OF   THE   EEVOLrTION.  [1780. 

November  2-i. — Last  Tuesday,  (21st,)  at  abont  one  o'clock 
in  the  morning,  a  party  consisting  of  one  liimdred  men,  embark- 
British  Excursion  '^^  ^^'*^™  'Ncvf  York  in  two  flat  boats  and  one  gun- 
to  Jersey.  boat,  and  proceeded  to  Eoger's  Ferry,  where  tliey 
landed  and  moved  towards  Ifewark,  New  Jersey,  with  one 
three-ponnder,  (whicli  they  posted  on  an  eminence  half  way 
between  the  aforesaid  ferry  and  the  town,)  with  a  number  of 
musketeers  to  cover  it  and  secure  their  return  to  their  vessels, 
where  they  left  one  gun-boat  to  cover  their  passage  over  the 
marsh,  shoiild  the  enemy  pursue  them.  Captain  Thomas 
Ward  then  advanced  at  the  head  of  fifty  men  undiscovered, 
within  four  hundred  yards  of  the  rebel  guard-house,  when  the 
advanced  party,  under  Captain  MacMichael,  fell  in  with  their 
patrol,  who  immediately  fired  upon  him ;  he  charged  them, 
but  finding  himself  flanked  by  immbers,  who  had  posted 
themselves  in  difi"erent  houses,  he  thought  proper  to  bring  up 
the  piece  of  cannon,  which  was  soon  efl'ected  by  the  vigilance 
of  Captain  Housen.  Until  his  arrival  they  maintained  their 
post  in  the  centre  of  the  town,  though  the  enemy  endeavored 
to  gall  them  as  much  as  possible  ;  but  a  few  rounds  of  grape 
dispersed  them  for  a  little,  when  as  they  were  disappointed  in 
their  expectation,  it  was  thought  most  prudent  to  retreat 
towards  their  boats. 

After  keeping  possession  of  the  town  an  hour,  apprehen- 
sive  the  enemy  posted  at   Cranestown  would  march   do'wn 

surprised  a  body  of  respectable  loyal  refugees  belonging  to  Rhode  Island  and  the 
vicinity  thereabout,  who  were  establishing  a  post  in  order  to  get  a  present  sub- 
sistence for  theniselres  and  their  distressed  families.  The  sentry,  upon  observing 
them,  fired,  which  they  returned  and  mortally  wounded  him,  and  rushed  into  a 
house.  Mr.  Isaac  Hart,  of  Newport,  in  Rhode  Island,  formerly  an  eminent  mer- 
chant and  ever  a  loyal  subject,  was  inhumanly  fired  upon  and  bayoneted,  wounded 
in  fifteen  different  parts  of  his  body,  and  beat  with  their  muskets  in  the  most 
shocking  manner  in  the  very  act  of  imploring  quarter,  and  died  of  his  wounds  a 
few  hours  .after,  universally  regretted  by  every  true  lover  of  his  king  and  country. 
Four  more  refugees  were  wounded  also,  but  are  in  a  fair  way  of  recovery ;  a 
poor  woman  was  also  fired  upon  at  another  house,  and  barbarou.sly  wounded 
through  both  breasts,  of  which  wounds  she  now  lingers  a  specimen  of  rebel  sav- 
ageness  and  degeneracy.  The  rebels  carried  off  about  forty  prisoners.  On  their 
return,  at  Coram,  they  burnt  a  magazine  of  hay  about  one  hundred  tons,  and  the 
same  day  embarked  for  the  Connecticut  shore." — RivingtorHs  Gazette,  December  2. 

1780.]  EXCUESION   TO   JEESEY.  349 

against  them,  tliey  accordiugly  began  to  retreat,  but  before 
they  got  ont  of  town,  discovered  a  body  of  rebels  on  tlieir 
right  flank  endeavoring  to  ent  ofl'  their  retreat,  whilst  others 
proved  troublesome  in  their  rear,  by  keeping  up  a  scattering 
fire.  They  retreated  some  distance,  when  another  party  of 
rebels  were  discovered  on  their  left,  wlio,  finding  it  impossible 
to  cnt  off  their  retreat,  closed  upon  their  flanks,  and  hard  in 
the  rear,  which  obliged  them  to  form  a  square  to  secm-e  their 
piece  of  ordnance.  This  they  did  by  keeping  up  a  scattering- 
fire  until  they  arrived  at  their  boats.  Shortly  after  the  enemy 
brought  a  six-pomider  to  the  edge  of  the  marsh,  and  kept 
up  a  constant  fire  upon  them  during  their  re-embarkation. 
Hiey  lined  the  banks  of  the  river  below  them  with  musketry 
to  harass  the  refugees  whilst  falling  down  in  their  boats  ;  but 
by  the  bravery  of  Captains  Housen  and  IloUingshead  in  the 
gun-boat,  they  were  kept  at  such  a  distance  that  they  did  but 
little  damage. 

Strict  orders  were  given  against  entering  a  house  or  plun- 
dering, which  were  obeyed  ;  but  when  they  first  entered  tlie 
town,  a  party  of  the  enemy  fired  upon  them  oiit  of  the  upper 
windows  of  Neil's  house,  but  they  paid  for  their  folly,  as  some 
of  the  i^arty  set  fire  to  the  lower  part,  which  consumed  the 
whole  building. 

K'ever  did  men  behave  better  (being  undisciplined)  than 
this  small  party.  Their  escape  was  almost  miraculous.  Six 
men  are  wounded  and  two  missing,  one  of  whom  it  is  imagined 
was  killed  at  the  first  onset.  From  the  best  accounts  that 
have  been  obtained,  the  loss  of  the  enemy  was  three  killed 
and  seven  wounded,  exclusive  of  those  supposed  to  have  been 
burned  at  N'eil's  house.' 

jS'ovEjrBEE  26. — -A  coeeespoxdent  in  Dublin,  Ireland,  says  : 
— Yarious  conjectures  have  been  liazarded,  concerning  the  birth 
and  parentage  of  the  celebrated  Mr.  Arnold,  whose  An  Irish  view  of 
dereliction  of  the  American  cause  has  been  mag-        Arnoui. 
nified  in  its  utter  ruin.     Hisinn  tencatis  !     Some  have  extend- 

"  Game's  Mercury,  November  27. 

350  DLVKT  OF  THE  EEVOLUTION.  [1780. 

ed  their  effrontery  so  far  as  to  pronounce  liim  an  Irishman,  hut 
to  their  confusion  the  secret  has  at  length  transpired.  Fort 
George,  in  the  Highlands  of  Scotland,  had  the  honor  of  giving 
birth  to  this  hero  ;  and  there  he  passed  his  youth,  until  sent  for 
by  a  Yorkshire  relation,  a  dealer  in  horses.  During  his  resi- 
dence in  that  shire,  he  added  that  cunning,  for  which  it  is  pro- 
verbially noted,  and  a  competent  knowledge  of  the  mysteries 
of  the  turf,  to  the  prudent  maxims  of  his  native  district.  The 
circumstances  of  his  voyage  to  America  are  still  enveloped 
in  mystery,  though  some  assert  that  it  was  strictly  according 
to  law,  and  in  consequence  of  a  judicial  injimction.  However, 
by  a  series  of  concurring  incidents,  with  his  o^ti  apjjlication 
and  address,  he  jockeyed  himself  into  the  confidence  of  the 
Americans,  and  attained  a  degree  of  elevation,  superior  to  his 
most  sanguine  expectations.  His  tergiversation  is  generally 
attributed  to  a  Scotch  Seer,  whom  he  retained  in  his  camp, 
and  who  informed  him  with  all  the  infallibility  of  second  sight, 
that  the  day  woiild  come  when  the  English  would  subdue 
America,  and  swallow  millions  at  a  meal.  Tlie  suggestions  of 
his  countryman,  according  with  the  dictates  of  his  native  pru- 
dence, determined  the  conduct  of  our  modern  Almanzor. 
Wliat  a  pity !  must  every  humane  reader  exclaim,  that  the 
generous,  the  unfortunate  Andre  has  fallen  a  victim  in  attend- 
ing to  the  artifices  of  a  being  so  contemptible. ' 

Our  troops  by  Arnold  thoroughly  were  bang'd, 
And  poor  St.  Andre  was  by  Arnold  hang'd ; 
To  George  a  rebel,  to  the  Congress  traitor, 
Pray  what  can  make  the  name  of  Arnold  greater  ? 
By  one  bold  treason  more,  to  gain  his  ends. 
Let  him  betray  his  new  adopted  friends.' 

Decesibee  1. — ^The  Americans,   says   a   correspondent  in 
England,  labor  to  keep  the  people  in  a  political  ignorance 
American       ^^^^^  ^hc  greatest  care  and  jealousy.     No  news- 
Fictions.       paper  from  New  York  is  permitted  to  be  circu- 
lated among  the  colonists ;  the  captive  ofiicers  solicited  that  in- 

'  New  Jersey  Gazette,  June  27, 1781. 

°  From  a  late  London  Paper  in  the  Pennsylvania  Packet,  July  17,  1781. 

1780.]  AMEEICAN  FICTIONS.  351 

dulgence,  to  sweeten,  in  some  measure,  their  confinement  and 
solitude,  in  vain  ;  this  request  was  peremptorily  refused  them. 
Fabricated  Acts  of  the  British  Parliament  are  circulated 
among  the  Americans.  There  is  one,  enacting,  that  every 
man  to  obtain  a  license  to  marry,  must  pay  to  the  King  of  Eng- 
land fifty  pounds,  and  for  every  son,  twenty-five  pounds,  but 
there  is  no  tax  on  daughters.  These  gross  fictions  are  tully 
credited  by  the  deluded  populace,  and  are  the  only  things  that 
render  the  rebel  multitude  averse  to  a  return  to  their  allegiance. 
When  truth  comes  out,  as  it  will  in  time,  it  is  to  be  hoped  that 
the  resentment  of  the  people  will  be  directed  against  the  au- 
thors of  so  fatal  deceptions,  with  a  fury  proportionable  to  the 
severity  and  duration  of  the  calamities  that  flow  from  them.' 

December  5. — -A  letter  of  this  date  from  Charlotte,  in 
Xorth  Carolina,  says : — "  Although  some  pains  have  been 
taken  to  asperse  the  militia  of  this,  as  well  as  our  ^^^  Actions  at 
sister  States,  on  account  of  what  happened  on  the  *''^  ®°""'- 
memorable  16th  and  ISth  of  August,  yet  I  hope  that  an  im- 
partial world  will  not  lose  sight  of  those  striking  marks  of 
heroism  displayed  at  Eamsour's,  on  the  20th  of  June,  where 
Colonel  Locke  commanded ;  at  Packolet  in  the  night  of  the 
15th  of  July,  where  Colonel  McDowel  commanded ;  at  Cole- 
son's,  the  mouth  of  Eocky  Eiver,  on  the  21st  of  July,  where 
Colonel,  now  General  Davidson  commanded,  and  in  which  he 
was  wounded ;  at  Eocky  Mount,  on  the  23d  of  July,  where 
the  heroic  General  Sumpter  commanded  ;  at  Hanging  Eock, 
on  the  6th  of  August,  where  General  Sumpter  commanded ; 
at  Enoree,  the  19th  of  August,  where  the  late  intrepid  Colonel 
"Williams  commanded  ;  at  Augusta,  in  Georgia,  on  the  12th  of 
September,  where  Colonel  Clarke  commanded;  at  King's 
Mountain,  on  the  Tth  of  October,  where  Colonel  Campbell 
commanded ;  at  Broad  Eiver,  on  the  9th  of  November,  where 
General  Sumpter  commanded,  and  where  Major  Weymss  was 
made  prisoner ;  at  Black  Stocks,  on  Tygar  Eiver,  on  the  20th 
of  November,  where  General  Sumpter  commanded,  and  was 

'Upoott,  vi.  161.